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Full text of "History of the city of Columbus, Ohio, from the founding of Franklinton in 1797, through the World War period to the year 1920"

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1207850 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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3 1833 02279 7556 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



CITY OF CPU JMBUS 

OHIO 



FROM THE FOUNDING OF FRANKLINTON IN 1797, 

THROUGH THE WORLD WAR PERIOD, 

TO FHE YEAR 1920 



By 

OSMAN CASTLE HOOPER 



977.10X 

n n \ COLUMBUS— CLEVELAND 

C 73.^ THE MEMORIAL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

J. R. FINNELL, President 



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1207850 



INTRODUCTION 



* JB 'HIS narrative, covering a period of nearly a century and a quarter, 

£ I -^ has been prepared with a view to giving a concise and accurate ac- 

V \ y coun * °f the life hereabout from the time of the arrival of the first 

^F"^ surveying party down to the present. The story of the locality is 

told chronologically, with such reference to the Mound Builders and 

the Indians, the forests, the streams and the wild life as seemed necessary to 

show what human life preceded the white settlers and the nature of the region 

to which they came; and, from that point to the present — 1797 to 1920 — with 

an orderly presentation of the principal events of village, borough and city life. 

This panorama occupies the first thirteen chapters. 

In the subsequent chapters, devoted to special features of city life, there 
is a similar effort to tell the story of each chronologically. For instance, Chap- 
ter XIV. presents in order the various forms of government under which the 
people have lived from 1812 to 1920 and the names of the principal officials. 
Two chapters are given to public utilities, their origin and development. Four 
chapters are given to Federal, State, county and city institutions, Universi- 
ties, public and private schools. The story of the religious life of the commu- 
nity occupies three chapters, while glimpses of the professions of law, medicine 
and journalism, of charitable work, of manufacturing, banking, transporta- 
tion, literary, musical and art endeavor, and social and fraternal organizations 
are to be found in other chapters. 

An effort has been made to place the men and women who have made the 
life of the city in their proper setting. Xot all, of course, could be mentioned 
in a story so brief ; but here at least are the leaders of their time who were hon- 
ored by their contemporaries and supported in their public activities. 

It is a wonderful story — this of Columbus — marked by the courage and 
endurance of its earliest settlers, and by the foresight, perseverance, public 
spirit and benevolence of the later comers. There has been continuous progress 
from the beginning till now, and the development of the last fifty years, 
crowned by the extraordinary patriotic endeavor of the World War period, 
must fill all with pride. Today. Columbus, with its 237.000 population, stands 
elate, a credit to the State and nation. 

When this work was begun, nine men consented to serve as advisory editors 
as follows: Hon. Henrv C. Taylor, Rev. Father Dennis J. Clarke, Dr. Ed- 
ward J. Wilson, Col. W. L. Curry, Mr. Herbert Brooks, Mr. Charles C. Pa- 
vey, Mr. John J. Pugh, Mr. Maurice Stewart Hague and Mr. John A. Kel- 
ley. The two first-named have since died and the books of their record have 
been closed and sealed with the affection of the community. Acknowledgment 
of helpfulness is made to all of the advisory editors ; to the previous histories 
of Martin in 1858, of Studer in 1873 and of Lee in 1892, from all of which 
something has been gleaned for the present work; also to the newspapers, city 
officials, city records and individuals who have given much material from dia- 
ries and letters. O. C. H. 



CONTENTS 



Chapter Page 

I . Beginnings of Ohio 5 

II. The Settlement of Franklinton 11 

III. Early Days in Franklinton 15 

IV. Franklinton and Its Neighbors 21 

V. Columbus Born a Capital 26 

VI. Borough Life Until 1831 32 

VII. City Life from 1831 to 1860 37 

VIII. In Civil War Time, by W. F. Felch 46 

IX. Leading Events from 1865 to 1900 53 

X. Leading Events from 1900 to 1918 60 

XL First Year of the World War 67 

XII. Second Year of the World War 84 

XIII. Back to Peace 97 

XIV. Columbus Government, Forms and Personnel 105 

XV. Public Utilities 1 115 

XVI. Public Utilities II 123 

XVII. Travel, Tavern and Hotels _ : 131 

XVIII. Federal and Other Institutions 138 

XIX. State Buildings and Institutions, by W. F. Felch 145 

XX. Educational Institutions, by W. F. Felch and Helen Moriarty 155 

XXI. Public and Private Schools 163 

XXII. The Bench and Bar 173 

XXI 1 1. The Press 1 80 

XXIV. Religious Life— Protestant 1 87 

XXV. Religious Life — Catholic, by Helen Moriarty 204 

XXVI. Religious Life — Jewish and Others 216 

XXVII. Manufacturing Industries 219 

XXVIII. Railroads, by Clarence Metters 225 

XXIX. Street and Interurban Transportation 230 

XXX. Charitable Institutions 237 

XXXI. Financial Institutions 248 

XXXII. Literary Life, by Helen Moriarty 257 

XXXII I. Various Important Organizations 263 

XXX I V. Medical Profession and Hospitals 269 

XXXV. Secret and Social Organizations 276 

XXXVI. Drama, Music and Art 283 



CHAPTER I. 

BEGINNINGS OF OHIO 

The Mound Builders and Indians — First White Settlements and Struggle for Possession — Indian 
Village at the Forks of the Scioto Attacked by Crawford and Dispersed — The Ohio 
Company, the Scioto Company and Symmes Purchase — Indian Power Broken and 
British Hopes Blasted — First Surveys — Topography, Geology and Soil of Franklin 
County. 

There was a time, scientists tell us, perhaps ten thousand years ago, when much that 
is Ohio and all that is Columbus lay under a great mass of ice that spread southward from 
the North Pole. The ice may have been half a mile thick. Man may have been here then, 
in a state of development corresponding to that of the Esquimo, and he may have traversed 
the ice, with stone weapons hunting the mastodon, reindeer and walrus. The evidence of 
man's presence at that time is meager, and it may not be generally accepted as conclusive, 
but it is interesting. With regard to the ice, there is no longer reasonable doubt, and it 
is with a sense of awe that one thinks of the great transformtion that was wrought when, 
under the more genial sun, the ice began to melt and move, tearing the surface of the earth, 
digging the valleys, piling up hills, depositing great beds of gravel, dropping boulders here 
and there and cutting the courses for the streams ; and when, later on, where all was once 
white as death, forests rose, fields grew green, birds came, flowers grew, animals of an- 
other sort roamed the forests and fishes swam in the waters. Surely, no greater change ever 
occurred on the face of the earth than that in Ohio when, with the ice cap removed, 
the earth sprang into newness of life. i 

The man of the Glacial period, if he was really here, left few traces. His successor, 
the Mound Builder, left many but of a character so dubious that scores of scholars for a 
hundred years have been seeking to solve the riddle of his existence. The Mound Builders 
are so called for lack of a better name. They did not christen themselves, and their only 
records are the mounds they built and the things that have been found in them. These 
mounds are numerous in Franklin county and there is record of some within the area now 
occupied by Columbus. The most notable of these stood where now is the corner of High 
and Mound streets. The first explorers found it forty feet high, with a gradual slope from 
the north, east and west, the southern side being an abrupt declivity. Its shape was that 
of a truncated cone, the diameter of the base being probably 300 feet and that of the 
upper surface 100 feet. In the development of the city, High street was projected through 
this mound at its eastern side, but as nothing of great significance was found — only a few 
bones and trinkets, evidently buried there at a time subsequent to the construction of the 
mound — the conclusion was reached that the mound was originally used as a signal station 
from which news, by means of bonfire and torch, was flashed to other stations up and down 
the valley. Another mound still stands two and a half miles northwest of the State House, 
north of the bend in the Scioto. Its base is 110 feet in diameter and the mound itself, 
twenty-one feet high, once commanded a view of the valley to the south for a considerable 
distance. This, too, was doubtless a signal station. A short distance north is a smaller 
mound, ten feet high and sixty-five feet across the base. Mounds are found also at Marble 
Cliff, Dublin and Worthington, along Alum creek, Big Walnut, and elsewhere in this county. 
In other counties of Ohio, the remains of these early inhabitants are even more numerous, 
and the conclusion is inevitable that even in prehistoric time when the primitive forests were 
young, Ohio was a favorite dwelling place of human beings. 

Whether the Indians the white man found here were identical with the Mound Build- 
ers, or were a different race succeeding them, is still a matter of scientific dispute, with the 
weight of opinion at present in favor of the former theory. But that need not be dis- 
cussed here. The Indian occupants of Ohio were the first of whom there is definite knowl- 
edge. These, according to Randall, were" the Eries, who were conquered and dispersed by 
the Iroquois. The latter came from the west, allied themselves with the Miamis for the 
purpose of fighting the Eries, and subsequently fought their allies, establishing what they 
long continued to regard as proprietorship of the land. Other Indians — the Wyandots, the 



6 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Mingoes, the Shawnees and Delawares — were here, but were always regarded by the Iro- 
quois as mere tenants. It was the Wyandots who raised corn on the lowlands west of the 
Scioto river, now West Columbus, and built lodges in the forest on the eastern bank, now 
the heart of the city. But the Mingoes also were here, and in the fall of 177-i, they main- 
tained a town or rendezvous near the point where the Olentangy empties into the Scioto. 
At tlu time of Lord Dunmore's punitive expedition into Ohio, the Mingoes were the least 
submissive. One of their chiefs, Cornstalk, had led the allied Indians in the battle of Point 
Pleasant and, though he partieipated in the peace parley on Pickaway Plains, had not given 
his assent to the treaty. Logan, another distinguished Mingo warrior, at least nominally 
a chief, bitter because all his relatives had been killed by the whites, remained away, but 
sent a pacific message of rare eloquence, which has been handed down as "Logan's speech." 
With regard to the attitude of the Mingoes, Lord Dunmore was not satisfied and, to make 
sure that there were no sparks of hostility left behind, directed Captain William Crawford 
and 210 men to proceed against the Mingo rendezvous at the junction of the Scioto and 
the Olentangy. The latter had some white prisoners and horses they had stolen, and it 
war- suspected that they intended to slip away with their booty and hold themselves free 
to carry on the war. Captain Crawford and his men arrived at the camp of the Mingoes 
just as they, warned of the attack, were leaving. There was some fighting, six Indians 
were killed and others wounded, the white captives were released and horses and plunder, 
afterwards sold for tOO pounds, were captuicd. Most of the Indian warriors escaped. 
And so it happened that the only act of violence done to the Indians in the interior of 
Ohio by the Dunmore expedition occurred within what is now the city of Columbus. 

It is interesting to know that this fighting, if it can be called such, occurred chiefly on 
the east bank of the Scioto below the mouth of the Olentangy, near the present Penitentiary 
site. Joseph Sullivant has located the scene by repeating in an address before the Pioneer 
Society in 1871 what he as a boy had heard from the lips of Jonathan Alder and others. 
Alder, captured in Virginia by a party of Indian marauders, was brought into Ohio and 
adopted into the tribe, lived among them and was here when the first settlers came. What 
he knew and told to Mr. Sullivant, he got from the older men of the tribe. As to the loca- 
tion of the Mingo villages, Mr. Sullivant had also the testimony of John Brickell and two 
other white men who had been captives among the Indians. By their joint testimony, the 
principal village was near the Penitentiary site, but there were two others — one on the 
east side of the Scioto, a mile and a half south of Broad street, and another at the west 
end of the Harrisburg (Mound street) bridge. 

Alder's story of the attack by Crawford's men, as narrated by Mr. Sullivant, was that 
"in the fall of 177 1, when all the male Indians of the upper village, except a few old men, 
had gone on their first fall hunt, one day about noon, the village was surprised by the sudden 
appearance of a body of armed men who immediately commenced firing upon all they could 
sec. Great consternation and panic ensued, and the inhabitants fled in every direction. One 
Indian woman seized her child, five or six years of age, and rushed down the bank of the 
river and across to the wooded island opposite, when she was shot down at the farther hank. 
The child was unhurt amid the shower of balls, and hid in a large hollow sycamore stand- 
ing near tin middle of the island, where he was found alive two days later when the warriors 
ol tin- tribe returned, having been summoned by runners to the scene of disaster." According 
to this account. Captain Crawford's victory was easily won and was quite lacking in the 
heroic. 

By the treaty made by Lord Dunmore with the Ohio tribes, the Indians were to give 
up all prisoners ever taken by them in war with the whites: also all negroes captured and 
all horses stolen since the last war; they were not to hunt east of the Ohio and the whites 
were not to hunt on the west side. The hope of peace lay in keeping the Indians and 
whites apart. Hut it was a vain hope. The shot at Lexinirton that was "heard around the 
world," was heard also on the borders of the Ohio country. British intrigues with the Indians 
against the colonists began. There were raids and punitive expeditions into the Ohio 
country, much fighting and many atrocities with which this particular section happily had 
nothing to do. It was a spoil of war, rather than a seat of hostilities. The War of the 
Revolution ended with the surrender of Cornwallis, September 10, 1781. The American 
colonies thus gained their independence, but the fighting in the Ohio country went on. The 
British troops in the interior yielded but sullenly to the agreements of the peace treaty and 



BEGINNINGS OF OHIO 7 

continued to fan the fires of Indian opposition. The infant nation had come into prospec- 
tive possession of a vast territory extending from the northern boundary of Florida to the 
Great Lakes and from the Atlantic ocean to the Mississippi river, and the Indians, at a 
conference in January, 1786, acknowledged the United States to be "the sole and absolute 
sovereign of all the territories ceded by Great Britain." But what was professed in word 
was denied in action by both the British and the Indians whom they incited to revolt, as will 
be seen. 

Upon the eastern border of the promised land, the tide of migration beat with in- 
creasing force after the close of the Revolutionary War. But when the British and Indians 
had been dispossessed, new troubles arose. To whom did the territory northwest of the Ohio 
river belong? To the several states or to the infant nation as a whole? The entire terri- 
tory, out of which were subsequently carved the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan 
and Wisconsin, was claimed by both New York and Virginia, while Massachusetts and 
Connecticut each laid claim to a considerable part. There were years of heated discus- 
sion, which put the very life of the nation in jeopardy, and then, under the leadership of 
New York, the several states relinquished their claims, thus putting the general government 
in possession except that Connecticut reserved a tract in northeastern Ohio, later known as 
the Western Reserve, and Virginia retained for herself the tract in Ohio which lies between 
the Scioto and Miami rivers. Some of the land thus retained, Connecticut gave to her citi- 
zens to reimburse them for losses in the Revolution, and the remainder she sold to create a 
common school fund. Virginia's reservation was for the purpose of distributing bounty to her 
soldiers, many of w 7 hom had fought for the possession of the land. The discussion of this 
ownership question was one of the things that showed the weakness of the Articles of the Con- 
federation and brought about the formulation and adoption of the Constitution of the United 
States in 1788. 

Congress, on May 20, 1785, provided for a survey of the western domain, and sur- 
veyors sprang to the work only to meet the obstacle of Indian opposition and to be turned 
back. After some preliminary meetings, the Ohio Company, having in view a settlement 
in the new territory, was organized at the Bunch of Grapes tavern in Boston, March 1, 
1786. General Rufus Putnam was made president of the board of directors; Major Win- 
throp Sargent, secretary, and Richard Piatt (later chosen) treasurer. Other directors were 
General Samuel H. Parsons, Rev. Manasseh Cutler and General James M. Varnum. By the 
following March 250 shares of $1,000 each had been taken, and in October, 1787, the con- 
tract with the federal government for the purchase of 96-1,285 acres on the Ohio river 
extending from the mouth of the Muskingum river, was signed. The purchase price was 
66% cents an acre, to be paid in public securities then worth about twelve cents to the 
dollar. 

Then arose the Scioto Company of Colonel William Duer and others, of New York, 
whose enterprise, so far as government was concerned, clashed with that of the Ohio Com- 
pany. By compromise, the purchase was extended to include 1,000,000 other acres lying- 
west and north of the Ohio Company's tract, the purchase price to be the same and to be paid in 
four annual installments. The Ordinance for the Government of the Northwest Territory 
was adopted by Congress, July 13, 1787, and by the same agency General Arthur St. Clair 
was chosen Governor; James M. Varnum, Samuel H. Parsons and John Armstrong, Judges, 
and Winthrop Sargent, secretarv. Later, when Armstrong declined to serve, John Cleves 
Svmmes was chosen. 

Thus was the stage set for the coming of the colonists and the making of a new civili- 
ation. The Ordinance was a noble, forward-looking document, second only to the Consti- 
tion itself in importance and virtue. The leaders of the Ohio Company were superior in- 
tellectually and morally, and the expedition which landed at the mouth of the Muskingum, 
April 7, 1788, was composed of men and women of high purpose and strong courage. 
Reaching the scene of their adventure under the leadership of General Rufus Putnam, they 
found the flag flying from Fort Harmar. built nearly three years before, and the fort occu- 
pied by a detachment of United States troops. There the colony established itself, its sturdy 
members playing a great part in the building of the State. The Scioto Company was less 
fortunate, for its business was chiefly speculation. Duer, its leader, sold some shares for 
the Ohio Company and thus assisted it in making its payments to the government ; but its 
larger operation was in selling land to people in France. Several hundred of these French 



8 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

purchasers came to America and settled on their supposed possessions, only to find that the 
Scioto Company had defaulted in its payments and could give no clear title. Congress in 
1795 relieved their distress by making to them a grant of 24,000 acres in the eastern part of 
Scioto county. 

In 1787, John Cleves Symmes bought from the government 1,000,000 acres fronting on 
the Ohio river, and Benajmin Stites, who was interested with him, brought a party of 
twenty-six who landed, November 18, 1788, at a point now within the corporate limits of 
Cincinnati, naming their settlement Columbia. Another colony, headed by Matthias Den- 
man, December 28, the same year, settled on a tract of 640 acres, bought of Symmes, directly 
opposite the mouth of the Licking river. Symmes himself came with a colony in Febru- 
ary, 1789, and settled at North Bend below Cincinnati, or Losantiville, as the Denman colony 
was first called. In 1791, the French colony already alluded to settled at a point they ap- 
priately called Gallipolis. In the same year, Colonel Nathaniel Massie, surveying in the 
Virginia Military district, founded Manchester on the Ohio river, and in 1796 he laid out 
the town of Chillicothe. The first settlement in northern Ohio was made by General Moses 
Cle(a)veland, July 4, 1796, at the mouth of Conneaut creek, the colonists coming from Con- 
necticut. In September of the same year he laid out a town at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, 
which was named for him and has since become the largest city in the State. 

The coming of the colonists only angered the Indians who were still being excited to hos- 
tility by the British, and there were many sanguinary raids and much fighting. General St. 
Clair, in an effort to make the territory safe, led 2,000 soldiers to defeat by Little Turtle 
and his warriors in Mercer county. In 1793, General Anthony Wayne was dispatched with 
an army of 3,000 to subdue the victorious Indians, severely defeated them at Fallen Timbers 
and forced the treaty of Greenville, by which the Indians released all their lands in the 
territory except a few specified reservations, the Indians taking $20,000 in merchandise and 
a personal annuity of $9,000 to be apportioned among the contracting tribes. The Indians 
were to deliver up all captives and keep the peace forever. The battle of Point Pleasant 
in 1774 has been referred to as really the first conflict of the Revolution. With equal truth, 
the battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 may be considered the last, for it was not till then that 
the Indian power was broken and the last British hope destroyed. 

Thereafter, new settlements sprang up rapidly, the first General Assembly was created 
and organized as provided in the Ordinance of 1787, and met with the Governor, at Cincin- 
nati, September 16, 1799. 

There is agreement by all the early travelers that the Ohio wilderness was most 
alluring. Pages could be filled with the record of their rhapsodies at the spectacle of the 
Ohio river with its heavily forested banks, the flocks of wild geese and ducks upon its waters, 
the noble trees grown to maturity as Nature willed it, the abundance of turkeys, quail and 
singing birds and the bears, wolves, buffaloes, deer and other animals visible to the travelers 
on the rude craft of the river. Short trips up the Muskingum, Scioto and Miami proved 
also the high quality of the interior. Everywhere the territory seemed to these and other 
chroniclers who traversed the country from the river to the lakes to be a veritable unbroken 
paradise, offering all that man could ask, not only in woodland treasures, but also in well- 
watered plains, "level as the ocean and seemingly bounded only by the distant horizon and 
covered with the most luxuriant growth of grass and herbs." 

It is nut strange that to such a country people were attracted even from Europe, as were 
the French of the Gallipolis colony. Nor can there be wonder that those who had fought 
in tin War of tin- Revolution or had suffered because of it looked eagerly to the territory 
as their future home. As we have seen, Virginia and Connecticut made special reserva- 
tions to care lor their lighting men and war sufferers. Congress also provided land for 
those who fought the battles for independence and later for the security of life and property 
in the new domain. The region about Columbus is notable for a land division having these 
rewards in view. Three of the four denominations of land in Franklin county are of this 
sort. At I he north extending south to Fifth avenue, east of the Scioto, are the United States 
Military lands, Sel apart by Congress ill 1796, to satisfy certain claims of the officers and 

soldiers of the Revolutionary War. From Fifth avenue south, lies the Refugee tract, four 

and a half miles wide and extending forty-eight miles east from the Scioto. It was appro- 
priated by Congress for the benefit of Canadians and Nova Scotians who had espoused the 
cause of the colonics in the War of I lie Revolution. When all the claims had been satisfied, 



BEGINNINGS OF OHIO 9 

the remainder of the tract was sold, as in the ease of other public land. All the land west 
of the Scioto river lies in the tract that Virginia reserved for her soldiers and is know as 
the Virginia Military district. That which lies south of the Refugee tract and a small tri- 
angular piece south of Fifth avenue and bordering the river are known as Congress lands 
because they are of the great body of land which was sold direct to settlers. 

In the surveys there was a lack of uniformity which has since proved very troublesome. 
The United States Military district was divided into townships five miles square and each 



TOWNSHIP 




^&T 



TRURO 
TOWNSHIP 



ORIGINAL BOUNDARY 
CITY LIMITS 1891 

1910 
1916 



MADISON 
TOWNSHIP 



HAMILTON TOWNSHIP 



Showing Different Lund Surveys and Growth of City ft 



1S1J to 1920. 



township was quartered, each quarter having an area of 6\ square miles, or 1,000 acres. The 
Refugee tract, in which the greater part of Columbus lies, was divided into sections of (MO 
acres each and subsequently divided into half-sections. The Congress lands were divided 
into townships six miles square, and the townships into sections, each one mile square, or (>t0 
acres. The Virginia Military lands were surveyed with reference to no regular plan. Any 
person holding a Virginia land warrant might locate at will within the district and make his 
own boundary lines, provided only he did not encroach on land previously located. Says 
Judge J. E. Safer, in his exhaustive study of Franklin county land titles: "Many of the 



10 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

surveys fell short in quantity, others overlapped each other. Confusion and litigation 
necessarily resulted. The first surveyors in this district were accustomed to add or throw in 
a percentage in their surveys, sometimes as much as ten per cent." Professor R. W. McFar- 
land characterized these surveys as "wonderful to behold," and tells of a tract "calling for 
ninety acres, the given metes and bounds of which enclosed over 1,600 acres." The eager- 
iiiss to possess lacked or defied regulation of choice — a characteristic which has not yet de- 
parted from the affairs of man. At first, the government price of public land was $2 an 
acre, in payments. After 1820, the price was $1.25 an acre, payable at entry. 

It is now pertinent to inquire what was the nature of the country toward which land 
claimants and other settlers were directing their footsteps. This is important because the 
geology and topography of a given section determine in considerable measure the occupa- 
tion of the people living within it. Dr. Edward Orton in his contribution to Lee's History 
of Columbus, wrote : 

Central Ohio consists of a slightly undulating plain from 800 to 1100 feet above sea 
level. Across it the present drainage channels extend in shallow valleys. Columbus is situ- 
ated in the most important of these shallow troughs, the Scioto valley, but it also extends 
to the adjacent uplands in considerable portions of its area. Low water of the Scioto in 
the central portion of the city is approximately 700 feet above tide. The uplands of the 
northernmost portions are not less than 900 feet above tide. ... In addition to the furrow 
occupied by the Scioto proper, parts of two other important valleys are included here, viz., 
the Whetstone (Olentangy) and Alum creek. The former is in reality a much more con- 
spicuous feature of the country than its main valley. The Scioto has wrought out its bed for 
a number of miles above Columbus in Devonian limestone. It therefore hay rock bottom 
and rock walls, though the latter are of small height. The "Whetstone (Olentangy) on the 
other hand, lying to the eastward of the Scioto, has wrought its valley out of the shale. 
It nowhere has a rocky floor, but the beds of drift that underlie it are not less than 100 feet 
deep. ... A beautiful scope of fertile bottom land, not less than a half mile in breadth, 
constitutes the intervales of the present river. . . . Alum creek also occupies an old valley, 
as is proved by a series of facts similar to those already given. We thus see that these 
easily eroded shales have been removed from Columbus and the region south of it on a 
very large scale, and into the space from which they have been carried away a vast load 
of glacial drift has been deposited. The substitution has been of priceless service to the 
district in every way. The most barren soil of Ohio, viz., that derived from the shale series, 
is the one that is geologically due here. In place of it, the weathered limestone gravel 
yields a soil that is the very type and standard of excellence. The forest growth that the 
shale would have supported is decidedly inferior in character, but in place of it we find 
oak, walnut, hickory and other of our most valued timber trees. The natural water supply 
of the shale is of the most unsatisfactory sort but these same drift deposits constitute a 
universal and inexhaustible reservoir from which we can draw all needed supplies for all 
time. 

The Glacial period has done everything for Columbus. It is practically the only 
important fact in its geology. The topography, soils, water supply and drainage are all 
dependent upon this great series of beds. 

The soil on which the city was to be built consisted of clay, sand and gravel judi- 
ciously distributed and enriched by fallen and decayed vegetable matter. Thus there were 
here, waiting the coming of the white man, not only fertile plains already rudely cultivated 
by the Indians, but also forests in which there was a great variety of animal and bird life, 
trees of which timber could be made, animals whose flesh could be turned into food and their 
skins into clothing, stone and sand for building, clay for brick-making and water for power. 
There were other riches, such as coal and natural gas, in near-by fields, but of these the first 
comers had no hint. 

"It was easy," says Professor George D. Hubbard, in a recent monograph, "to put the 
land under cultivation, for like most of the prairie, it was not fully timbered and only a part 
needed to be cleared before all could be turned over by the plow and planted. So level, too, 
was the land that none was really waste, unless too wet; and communication either by canoe 
in stream or by wagon was easy in all directions. The timber along the streams and over 
parts of the upland plains furnished all the lumber needed for quickly built log houses, 
fences and slock shelters, and provided ample fuel for all early needs, but was not so heavy, 
dense or widespread as to depress the people or obstruct their progress in agriculture and in- 
tercourse." 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SETTLEMENT OF FEANKLINTON 

Lucas Sullivant and His Surveying Parti/ on Deer Creek — Armed Encounters and Perils — 
Location of the Town — First Residents and Their Rude Cabin Homes — Stories of the 
Captivity of John 3 rich ell and Jeremiah Armstrong among the Indians. 

Some such promise as this must have presented itself to the mind of Lucas Sullivant 
who, in 1795, when he was thirty years of age, came into Ohio as one of a number of deputy 
surveyors of land in the Virginia Military district. Virginia had authorized her soldiers to 
select a surveyor of the lands she had reserved for them when she made her cession to the 
general government. They had chosen Colonel Richard C. Anderson, a distinguished soldier 
of the Revolutionary War, and the latter had established headquarters at Louisville, Ky., 
sending deputies to do the actual field work. Among these deputies, besides Mr. Sullivant, 
were Nathaniel Massie and Duncan McArthur, two men who were destined to play an im- 
portant part in the building of the State. To Mr. Sullivant was assigned the northern por- 
tion of the district, and his first appearance on the field of his operations was on Deer creek, 
in what is now Madison county. He came with about twenty men — assistants, chain car- 
riers, scouts and porters. It was a dangerous enterprise upon which this party had em- 
barked for there were wild animals to be encountered and of the human beings already 
there, the Indians were hostile and the whites, desiring all they could find for themselves, 
were suspicious of one another. White men who had claims, rather than come themselves, 
were willing to pay large sums to surveyors who would explore and locate their claims for 
them. They would give for the job one-fourth or even one-half the land located or, when 
money was required, ten pounds Virginia currency for each thousand acres. The Sullivant 
party's first encounter was with a French trader and two Indians, as a result of which the 
trader was killed and the Indians put to flight. It was a rear guard action with which Mr. 
Sullivant had nothing to do and which he sincerely deplored. He regretted the shedding 
of human blood and feared for reprisal by the Indians. His fears were well founded for, 
four days later, while he was completing his task on Deer creek, he saw a band of Indians, 
more numerous than his party, approaching. They had been sent, he subsequently learned, 
from the Mingo village on the present site of Columbus, to take revenge for the previous 
attack. The odds being against them, Sullivant and his party concealed themselves in the 
high grass, and the Indians passed on, only to be recalled at nightfall by the sound of a gun 
fired by one of the surveying party at a flock of wild turkeys. There was a brief encounter 
with firearms and the surveying party escaped in the darkness. In their flight, they were 
separated into two groups and when they were reunited three days later, it was found that 
two of the party were missing, one of whom was known to have been killed at the first fire of 
the Indians. 

Soon after this adventure, Mr. Sullivant and his party began operations in the present 
confines of Franklin county, and on a subsequent expedition, he located a tract of land for 
himself on the fertile lowlands opposite the "forks of the Scioto," as the junction of the 
Scioto and Olentangv was then called. Mr. Sullivant's surveying experiences were inter- 
esting. He had at least one other narrow escape from violence at the hands of the Indians. 
He awoke, one morning, from his sleep in the open to find a huge rattlesnake coiled on the 
blanket that covered him, but threw off both blanket and snake and soon despatched the 
latter. A panther was, later, discovered perched on the limb of a tree under which the 
campfire of the party had been built, and the animal was shot dead just as he was about to 
spring upon them. At Marble Cliff, Mr. Sullivant discovered a veritable den of rattlesnakes 
— a prodigious number of them, just awakened from their winter torpor and filling the air 
with a most offensive odor as thev basked in the sunshine. It was the most famous of many 
snake dens along the rocky bank of the Scioto and was the scene in later years of numerous 
snake hunts in which the settlers engaged in order to rid the neighborhood of the loathsome 
and dangerous reptiles. 

The Indians, the wild animals and the snakes did not deter Mr. Sullivant. They were 
to him only temporary incidents, while the alluring facts were the fertility of the soil, the 



12 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

luxuriance of the forest, the converging streams providing an abundance of water and the 
general availability of the section for a contented and prosperous human existence. If 
there is wonder that he located on the lowlands, instead of on the now more desirable high- 
lands east of the river, the answer is to be found in the fact that he had nothing to do with 
the latter lands. The limit of the tract he was surveying was the river. Besides, the high 
banks were densely wooded and the land just beyond was marshy. He chose what to almost 
anybody at that time would have appeared to be the more desirable of the two sites. And 
so, in August, 1797, on the edge of the fertile plain where the Indian women had long cul- 
tivated maize, he laid out a town which he called Franklinton. The first plat fronted the 
river opposite the junction of the two streams, but before the announced sale of lots was 
held, a flood came to warn him and he shifted the plat to higher ground adjacent. To one 
street he gave the name, Gift, and offered to donate lots thereon to persons who would make 
actual settlement. Other streets were named Foos, Green, Sandusky, and Skidmore, the 
names in some cases being those of the earliest settlers. Joseph Dixon and his wife were 
the first actually to locate on the site of the new town, they having come in the fall of 1797, 
while the Sullivant party were absent, and built a cabin near the forks of the two rivers, on 
the south and west sides. John Brickell, Robert, John and Jeremiah Armstrong, who had 
been prisoners with the Indians, came about the same time ; and in the returning Sullivant 
party were Samuel and Andrew McElvain, Abraham Deardurff, George and John Skidmore, 
Robert Balentine, Jacob Grubb, Benjamin White, Jacob Overdier, John Blair, and perhaps 
others. At any rate among the earliest settlers were William Domigan, who came from 
Maryland; Joseph and John Foos, from Kentucky ; Michael Fisher, from Virginia ; John Dill, 
from York county, Pa., James Marshall, Adam Hosack, William Fleming, John Lisle, Arthur 
O'Harra, and others whose last names only have been preserved — Dunkin, Stokes, Hunter, 
Stevens, Brown and Cowgill. 

Lucas Sullivant, having again returned to Kentucky to be married, established his per- 
manent home in Franklinton about 1801. Then came Lyne Starling, Robert Russell and 
Colonel Robert Culbertson, the last named from Shippenburg, Pa., with a numerous family 
of sons, sons-in-law and daughters. These then were the First Families of Franklinton. 

The first houses were, of course, log cabins built of the trees that were felled to make 
the clearing necessary for agriculture. They were rude affairs like those that are still to 
be found in various parts of the countrv. Logs, piled one upon another to the desired height, 
notched and pinned together, made the sides, the chinks being filled with strips of wood and 
covered with mortar made from the clav. Rafters were raised in the form of an inverted 
V and pinned ton-ether at the top and to the upper log below. Small pieces of hewn timber 
were pinned across the rafters, and over them split boards in tiers to make the roof. Open- 
ings for doors and windows were cut through the logs, the doors being made of boards, 
swung on wooden hinges, and the windows being covered with young deerskin scraped thin 
so as to let the light through. Floors were of timber hewn smooth for the upper surface. 
The fireplace was built of stone; the chimney was built up outside the house and was made 
of stone laid in clay mortar. If there was an upper room, it was reached by a rude ladder 
also outside. Bedsteads were made of poles or rails, one end being fitted into a hole bored 
in a log that helped to make the side of the house, and poles or rails on end for the corner 
posts. Strips of pawpaw, elm or buckeye were tied across the horizontal rails and leaves, 
wild grass or straw filled the ticks and made the early mattress. No iron was used in the 
building of these first cabins, even the hinges and latch of the door being of wood, and the 
door being opened by pulling a string of deerskin attached to the latch and protruding through 
a hole in one of the slabs. At night the latchstring was pulled in and the door was locked. 
Some families had two cabins with a floored and covered space between. According to H. 
Warren Phelps, many of these early cabins were occupied as late as 1815, when he came here 
as a boy with his parents. 

CAPTIVES AMONG THE INDIANS. 

Among tin- first settlers in Franklinton were two men who had been held captives by the 
Indians — John Brickell and Jeremiah Armstrong. Brickell's story, as told by himself in the 
American Pioneer in 18 12, may be thus summarized: He was born May 2 1, 1781, near 
Uniontown, Pa. His father died when he was quite young and he went to live with an 
elder brother near the site of Pittsburg. In February, 1791, a band of Indians 150 strong 



THE SETTLEMENT OF FRANKLINTON 13 

made a raid on all the white settlements along- the Alleghany river. Brickell, then a lad of 
ten, while working in the field, was approached by one of the Indians who indicated the 
direction in which he wanted the boy to go with him. Suspecting nothing, as he had been 
on friendly terms with Indians, Brickell complied but later, feeling that something was 
wrong, attempted to run away. He was caught, his hands tied behind him and marched off 
with the warning that, if he made trouble, he would be killed. Subsequently, he was turned 
over to George Girty, a renegade white man, and taken to the Indian rendezvous at Tuscar- 
awas, where he met two other white prisoners, Thomas and Jane Dick, who had been 
neighbors on the Alleghany. From there Brickell was taken on a journey towards Sandusky, 
was beaten by drunken Indians on the way and, on entering a Seneca town with his com- 
panions, was made to run the gauntlet till he was rescued half dead by a big Indian who, he 
thinks, was Captain Pipe. Proceeding onward with his Indian captor, they met at the 
Auglaize river another Indian whom Brickell's companion addressed as brother, to whom 
he was delivered and by whom he was subsequently adopted. The name of this latter Indian 
was Whingwv Pooshies, or Big Cat of the Delawares. Brickell lived in his family from 
about the first week in May, 1791, until his release in June, 1795. Big Cat was a member 
of the Indian army that fought and defeated St. Clair and shared in the spoils, much to the 
comfort of the captive as well as others of the family. On the occasion of one of the annual 
visits of the Indians to the Maumee rapids to receive presents from the British, Brickell 
again saw Jane Dick, but her husband was absent, having, as he learned, been sold for $40 
and taken to Canada. One day during that visit, Jane Dick was missing and a great search 
was made for her without avail. In later years she told him that her husband had formed 
a plot with the captain of the vessel that brought the presents to abduct her. She was taken 
secretly on board and hid in a hogshead, where she remained until the day after the vessel 
sailed, about thirty-six hours. It had been planned to abduct Brickell at the same time, but 
the opportunity did not present itself. 

In June, 1794, Brickell went with three Indians on a hunting expedition and, returning 
two months later, found all their companions gone, as they supposed to receive their presents 
from the British at the Maumee rapids. But the next morning they learned that the van- 
guard of General Wayne's army was at hand. The Indians fled, and Brickell with them, 
joining a larger body at the rapids. There they were attacked, two or three days later, by 
some of Wayne's soldiers, but successfully defended themselves capturing one soldier named 
May, who was shot the next morning. Brickell tells of seeing Indians retreating after the 
battle of Fallen Timbers, of the diseouragement of the Indians, their anger at the British 
who, they insisted, had not given the support promised and of the offer to make peace with 
Wayne. On the conclusion of the treaty, by the terms of which all captives were to be 
released by the Indians, Big Cat took Brickell to Fort Defiance and, standing before the 
officers, addressed the lad, asking him to testify if he had not been treated as a son and 
giving him the choice to remain or go with the whites. The boy testified to the Indian's 
kindness, but decided to go with the people of his own race. It was a pathetic scene, for 
in the years of Brickell's captivity, a real affection had sprung up between him and the 
Indians, and Big Cat, who was old, expected the lad's support. 

Brickell returned to the south with the soldiers of Wayne's army, found his relatives in 
Kentucky, and went again to his old home in Pennsylvania. In 1797, he came to Franklinton 
and later bought of Lyne Starling a ten-acre tract in front of the Penitentiary site. When 
he died July 20, 18-14, he owned three pieces of property — the one mentioned, another on 
Spruce street and a third in Clinton township — which he bequeathed to his wife and two 
sons, making bequests of money to his daughter and granddaughter. In 188S, after the real 
estate had been sold to other parties and, with the growth of the city, had greatly increased 
in value, the Brickell heirs brought suit to recover the lands transferred, claiming that the 
terms of the will had been violated. The courts held that they were entitled to no relief. 

The story of Jeremiah Armstrong, as told by him to William T. Martin in 1858 and 
incorporated in Martin's History of Franklin County is substantially as follows: Mr. Arm- 
strong was born in Washington county, Maryland, in March, 1785. He had a sister and 
three brothers, William, Robert and John, older than himself. The family went to live in 
Virginia, opposite the upper end of Blennerhassett's island. There, in April, 1791, in the 
absence of William and Robert, who had gone to a floating mill the family owned on the 
river, the house was attacked by twenty Wvandots. The father, finding his firearms de- 



14, HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

fective and being unable to make a defense, escaped througb the roof and ran for assistance. 
Meanwhile, the Indians broke into the house, killed three of the children and the mother who 
had fallen while trying to escape through the chimney and had broken her hip. She was 
useless to the Indians in that plight and so they slew and scalped her with the others. The 
boy, Jeremiah, and his sister, they carried off, after plundering the house. When they had 
gone a mile or two, they halted to determine whether or not they should kill the lad who was 
a burden. A young Indian offered to carry him, if necessary, and so the party moved on, 
distancing all pursuers and coming at last to a point near where Lancaster now stands. 
There Jeremiah and John were separated from their sister and taken to Sandusky, where 
the former was adopted into the Deer tribe and the latter into the Turtle tribe. The sister 
was taken to Maumee, whence she was abducted by a white man in search of his sister, 
taken to Detroit and subsequently married. John was taken to Brownstown, and Jeremiah 
came with the family to which he belonged to what is now Columbus, camping on the present 
site of the Penitentiary. Jeremiah became, as he says, "a very good Indian" and was called 
Hooscoatahjah, meaning "Little Head." When the news of Wayne's victory reached the 
camp, the Indians hurried off to Sandusky bay, the lad with them, eager to go because he 
had come to feel that the pale faces were also his enemies. Soon after, William Arm- 
strono-, who was then living in Kentucky, hearing that Jeremiah was held a prisoner, came 
into Ohio in search of him and located both boys at Sandusky bay, but the latter were un- 
willing to leave their captors, feeling very proud of their paint and feathers. William went 
to Detroit for help and, returning with an officer and twelve men, compelled the boys to 
leave the Indians and go with him. He took them to Erie, then to Pittsburg and finally to 
Chillieothe, reclaiming them en route by changing their Indian dress for the clothing of the 
whites and telling them of the dreadful scene in their pioneer home, when the mother and the 
three other children were killed. 

Jeremiah and Robert Armstrong came to Franklinton when the former was twelve years 
old, the latter being some years his senior. Jeremiah there grew up to manhood and in the 
spring of 1813 purchased a High street lot and built a tavern which he conducted for many 
years. The house was known first as the Christopher Columbus and later as the Red Lion. 



CHAPTER III. 

EARLY DAYS IN FRANKLINTON. 

Selected as the County Seat — First County Buildings — First Industries — Road Building — 
First School and Church — Coming of Dr. James Hoge — Execution of Leaiherlips — 
The Sullivants, Lyne Starling, Dr. Lincoln Goodale, Dr. Samuel H. Parsons, Gustavus 
Swan, and Other Leaders in the Settlement. 

There are no statistics to show how many people gathered at Franklinton in the first 
five years after it was laid out, but it is probable that, when Franklin county was created 
by the first General Assembly of Ohio, sitting at Chillicothe, Franklinton had a population 
of 100 or more. This may be inferred from the fact that, at the election held in June, 1803, 
Franklin county was credited with 159 votes, of which 59 were cast in Franklin township. 
And it was an extensive county at that time, too. The eastern boundary was nearly what 
it now is, the southern ran near the middle of Pickaway, the western was the Greene county 
line and the northern Lake Erie. The boundaries so remained till 1808, when Delaware 
county was created, bringing the northern boundary of Franklin county to its present line. 
The creation of Pickaway and Madison in 1810 and of Union in 1820 reduced the county 
approximately to its present size, though there were a few subsequent changes. 

At the time of the creation of the county, the General Assembly chose Jeremiah McLene 
James Ferguson and William Creighton to fix the county's permanent seat of justice. This 
commission served six days and selected Franklinton. The records of the Court of Common 
Pleas, September 8, 1803, show that they were paid at the rate of $2 a day for the service, 
McLene being allowed $3 extra for writing and circulating notices as required by law. The 
county, in May, 1803, was divided into four townships — Franklin and Darby, on the west 
side of the river, separated by a line running westward from a point a little south of Dub- 
lin; and Harrison and Liberty, on the east side, separated by an east and west line running 
through the middle of what is now Hamilton township. Franklin township is the only one 
of the original four remaining even in name, changes in the shape of the county and density 
of population making more and different divisions desirable. Hamilton, Montgomery and 
Pleasant were created in 1807; Madison, Plain, Truro and Washington, in 1810; Clinton and 
Mifflin, in 1811; Norwich, in 1813; Blendon and Jackson, in 1815; Jefferson and Sharon in 
1816; Prairie, in 1819; Perry, in 1820, and Brown, in 1830. 

The first county building was a log jail, built by order of the Court of Common Pleas, 
at its session, January 10, 1804.. The order specifies that the jail shall be constructed of 
hewn logs 12 feet long and 18 inches in diameter; two floors, with a clearing of seven feet 
between and above the upper floor, two rounds of logs and a cabin roof; a door of two-inch 
plank, two feet, eight inches wide; two 8x10 windows, each secured by two iron bars, one 
inch square. Lucas Sullivant, who signed the record as Clerk, was the builder of the jail 
and received $80 for the task. John Dill, who was an associate justice of the Court, fur- 
nished the lock and received $8 in payment, voting for the appropriation. Fears of official 
graft had evidently not yet made their appearance in the community. 

The second county building was the Court House of brick, constructed, under a similar 
order of the Court of Common Pleas, in 1807-8, under the supervision of Lucas Sullivant. 
Until then the court had held its sessions in rented rooms. The brick for the structure were 
made from the clay of one of the ancient mounds in the vicinity. The building was square 
and of two stories, with an octagonal cupola rising from the center of the roof. There was 
a central hall on each floor, with rooms on either side. Arthur O'Harra, under order of the 
court, erected a brick jail nearby at about the same time. These buildings stood on the lot 
at the corner of what is now State and Sandusky streets, until 1873, when they were torn 
down to make room for the Franklinton school building. The court house was used for its 
original purpose till 1821, when the county seat was moved to Columbus. Then it was used 
as a school building. 

Around this old building many interests centered. There was transacted the business of 
the county, not onlv judicial, but also executive, and in those days that was a dominant 
thing. In a reminiscent article in the Ohio State Journal, October 30, 1871, Joseph Sulli- 



16 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

vant savs that often in his boyhood, he attended court in the old court house, when there 
was gathered the best legal talent of the State. He mentions "the members of our own 
bar such as Gustavus Swan, Orris and John Parrish, John A. McDowell, Thomas Backus, 
David Smith, P. B. Wilcox and James K. Cory," and speaks of Benjamin Tappan, Henry 
Stanberv, Thomas Ewing and others from different parts of the State. He recalls an 
incident, one summer day, after the adjournment of court, when Joe McDowell offered to 
bet $10 he could beat any of the group of lawyers in a 100-yard foot race. Orris Parrish 
took him up and they all went out on the green, where it was agreed that Thomas Ewing 
should be the champion of the lawyers. Ewing stripped off his coat, vest and shoes, and 
awav they went. Ewing won and, when McDowell complained that he had tripped and lost 
ground, Ewing replied, "Well, if you are not satisfied, let us try again." In the second race, 
Ewing won even more easily than before. There were other tests, such as standing and 
running jumps, throwing the stone, the ax and maul and leaping over a stretched string. 
Ewing had participated in all but the last and had shown superiority when McDowell, hav- 
ing made what he considered a very high leap, challenged Ewing to "beat that." Ewing 
told the judges to raise the string four inches and, coming at it "with a curious sidelong swing 
and motion, went over it amid the cheers of the crowd." 

Wagon roads were an early need, and the records of the Common Pleas Court show 
that, on the legally required petition of citizens, presented in 1803 and 1804, viewers and 
survevors were appointed to project roads toward Lancaster, Newark and Springfield and 
to Worthington. These officials reported at subsequent sessions, and the supervisor of the 
township in which the road lay, was directed to open it, the width mentioned in one case 
being 33 feet. 

The settlers had brought with them horses, cows and hogs, and to agriculture, stock- 
raising was soon added as an industry. Stock which could carry itself to market was the 
chief article of export for a dozen or more years for, although road-building, as we have 
seen, began in 1803, there was in 1811 no bridge within 100 miles of Franklinton. Streams 
were crossed either at fords or by ferry, and the roads leading to them were primitive. 

The manufacture of clothing was a home industry, and one of the principal materials 
was the skin of the deer, which were accustomed to come into the clearings around the 
cabins and browse on the green branches of the fallen trees. The hide was first soaked in 
a running stream, scraped, dried and tramped in a leathern bag filed with the brains of wild 
animals, being wrung out after each tramping and sometimes smoked to keep it soft. The 
skin was then covered with ochre and rubbed with pumice. A single family would thus 
dress a hundred deerskins in the course of a winter, thus producing the buckskin for gloves, 
moccasins and other articles of apparel. A buckskin suit over a flax shirt was full dress for 
a man. Flax, the fibre of the nettle, and wool — when it could be obtained — were made at 
home into a coarse cloth called linsey woolsey ; and the wools of black sheep and white were 
woven into what was called sheep's gray. Another fireside industry was the making of 
baskets, which were exchanged for supplies not readily produced. 

The manufacture of whisky was an early industry, for whisky was regarded as a neces- 
sary stay in hardship, as well as a cure of prevalent ills. It was in active demand, became 
a standard of value and was used in buying goods and paying debts. 

Among the new settlers from 1805 to 1812 were Isaac and Jeremiah Miner, Samuel 
White and his sons, the Stewarts, the Johnstons, the Weatheringtons, the Shannons, the 
Stambaughs, the Ramseys, the Olmsteads, the Liles, Jacob Gander, Percival Adams, John 
Swisher, George Williams, Lyne Starling, Dr. Lincoln Goodale, Dr. Samuel Parsons, R. W. 
McCoy, Francis Stewart, Henry Brown., John Kerr, Alexander McLaughlin, Orris Parish, 
Ralph Osborn, Gustavus Swan and Rev. James Hoge. The town was looking up, for many 
of these were substantial and energetic men. 

Joseph Foos, who was an associate judge, was the first tavern-keeper. James Scott 
and Robert Russell were the first to open stores. William Domigan also kept a house of 
public entertainment. Samuel McElvain built a rude mill to grind corn — a hole burned in 
a stump, with a sweep so fixed that two men could reduce the corn to meal, the sifter being 
a deer skin stretched over a hoop, with holes made therein by a hot iron. Robert Balentine 
erected a water mill on a small stream east of the Scioto. Benjamin White distilled whisky. 
One of the Deardurfs made salt which was one of the most difficult articles to obtain in 
those days of primitive commerce, when all supplies that the pioneers were unable to produce 



EARLY DAYS IN FRANKLINTOX 17 

for themselves had to be brought by river or by trail. Mr. Sullivant early felt this need 
and had himself sought to supply it. His biographer writes: 

He knew that the deer resorted in great numbers to the lick on the river below Frank- 
linton and he had observed, when he encamped there some years before, that there wen- 
strong evidences of the Indians making salt in that place. The work was vigorously prose- 
cuted and the lick cleaned out, when it appeared that a feeble stream or spring of weak 
salt water came to the surface at the edge of the river. A wooden curb was inserted which 
kept out a large portion of the fresh and surface water. The salt water was gathered in 
large wooden troughs hollowed out from huge trees, and with the aid of a battery of com- 
mon iron kettles and long-continued boiling, a limited quantity of rather poor salt was 
obtained; but when a road was opened along Zane'si Trace from Wheeling to Lancaster, and 
thence to Franklinton, it furnished greater facilities for procuring salt, and this well was 
abandoned. 

Adam Hosack was the first postmaster at Franklinton, and Andrew McElvain was the 
first mail carrier. Their service began in 1805. A weekly mail left Franklinton every 
Friday, stayed over night at Markley's mill on Darby creek, next day made Chillicothe, pro- 
ceeded to Thompson's on Deer creek and thence home on Sunday. When the route was first 
established there was no postoffice between Franklinton and Chillicothe, but during the first 
winter one was established at Westfall in what is now Pickaway county, where there was 
a cabin. Mr. McElvain was then thirteen years old, and during the year that he traveled this 
lonely route, twice had to swim Darby and Deer creek, carrying the mailbag on his shoulders. 

It was probably in 1806 that Lucas Sullivant built a log school house, a square and a 
half north of Broad and west of Sandusky street. It was fifteen or sixteen feet square 
with puncheon floor, rough slab benches supported at either end by a pair of hickory pins 
inserted in auger holes ; battened door with wooden hinges and latch raised from its notch 
with a string; a clapboard roof with weight-poles and a fireplace and stick chimney and paper 
window panes. Miss Sarah Reed and Miss Mary Wait were two of the early teachers in that 
primitive building, but whether either of them was the first teacher is not known. From 
the diary of Joel Buttles, who was a teacher at Worthington at about the same period it is 
learned how these early schools were supported. He made record of the following contract : 

These presents witnesseth: That, on condition that Joel Buttles shall duly attend five 
days in one week and six in another alternately, and six hours in each day, for the space 
of three months, and teach reading, writing and arithmetic to the best of his knowledge, 
we. the subscribers, promise and oblige ourselves to pay to the said Joel Buttles, at the 
expiration of said term of three months, each for himself, one dollar and sixty-two and a 
half cents for each scholar we may respectively subscribe; and should some unavoidable or 
unforeseen accident hinder said Buttles from attending the whole of said term, we obligate 
ourselves to pay said Buttles a due proportion for the time be may attend. And, likewise, 
the subscribers are to bear, each his just proportion, in boarding said Buttles and to furnish 
a convenient school house, together with a sufficient quantity of firewood so that school may 
commence the first day of January next. 

Under this contract, Mr. Buttles secured twelve pupils, so that for his three months' work 
he got his board and $19.50. 

The pioneer preacher was Rev. James Hoge who, November 19, 1805, reached Frank- 
linton during a missionary pilgrimage through Ohio. Mr. Hoge came of Scotch stock and, 
at the date mentioned, was in his twenty-second vear. He had taught school in Virginia and 
studied theology privately. On the previous 17th day of April he had been licensed to preach 
by the Presbytery at Lexington, Va., and had subsequently obtained a license as an itinerant 
missionary in Ohio. The day following his arrival in Franklinton, lie preached in the house 
of John Overdier to a small group of settlers. The congregation that he gathered was or- 
ganized as a Presbyterian church, the following February, and he was called to be its pastor. 
Worship, which began in private homes, was transferred to the Court House in 1807, and 
was continued there till the first church building was erected on the cemetery lot near the 
river in 1811. 

In 1812, James B. Gardiner began in Franklinton the publication of the first news- 
paper, the Freeman's Chronicle, and maintained it for about three years covering the period 
of the second war with England. The paper was then discontinued probably because in 
the post-bellum slump it was unprofitable. 



18 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Alter the treaty of Greenville, following General Wayne's victory at l-'allen Timbers, 
the Indians for the most part left the vicinity of Franklinton. One of these who remained 
was Billy Wyandot, who had a lodge at the west end of the present Harrisburg bridge. He 
was a roisterous fellow and met his death, while drunk, trying to show how on a previous 
occasion he had pursued a bear into the river and killed it in midstream. In spite of protests, 
he plunged into the icy stream, for it was winter, and was drowned. While few Indians 
lived in the vicinity, bands from the villages north often came here to trade with Lincoln 
Goodale, Starling & DeLashmutt, R. W. McCoy, Henry Brown, Samuel Barr and other store- 
keepers. They brought furs, skins, venison, cranberries and articles of their manufacture 
and took back ammunition, tobacco, knives, cloth, pigments, blankets, calicoes and whisky — 
one of the certain incidents of a visit being a drunken carousal. While this trading was 
profitable, it was also full of menace to the whites. Mrs. Lucas Sullivant was herself once 
attacked by a drunken Indian and was saved from his knife only by the timely arrival of her 
husband. Bears also occasionally sauntered into the settlement, and there is record of one 
that came into the field where men were at work, was driven into a doorvard by blows of 
a trace-chain and fought by dogs and men till it was finally dispatched. 

The execution of Leatherlips (Sha-te-ya-ron-yah), a Wyandot chief, by Indian decree, 
is one of the famous incidents of the period when the Indians were retiring from this region. 
Leatherlips was a friend of the whites and persistently refused to enter into the project of 
Tecumseh, Roundhead and other chiefs who wanted war. For this reason, the latter trumped 
up the charge of witchcraft against Leatherlips, and sent a party of six Indians to slay 
him. Leatherlips was found in June, 1810, at his lodge on the Scioto, about H miles north 
of Columbus near the Delaware county line. He was seized and his captors, of whom Round- 
head is supposed to have been the leader, held a council in which the charges were heatedly 
made and calmly replied to by the prisoner. The previous condemnation was affirmed and 
preparations for the execution were begun. William Sells, of Dublin, and other white men, 
interceded, pleading Leatherlips' good behavior and finally offering to buy his release. The 
Indians withdrew to consider the proposition and then refused it. Leatherlips was sub- 
missive to his fate. He attired himself in his best, painted his face and stood, an impressive 
figure, before his accusers and the white spectators. Shaking hands with the latter, he 
turned from his wigwam and, with a strong and musical voice, chanted his death song as he 
walked to the place of execution. About se\ enty yards away, he and the whole party came 
to a shallow grave the Indians had secretlv dug. Leatherlips there knelt in prayer, the 
leader of the executioners also kneeling and offering a prayer to the Great Spirit. As 
Leatherlips knelt, an Indian approached him from behind and drove a tomahawk into his head. 
The prisoner fell prostrate and perspiration gathered on his face and neck. To this the 
leader of the Indians pointed as proof of guilt. As soon as life was extinct the body was 
buried, and the Indians and whites went their way. 

A rude pile of stones long marked the grave. An appropriate monument, erected by 
the \\ yandot Club of Columbus citizens, now stands on the spot. 

Lucas Sullivant, after platting the town in which he meant to live, returned to Kentucky 
on a matrimonial visit. There lie was married to Sarah Starling, daughter of Colonel 
William Starling, of Harrodsburg, a descendant of Sir William Starling, once Lord Mayor 
of London. The couple came to Franklinton and lived here the remainder of their lives, 
chiefly in the house which Mr. Sullivant built at the southwest corner of Broad and Sandusky 
streets. The T-shaped brick house, an unusually fine residence for the pioneer days of 
1800, still stands, in large measure as originally erected, sheltering the life and work of the 
Sisters of the Good Shepherd. 

Mr. Sullivant was born in Mecklenburg county, Va., in 1765. At 1 (i he was left to make 
his own way in the world. With his little patrimony he secured a liberal education, includ- 
ing surveying, which he early practiced in the Virginia counties. He served in one of the 
expeditions against the hostile Indians in such a way as to win him influential friends, among 
whom was Colonel William Starling, whose daughter he afterwards married. From Vir- 
ginia he went to Paris, Bourbon county, Kentucky, subsequently engaging in the surveying 
work which brought him into central Ohio. From the laying out of the town until he died 
in 1823, he was the foremost man in Franklinton. His remarkable energy continued witli 
him to the end, his last task being the construction of a dam across the Scioto for a large 
gristmill. He was a man of force and courage, but had a tender side, and the affection of 



EARLY DAYS IX FRAXKLIXTOX 19 

the Sullivant home is manifest in what the husband and wife did for eacli other. She left 
a home of luxury to share his danger on the frontier. It was because she was a member of 
the Presbyterian faith that he built and gave the house of worship to the congregation of Dr. 
Hoge. The best physician in Chillicothe was induced to ride fifty miles on horseback and 
tarry at their home three weeks that he might be present at the advent of her first-born. 
It was for her that the finest house of the town was built, and she reciprocated in kind by 
doing many things in her own home that would have been done for her in the home of her 
father. Her end was characteristic of her courageous and unselfish life, for her death was 
caused by exertion and exposure, while aiding and nursing the soldiers encamped on her 
husband's premises in the war of 1812, during which the little brick church, her husband's 
gift, was appropriated for a granary and storehouse for the quartermaster's department. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Sullivant were born three sons who survived him and added to the 
honor of the Sullivant name — William S., Michael and Joseph. Sarah, a daughter, born in 
1812, died aged two. William S. Sullivant early turned his attention to the flora of central 
Ohio and became the most eminent American bryologist of his time. His name was given to 
a number of hitherto undiscovered species, and his work on mosses was such as to make his 
name honorably remembered wherever mosses are studied. He died in 1873. Michael Sul- 
livant became a stoek-raiser and farmer on a gigantic scale. He was one of the originators 
of the Ohio Stock Importing Company and of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture and 
was twice the president of the latter body. In 1854 he sold out his Ohio holdings and moved 
to Illinois where he cultivated (tens of thousands of acres. It was a stupendous and 
unsuccessful experiment. He died in 1879. Joseph Sullivant was deeply interested in lit- 
erary, scientific and educational matters. He was for many years a member of the Columbus 
Board of Education and the building on State street was named for him. He was one of the 
projectors of Green Lawn cemetery, and generally was a valuable and public-spirited citi- 
zen, serving his fellow-citizens in many ways until his death in 1882. 

John K. Delashmut, came from Maryland to Franklinton in 1802, married Sarah Worth- 
ington, of Hamilton township and earlv engaged in the manufacture of hats. 

John Huffman, born in Maryland and as boy a resident of Washington county, Pa., was 
a captain in Lord Dunmore's army. He came to Franklinton in 1801, but in 1801 located 
on a tract of 380 acres on the Scioto, further south, built a house and a distillery which 
he operated for many years. 

Lyne Starling, a brother of Mrs. Lucas Sullivant, was born in Mechlenburg county, Ya.. 
in 1781. In 1806, he came to Franklinton to live. He succeeded Lucas Sullivant as Clerk 
of the Courts, and was a merchant and trader. He was one of the four original owners of 
the land on which Columbus was built and led in the negotiations which brought the capital 
to its present location. He was an eccentric, but warm-hearted and useful man. Through 
his generosity Starling Medical College was established and housed in a castle-like building 
on State street. 

Rev. James Hoge the first clergyman of Franklinton, was born at Moorefield, X. J., the 
son of a Presbyterian divine. He organized the Presbyterian church in Franklinton, went 
with that body when it moved to Columbus and was its pastor till 1858, thus completing a 
service here of more than fifty years. He assisted in the establishment here of the State 
School for the Deaf and Dumb and the Central Hospital for the Insane, and was one of the 
founders of the Ohio Bible Society. 

Dr. Samuel Parsons was a native of Reading, Conn., and came to Franklinton in 1811, 
where he practiced his profession till 1816, when he moved to Columbus, continuing his prac- 
tice until within a few years of his death. He was the head of the house of Parsons, father 
of George M. Parsons and grandfather of the late Gustavus Parsons. In 1813 he was 
elected to represent Franklin county in the Ohio General Assembly, and for some years he 
was president of the Franklin branch of the State Bank of Ohio. 

Dr. Lincoln Goodale came with his recently widowed mother to Franklinton. He was 
the son of Major Nathan Goodale, who fought in the Revolution and who, after he had come 
into the Ohio country, died of disease while being held by the Indians for ransom. Here 
Dr. Goodale practiced his profession, engaged in business, both mercantile and real estate 
and became wealthy. In the war of 1812 he served ate an assistant surgeon. His life was 
filled with good deeds, the crown of which was the girt to Columbus of the park that bears 
his name. \ 



20 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Jeremiah McLene, one of the three commissioners who loeated the county seat at 
Franklinton, came to Ohio from Tennessee. He was for some time county surveyor, Secre- 
tary of State for twenty-one years and member of Congress for two terms. He died in 
Washington, March 19, 1837, aged 70 years. 

Orris Parrish, a lawyer, came from New York, practiced in the local courts and in 1816 
was elected President Judge of the Common Pleas Court of this district. In the winter 
of 1818-19 he resigned, returned to the practice of law here, represented the county in the 
General Assembly and died in 18:37. 

Ralph Osborn, a native of Waterbury, Conn., came to Franklinton in 1806. For five 
terms he was Clerk of the Ohio House of Representatives, for eighteen years Auditor of 
State and then a member of the Ohio Senate. He died in Columbus, December 30, 1835. 

Isaac and Jeremiah Miner, brothers, came from New York, the former in 1806 and the 
latter in 1808. They were farmers and stock-raisers in Madison and Franklin counties. 
They owned the farm from which Green Lawn cemetery was cut. Isaac (Judge) Miner 
died in 1831, aged 53; Jeremiah later, at an advanced age. Both are buried in Green Lawn. 

Gustavus Swan was born in Sharon, N. H., July 15, 1787, and educated for the law. 
After visiting different localities in the State, lie selected this, believing it would become 
the capital. He opened a law office in Franklinton, but in 1811 transferred it to Columbus, 
where he lived many years, rounding out with distinguished service an exceptional career. 

Joseph Foos was proprietor of the first hotel in Franklinton and joint owner of the 
first ferry over the Scioto. He was a senator and representative during twenty-five ses- 
sions including those covered by the war of 1812. In this war he rose from Captain to 
Brigadier General, and from 1825 until his death he held a commission as Major General of 
the State Militia. He was a man of original ideas, and a speaker and writer of note. 



CHAPTER IV. 

FRANKLINTON AND ITS NEIGHBORS. 

Cabins on the East Bank of the Scioto — Story of Keziah Hamlin — The Hess, Sells, O'Harra, 
Taylor and Other Families — Col. James Kilbourne and the Founding of Worthinffton 
— Blend on Township and Westerville — Franklinton at the Time of the War of 1812 — 
Headquarters of Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison — Conference with the Indians — Site 
Marked by a Boulder. 

In 1800, three years after the founding of Franklinton, there was but one house on the 
east bank of the Scioto, on the site of the present city of Columbus. It was the cabin of 
Nathaniel Hamlin and his wife. Later, John Brickell, the story of whose captivity among 
the Indians is told in a previous chapter, built his cabin on the Penitentiary site. About 
the same time, some settlers appeared on Alum creek — the Turners, Nelsons, Hamiltons, 
Aglers and Reeds. The Hamlins had come from New Jersey and established their home 
just west of what is now High street and Livingston avenue. John Brickell's cabin stood 
near the river bank north of the present Spring street. Measuring around the bend of the 
river, these homes were about a mile apart, though in that forest solitude they probably 
seemed very much nearer. To the Hamlins was born in 1804 a daughter, Keziah, to whom 
belongs two distinctions — one of being the first child born in the wildwood where Columbus 
was subsequently laid out; the other being the mother of a family that has given service, 
strength and character to the community for, when she was eighteen she married David 
Brooks, of whom and of whose descendants more will elsewhere be told. As a baby she was 
rocked in a cradle made from a maple trough, and protected from the weather by clothing 
and even by doors and windows made from the skins of wild animals. 

Of little Keziah Hamlin, a pleasant tale is told, showing the Indian nature at its best. 
From their village on the Scioto at what is now Livingston avenue the Wvandots used to go 
to the Hamlin cabin, for they were fond of the bread that Mrs. Hamlin baked. Sometimes 
they would help themselves to the loaves, leaving as they silently departed, a haunch of 
venison, or other game in payment. One day, several Indians entered the cabin, when only 
the mother and child were at home and, uttering no word, took the sleeping babe and carried 
her off. Unable successfully to resist what by all appearances was the abduction of her 
child, Mrs. Hamlin prayed for help and suffered hours of anguish. Her joy can be im- 
agined when at nightfall the Indians returned with the little girl who was wearing a beau- 
tiful pair of beaded moccasins which the makers had found it necessary to fit to her feet. 
Instead of bringing the moccasins to the child, it was the Indian way to take the child to the 
moccasins. This token of friendship was preserved in the family, but was one day acci- 
dentally destroyed. The incident itself has been enshrined in a ballad, presumably written by 
Mrs. Sigourney, the New England poet. 

Basler Hess, his wife and several children, came to this county about 1800, Mr. Hess 
building a double log cabin on his land on the west side of the Olentangy four miles north 
of Franklinton. There Basler Hess tanned leather and made boots, and he and his wife main- 
tained a hospitable home for travelers. He died in 1806, leaving a large family. About 
1804, David Beers settled in the forest, just north of the present site of the Ohio State 
University. Prior to that, while he and his sister were living with their widowed mother in 
Maryland, they were all captured by Indians. The children, who were separated, never 
saw their mother again; but, after his release by the Indians and his coming to Franklin 
county, he found his sister living happily witli the Indians at Upper Sandusky. He died in 
1850, aged 104.. 

I.udwig Sells and his sons, John, Benjamin and Peter, came in 1800 from Huntingdon 
county. Pa., and settled near the present site of Dublin. Benjamin Sells was one of the early 
county commissioners, and all, either in agriculture or otherwise, contributed largely to the 
early life, and their descendants have done no less in their day. 

James O'Harra came from Ireland to America in 1780. He came to Franklin county 
with his wife and three sons, James, Arthur and Thomas, and settled in Franklinton about 
180°. Thev built a stone house on the cast side of the river, two and a half miles north of 



22 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Franklinton. Arthur was one of the first county commissioners. Other O'Harras, relatives 
of those first mentioned, came early and settled in Hamilton township. One of them, Nancy, 
who rode horseback from Maryland to Franklinton, married Samuel Pursell in 1810. 

The settlement at Worthington was made in 1803. Its founder was James Kilbourne 
who was to that settlement what Lucas Sullivant was to Franklinton — a man of courage, 
energy and vision. It was in 1802, when he was thirty-two, that Mr. Kilbourne made his first 
appearance in Ohio. Deprived in his boyhood, by the War of the Revolution, of the com- 
forts of a prosperous farm home, he had worked on the farms in the vicinity of New Britain, 
Connecticut, where he was born, been apprenticed to a clothier, whose business he had 
learned, studied theology with young Griswold, son of one of his farmer employers and 
had taken orders in the Protestant Episcopal church. At thirty, he was established in suc- 
cessful business at Granby and occasionaly officiated at the church services. Both of these 
activities bade him stay in the East, but the lure of the West was the stronger and, acting 
on the advice of John Fitch, whose daughter Lucy he had married, he decided to establish 
a colony in Ohio. With difficulty lie enlisted the interest of a half dozen of Lis friends 
and, on their behalf, set out in the spring of 1802 to locate a suitable tract. On his return 
he reported that he had found east of the Scioto "a tract of 1000 acres at least, in one place, 
of the best clear meadow I ever saw in any place whatever, without a tree or a bush in the 
whole extent, and the old grass and weeds are burnt off every spring." He reported the 
soil superior, the tract well watered and the trees of the forest vigorous and of many 
kinds. Of the healthfulness of the country, he could not speak so favorably, for he found 
that both whites and Indians had suffered from ague and bilious fever, but he expressed the 
conviction that, with proper individual care and the advancement of agriculture, the peril 
would be escaped. 

On the strength of this report, the colony, which called itself the Scioto Company, was 
organized and contracted for the purchase of 16,000 acres from the national government at 
$1.25 an acre. That was December 14, 1802. In the following spring, Mr. Kilbourne again 
set out for Ohio, this time acoempanied by a millwright, a blacksmith, nine laborers and a fam- 
ily. Mr. Kilbourne rode a horse ; the others traveled in wagons. The little company proceeded 
by way of Pittsburg, Wheeling, and Zanesville to Franklinton. At the last named place and 
at Chillieothe, the supplies that were not brought with them from Connecticut were pur- 
chased and were taken by boat up the Olentangy (Whetstone) to the site that had been 
chosen for the town. David Bristol, Levi Pinney and Job Case were in this first party. 

One-half of the land bought by the company was in one piece, and it was upon that 
the town was to be built. By the terms of the agreement, two roads were to be opened — 
one north and south, the other east and west — the intersection of the two to be the center 
of the town; the four center lots were to be a public square, a fifth lot was reserved for 
a Protestant Episcopal church and a sixth for the public school, 160 acres being set aside 
for the support of the church, and a similar tract for the support of the school. When 
the new-comers had provided shelter for themselves, they organized St. John's parisli of the 
Protestant Episcopal church and erected a log structure which served for a time as both 
church and school, Mr. Kilbourne being the pastoral leader. 

The original town plat consisted of 160 one-acre lots which, in August, 1801, were ap- 
portioned in varying number to the following: James Allen, David Bristol, Samuel Beach, 
Alexander Morrison, Ebeneczer Street, Azariah Pinney, Abner P. Pinney, Levi Pinney, 
Ezra Griswold, Moses Andrews, John Topping, Josiah Topping, Nathan Stewart, John 
Gould, James Kilbourne, Jedidiah Norton, Russell Atwater, Ichabod Plum, Jeremiah Curtis, 
Jonas Stanberrv, Lemuel G. Humphrey, Ambrose Cox, Joel Mills, Glass Cochran, Alexander 
Morrison, jr., Thomas T. Phelps, Levi Buttles, Levi Hayes, Job Case, Roswell Wilcox, 
William Thompson, Samuel Slopcr, Nathaniel Little, Lemuel Kilbourne, Israel P. Case, 
Abner Pinney and William Vining. 

It was a task to test the courage of the colonists. In 1801, according to the diary of 
Joel Buttles, the space meant for the public square was only partially cleared and the 
tr.es that had been felled lav in the path of the pedestrian. He tells us that on the north 
side of the square, west of the main street, Nathaniel Little built the first frame store; east 
of the main street was Ezra Griswold's tavern. He continues: 

On thr east side of the square there was a large cabin built for public purposes, and 
used on the sabbath day as a church, Major Kilbourne officiating as deacon of the Episcopal 



FRANKLINTON AND ITS NEIGHBORS 23 

church. At all public meetings it was a town hall; and, whenever the young people wished 
to have a dance or ball, that being the only room large enough for that purpose, it was 
used as a ball room; and this, I know, was very often, probably once in ten days on an 
average. Of course the house was never long unoccupied or unemployed. 

On the south side of the square, the only house was that of James Kilbourne, then called 
Major or Esquire Kilbourne, now Colonel Kilbourne, who was the principal sachem of the 
tribe, being general agent of the Company settlement — the Scioto Company — so-called 
clergyman of the place, Justice of the Peace, large stockholder, or rather landholder of the 
Company, had been the longest out there and so the oldest settler, having been there over a 
year, and many other things which went conclusively to designate him as head of the clan. 
On the west side of the square I only recollect one house which was occupied by Isaac Case, 
at whose house I frequently boarded. 

The first school, maintained by subscription, was taught by Thomas T. Phelps, who 
was suceeded, the following year, by Clarissa Thompson. Ezra Griswold opened the first 
tavern in 1803. The first brick house was erected in 1804 by Mr. Kilbourne who, in the 
following year, built on the Olentangy the first gristmill. The first physician was Dr. 
Josiah Topping who in 1806 removed to Delaware, leaving the town without a physician 
till Dr. Daniel Upson came in 1810. The first marriages in the colony were of Abner P. 
Pinney to Polly Morrison and Levi Pinney to Charlotte Beach. 

Through the instrumentality of Mr. Kilbourne, Worthington became tihe seat of the 
pioneer manufacturing concern in central Ohio. It was known as the Worthington Manu- 
facturing Company, with factories at Worthington and Steubenville and stores at Worthing- 
ton and Franklinton. It was incorporated in 1811 and produced large quantities of woolen 
fabric for army and navy clothing. It prospered during the war of 1812, but failed when 
the demand for its product ceased. Another of Mr. Kilbourne's enterprises was the estab- 
lishment at Worthington of the first newspaper in the county, the Western Intelligencer. 
He himself acted as editor for a short time after its establishment in 1811, but, owing to the 
pressure of other business, he sold the plant to Joel Buttles and George Smith. The paper 
and printing office were successfully conducted by them during the war and the succeeding 
period of apprehension, and then were moved to Columbus where they are perpetuated in 
the Ohio State Journal. 

Blendon township was settled in 1806. The families of Edward Phelps, sr., and Isaac 
Griswold, accompanied by Ethan Palmer, came in that year from Windsor, Conn. They 
were two months on the road and the journey from Granville took three days. Phelps' 
family consisted of a wife and six children. Griswold was accompanied by his wife and 
two children; Salina, his sister, and Oliver Clark, brother of his wife. Other early settlers 
were: Simeon Moore, sr., and his son, Simeon Moore, jr., in 1807; John and William 
Cooper, in 1808-09; Col. George Osborne and Francis Olmsted and wife, in 1808; Samuel 
McDannald and wife from Virginia, in 1813; Samuel Puntney and Isaac Harrison, in 1813; 
John Yovel and Reuben Carpenter, in 1809; John Matoon and wife, first to Worthington 
in 1806, to Blendon in 1808; Squire Timothy Lee from Masacliusetts soon after the war 
of 1812; Gideon W. Hart and wife, in 1816; Peter, William and Mathew Westervelt from 
Duchess county, N. Y., in 1818; Joseph Clapham and wife, in 1823; Nicholas Budd and 
wife, in 1829; Edward D. Howard, in 1837; Joseph Dickey in 1838. 

The village of Westerville was laid out by Mathew Westervelt in July, 1839, and was 
incorporated in 1858. Westervelt was also instrumental in locating at Westerville the Blen- 
don Young Men's Seminary in 1838, giving twenty-five acres of land and serving as one of 
the trustees. When Ohio Wesleyan University was located at Delaware, the ground and 
buildings at Westerville were offered to the United Brethren and accepted. Thus came 
Otterbein College, founded in 18-17 and chartered in 1819. 

In 1808 Robert Taylor built the first frame house in the eastern part of the county on 
the west side of Big Walnut creek, His son David, then a lad of seven years assisting. In 
the spring of the following year the Taylors occupied it, and parts of the old house are in 
the residence which today stands on the site. Three other houses — log cabins — were built 
about the same time in the vicinity. John Edgar and family occupied one, and Benjamin 
Cornell and family, including a brother. William, occupied another. These long since dis- 
appeared. The names of the earliest settler in various parts of the countv — as accurately 
as they could be determined by a committee consisting of Henry C. Taylor, H. Warren 
Phelps, James Kilbourne, Herbert Brooks and Adam Grant — have been inscribed on a tablet 
in Memorial Hall, the names being necessarily limited to ten for eacli township. 



24 HISTORY OF -COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Out of these and other such beginnings, which can only be referred to here, came the vil- 
lages of Dublin (1818), Georgesville (1818), Lockbourne (1831), Reynoldsburg (1831), 
Harrisburg (1836), Alton (1836), New Albany (1837), Groveport (1811), Grove City 
(1852), Hilliards (1853). Other villages dot Franklin county, but they are most of them 
of more recent origin. 

Conditions in Franklinton just prior to the second war with England are described in 
the following from the pen of Judge Gustavus Swan: 

When I opened my office in Franklinton in 1811, there was neither church nor school nor 
pleasure carriage in the county, nor was there a bridge over any stream within the compass 
of an hundred miles. The roads at all seasons of the year were nearly impassable. Goods 
were imported, principally from Philadelphia, in wagons; and our exports, consisting of 
horses, cattle and hogs, carried themselves to market. The mails were brought to us once 
a week on horseback, if not prevented by high water. I feel safe in saying there was not in 
the county a chair for every two persons, nor a knife and fork for every four. The propor- 
tion of rough population was very large. With that class, to say that he would fight was to 
praise a man; and it was against him if he refused to drink. Aged persons and invalids, 
however, were respected and protected, and could avoid drinking and fighting with impunity; 
but even they could not safely interfere to interrupt a fight. There was one virtue, that of 
hospitality, which was not confined to any class. 

Franklinton was a straggling village of a few hundred people, when the war of 1812 
was not unexpectedly declared. That year was an eventful one for the town, for it at once 
marked the beginning of its greatest prosperity and the commencement of its decline. The 
war gave it a temporary importance; the laying out of Columbus as the capital of the State 
as surely meant its ultimate eclipse. Singularly, the formal declaration of war and the 
sale of lots in Columbus took place on the same day, June 18, 1812. While Governor 
Meigs, of Ohio, was organizing three volunteer regiments to take the field, Lyne Starling, 
Alexander McLaughlin, John Kerr and James Johnston were treating with the General 
Assembly, then sitting at Zanesville, for the location of Ohio's capital on their land on the 
east bank of the Scioto, opposite Franklinton. A bill accepting their proposition, after much 
discussion, was passed February 14, 1812. While these men were preparing to execute 
their part of the contract, Franklinton, Urbana and Dayton were resounding with the notes 
of war. The Third Ohio Volunteer regiment, commanded by Lewis Cass, assembled at 
Franklinton and proceeded to Urbana, where it met the First, Second and Fourth regiments. 
From Urbana the troops marched north under Hull, building block houses as they went, 
reaching Detroit August 8, where they surrendered on the 16th to the British. The news 
of this remarkable capitulation was with indignation communicated to the people of Frank- 
linton through a freeman's Chronicle extra. It was feared that the surrender would en- 
courage the Indians and lead them to attack the town, and to guard against surprise, 
scouts were sent far to the north to give warning. Settlers in outlying districts flocked to 
Franklinton and it was planned to fortify the town. 

In the emergency, Governor Meigs, of Ohio, and Governor Scott, of Kentucky, exerted 
themselves to hurry more volunteers into the Held. General William Harrison was put in 
command of the newly recruited troops and prepared to recapture Detroit. Franklinton, 
because of its location, was chosen as a rendezvous and depot of supplies, and October 25. 
Generals Harrison, Perkins and Beall came here for an important conference. "Our town," 
says the Freeman's Chronicle, October 31, 1812, "begins to assume quite a military appear- 
ance. Six or seven hundred troops are already here. Two companies of Pennsylvania 
troops arc expected in a few days, and we look daily for the arrival of 100 United States 
dragoons from Kentucky. The force to be collected at this place will he nearly 3,000. 
How long they will remain has not been ascertained." 

The same paper of November 17 notes t li ^ return of General Harrison from Delaware 
and his reception with tlic military honors due to his rank. The following day. Governor 
Meigs arrived from Marietta, was saluted by Captain Cushion's company of artillery and 
later, accompanied by General Harrison and staff, reviewed all the troops at the public 
square. To intimidate the Indians, General Harrison, on the 18th sent an expedition 600 
or 700 strong against the Miami villages near the present site of Muneie. Indiana. The 
expedition was successful and, General Harrison, from his headquarters here, issued an 
order, announcing the victory. Army supplies continued to arrive at Franklinton and to 
be forwarded to Upper Sandusky, Harrison being sometimes here and sometimes elsewhere. 



FRANKLINTON AND ITS NEIGHBORS 25 

directing the movement of reinforcements and supplies. He was in the nothern part of the 
State when Winchester's force of 850 was defeated at Frenchtown. This calamity but 
spurred Ohio and Kentucky to greater efforts. Governor Meigs called for more men, 
directing that two of the three divisions rendezvous at Franklinton, where he himself super- 
vised their preparation and departure north. Among the Ohio troops thus provided were 
two companies of dragoons recruited in Franklin county, one commanded by General Joseph 
Foos and the other by Captain Joseph Vance. 

It having been decided to make no further effort to recapture Detroit until the army 
could have the co-operation of Commodore Perry's naval force, General Harrison made a 
tour of inspection to the south. Returning June 6 ahead of the Twenty-fourth U. S. infan- 
try, he invited representatives of the hitherto friendly, but neutral, Indians to a conference. 
That conference was held June 21, 1813, on the grounds of Lucas Sullivant, and is thus 
described in the Sullivant Family Memorial: 

The Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot and Seneca tribes were represented by about 50 of 
the chiefs and warriors. General Harrison represented the government and with him were 
his staff and a brilliant array of officers in full uniform. In front were the Indians. All 
around were the inhabitants of the region, far and near, with many a mother and maid as 
interested spectators. The general began to speak in calm and measured tones * 
which seemed to fall on dull ears. At length the persuasive voice struck a responsive chord; 
and then Tarhe, or Crane, the great Wyandot chief, slowly rose to his feet and, standing for 
a moment in graceful and commmanding attitude, made a brief reply, and then, with others, 
pressed forward to grasp the hand of General Harrison, in token not only of amity, but of 
agreement to stand as a barrier on our exposed border. * * Jubilant shouts rent the 

air, women wept for joy and stalwart men thrilled with pleasure, as they now thought of the 
assured safety of their wives and children, and prepared at once with cheerful alacrity to go 
forth to the impending battles. 

The speech that secured this measure of co-operation is thus reported in the Freeman's 
Chronicle : 

The general promised to let the several tribes know when he should want their services, 
and further cautioned them that all who went with him must conform to his method of war- 
fare, not to kill or injure old men, women, children or prisoners; that by this means we 
should be able to ascertain whether the British told the truth when they said they were not 
able to prevent Indians from such acts of horrid cruelty; for, if the Indians under liiui 
(Harrison) would obey his commands and would refrain from acts of barbarism, it would 
be very evident that the hostile Indians could be easily restrained by their commanders. 
The general then informed the chiefs of the agreement made by Proctor to deliver him to 
Tecumseh, in case the British succeeded in taking Fort Meigs; and promised them that, if 
he should be successful, he would deliver Proctor into their hands, on condition that they 
would do him no other harm than to put a petticoat on him, for, said he, none but a coward 
or a squaw would kill a prisoner. 

The spot in which this conference was hsld is now marked by a boulder bearing an 
appropriate tablet. The memorial stone was erected by the Columbus Chapter of the 
Daughters of the Revolution and was dedicated June 28, 1901. Mrs. Edward Orton, jr., 
regent, presented the memorial which was accepted by Mayor Robert H. Jeffrey. General 
R. R. Cowen then delivered an historical address. 

July was a busy month in Franklinton. Alarm followed alarm, and the troops were 
increased by another call for volunteers. These were organized here and elsewhere by Gov- 
ernor Meigs and sent north. But soon they came streaming back through Franklinton. The 
regulars were preferred at the front. The response continued, however, until there came the 
glad news of Perry's victory on Fake Erie. September 10, ISP'S, of the capture of Maiden 
by Harrison's army on the 28th and of the defeat of Proctor and Tecumseh by the same 
army on the Thames river, October 5. Those events practically ended the war for Ohio, 
the remainder of the work being merely precautionary. Franklinton, however, continued to 
be a station for troops and supplies; and its armory, superintended by William C. Lyman, 
repaired muskets and supplied ammunition. The Kentucky troops were encamped here for a 
time on their way south. 



CHAPTER V. 

COLUMBUS BORN A CAPITAL. 

Various Sites Offered for State Capital — Starling et al. Win by Superior Generalship — Their 
Proposition, and Mutual Agreement — Description of the Site — First State Buildings — 
Settlement with the Proprietors — Careers of the Proprietors — The John Kerr Papers — 
First Columbus Library. 

By the Constitution of 1802 the seat of government of Ohio was temporarily fixed at 
Chillicothe until 1808, the prevailing sentiment being that, when established permanently, 
it should be near the center of the new State. The first General Assembly of Ohio, thus, 
met in the Court House at Chillicothe, as also did its successors until 1810, when by invita- 
tion, the sessions of 1810-11 and 1811-12 were held in Zanesville, which was one of the towns 
that aspired to be the capital. Other aspirants were Franklinton, Worthington, Delaware, 
Lancaster and Newark. As some of the residents of each of these places had so located, on 
the chance that the capital would come to it, there was a considerable pressure on the Gen- 
eral Assembly for settlement of the question. On February 20, 1810, the General Assembly 
provided for the appointment of a commission to inspect sites, hear arguments and report 
its recommendation. James Findlay, W. Silliman, Joseph Darlington, Resin Beall and 
William McFarland were appointed and, on the following December 11, after a consideration 
of all the sites, reported in favor of a tract of land owned by John and Peter Sells on the 
west side of the Scioto, where Dublin now stands. At the time of the submission of this 
report various additional propositions were made, one of them by Lyne Starling, John Kerr, 
Alexander McLaughlin and James Johnston, offering a tract of about 1,200 acres on the 
east bank of the Scioto opposite Franklinton. 

This proposition was very businesslike throughout. The tract had been provisionally 
platted, and a copy of the plat was submitted. The offer was that, if the General Assembly 
would permanently fix the seat of government there, the subscribers would lay out the town 
according to the accompanying plat by the following July 1 ; that they would deed to the 
State a square of ten acres for the public buildings and another lot of ten acres for a 
Penitentiary; that they would erect and complete a State House, offices, Penitentiary and 
such other buildings as the General Assembly might direct, building them of stone and 
brick, or either as might be preferred, in a workmanlike manner and of such size as the 
General Assembly might direct, the Penitentiary to be completed January 1, 1815, and the 
State House and office building, by the first Monday in December, 1817. It was further 
proposed that, when the buildings were completed, they should be appraised by workmen 
appointed mutually by the General Assembly and the subscribers; if the valuation was less 
than .$50,000, the subscribers were to make up the deficiency, but if it was more than 
$50,000, the General Assembly was to remunerate the subscribers as it might consider just. 
The subscribers also offered a bond of $100,000 for the faithful performance of their part 
of the contract. Later when it appeared that the General Assembly hesitated because of the 
permanence of the location of the capital on their tract, the proprietors submitted a supple- 
mentary proposition, asking that the capital remain in the town to be laid off by them until 
1840. 

On February 11, 1812, this amended proposition was accepted, and the controversy 
settled till May 1, 18 10, "and from thence until otherwise provided by law." But this was 
achieved only alter a heated contest with Worthington which, under the leadership of James 
Kilboume, had made an attractive offer; Delaware, which had promised much and had manv 
friends; Lancaster, Chillicothe, the Pickaway Plains, the Sells tract at Dublin and the 
Thomas Backus tract, four miles west of Franklinton. Four of the proposed sites, it will 
be seen, were in Franklin county. The proposition made by Lyne Starling and his asso- 
ciates won, in part at least, because of superior generalship. On February 21, 1812, both 
houses of the Genera] Assembly adopted a resolution giving to the site that had been selected 
for the capital the name of Columbus. In the House, the name, Ohio City, had been dis- 
approved by a vote of 22 to 19. Columbus, which is said to have been suggested by Joseph 
Foos, was adopted in the Senate without a record vote ; it was adopted in the House by a 



COLUMBUS BORN A CAPITAL 27 

vote of 24 to 10. The site selected, as determined by the U. S. Geodetic Society in 1871, 
is 39° 57' 40" north latitude and 82° 59' 37" west from Greenwich. 

In the act locating the State capital at Columbus, the General Assembly provided for 
the appointment by itself of a director who should examine the lands, supervise the laying- 
out of the town, determine the width of streets and alleys; select the two ten-acre lots for 
the State House, Penitentiary and other public buildings and perform other duties required 
of him by law. It also fixed the temporary seat of government at Chillicothe. 

On February 19, 1812, Starling, Johnston, McLaughlin and Kerr signed and acknowl- 
edged articles of association as partners, under the law for laying out the town of Columbus 
and other tilings as they had proposed. The preamble runs : 

That the Legislature of the State of Ohio has, by law, fixed and established the permanent 
seat of government for the said State, on half-sections Nos. 9, 25 and 2(i and parts of half- 
sections, Nos. 10 and 11, all in township 5, range 22, Refugee Lands, agreeable to the pro- 
posals of the parties aforesaid, made to the Legislature of said State. 

In this instrument it was stipulated that a common stock was to be created for their 
mutual benefit; that Starling was to put into said stock half-section No. 25, except ten 
acres previously sold to John Brickell; Johnston was to put in half-section No. 9 and half 
of half-section Xo. 10; and McLaughlin and Kerr (who had previously been partners and 
were jointly considered as one, or a third party to this agreement) were to put in half-section 
No. 26, on which they were to lay out the town, the proceeds of the sales of lots to remain in 
-common stock until the contract with the State should be completed. 

It was also provided that the partnership should have an agent who would make the 
sales and superintend the entire business. Each party was to pay into the hands of this 
agent $2,400 annually, on the first Monday of January for five successive years, and such 
further sums as might be necessary to complete the public buildings. Each partner was to 
warrant the title to the land by him put into the stock, and each was to receive equal benefit 
on all donations that might be obtained on subscriptions or otherwise ; and when they had 
completed their contract with the State, each was to be released from obligations on account 
thereof, a final settlement was to be made and the profits or losses to be equally divided 
among them. 

Under contract with the partners, Dr. James Hoge deeded to them for their mutual 
benefit eighty acres of land off the south end of half-section No. 11, in order to enable them 
to complete the plat to the size and form desired. Similarly, Thomas Allen, for the same 
purpose deeded to the partners twenty acres out of the south part of half-section No. 10. 
After the plat thus completed had been divided into lots, each of these grantors received 
by deed some of the lots. McLaughlin and Kerr's contribution of land was the southern 
part of the town — that part between the present State street and Livingston avenue. Star- 
ling's contribution ran east from the river between what are now State and Spring streets ; 
Johnston's contribution lay north of Spring street. 

The selection of the site for Ohio's capital must have been more for what it might 
become than for what it was at the time. Along the river bank only were there any marks 
of civilization. John Brickell lived in a cabin and cultivated a garden at the old Indian 
encampment in front of the present Penitentiary. Robert Balentine's water mill and 
White's distillery, the first of their kind in the county, stood near by. There was a cabin 
in a small clearing near the foot of Rich street, and soutli of the Indian mound from which 
Mound street was named, there was the Hamlin home. High street, thickly wooded, was 
known as Wolf Ridge, so frequently were wolves met there by the early hunters. Spring 
street was so named because of the numerous springs it bordered or approached in the 
vicinity of St. Patrick's church and the railroad yards east of the Union Station. These 
springs fed a brook known as Doe run which united at Spring street with Lizard creek 
which was created by springs and a broad morass near Broad and Fifth streets. The 
united streams crossed High street at Spring and ran through a considerable gulley to the 
Scioto. At times the gulley was filled with a rushing torrent. Crookedwood pond was 
at Broad and Twentieth street; Hoskins' pond was at Fourth and State streets, and a brook 
proceeding from that united at Fourth and Main with another which had origin near Wash- 
ington avenue and Rich street and flowed into Peters' run which, crossing High street 
further down, emptied into the Scioto. Even as late as 1833, council provided for repair- 
ing the culvert over Lizard creek at Fourth street and graveling Third street on both sides 



28 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



of it, as well as draining a pond at the east end of State street, repairing a bridge at the 
south end of High street and making a culvert at Rich and Front streets. With these woods 
and springs and morasses and runs and gulleys Columbus battled for years, but now stands 
beautiful and triumphant over them all, with a great level stretch of acreage on every side. 
Under the statute locating the capital, Joel Wright became the state director, charged 
with superintending the surveying and laying out of the town, directing the width of 
streets and alleys, selecting the square for the public buildings and the lot for the Peni- 
tentiary and its dependencies. He was also empowered to collect and disburse taxes on 
the town property until January 1, 1816. He was also to supervise the erection of the public 
buildings the proprietors had engaged to provide. He located the State House at the south- 
west corner of the square, accepted as a site for the Penitentiary a ten-acre lot on Scioto 
street at the foot of Main and Mound streets, and arranged for their construction according 
to the dimensions designated by the General Assembly and performed other duties as pre- 




State 
The Fl 



it Stall' ISiiililinns 



that the General As 



not properly supporting him, he 



scribed. Then, feeliiu 
resigned. 

On February 10, 1811, William Ludlow was appointed "director of the town of Columbus" 
and, under his supervision, most of the actual construction of the state buildings was ac- 
complished. The building of the State House was delayed by the War of 18 12. When 
completed it was a plain brick building, 50x75 frit, fronting on High street, with a square 
roof, ascending to a cupola surrounded by a balcony, witli two side-extensions north and 
south from which spectators could view the incipient city and miles beyond. The top of the 
spire was 106 feet from the ground; inside the cupola hung a bell. The roof was covered 
with walnut shingles — which would now be worth a king's ransom; but walnut fence rails 
were then more common than any other kind. 

The principal entrance was on State street. The House of Representatives was located 
<in I lie lower Moor, the Senate in the second story. These halls were "of good size and 
respectable wooden finish, with large turned columns, which were painted in imitation of 
clouded marble," — a base camouflage employed by our earliest house and scene painters, even 
down to the last generation. 

The first carpet was "made and laid" by the leading ladies of Columbus, in 1816. Gov- 
ernor Worthington honored the sewing-circle with his august presence, and bestowed on the 
dozen or more seamstresses some tine apples from his Ross county orchard. The building 



COLUMBUS BORX A CAPITAL 29 

for the executive and administrative offices wai erected in 1815; it was 50 or 60 feet north of 
the capitol, and 35 x 150 feet in size. 

The Penitentiary was a brick building of two stories and a basement, the latter being 
only half under ground. Its dimensions were 60 x 30 feet. The basement was divided into 
cellar, kitchen and dining-room for the prisoners and could be entered only from the inside 
of the yard. The first story was occupied by the keeper as a residence and was entered by 
high steps from ((he street. The second story was divided into cells (four dark and nine 
light) for the prisoners. The entrance to the upper story was from the inside of the yard. 
The prison yard was about 100 feet square, including the ground the building stood on and 
was enclosed by a stone wall from 15 to 18 feet high. In 1818 an additional brick 
building was erected and the prison yard was enlarged to a total area of 160 x 100 feet. 
This area descended by terraces to the foot of the 'hill near the canal, and was surrounded 
by a wall three feet thick and 20 feet high. Within this enclosure workshops were erected. 

On December 2, 1816, the General Assembly convened at Columbus for the first time, 
the members coming mainly on horse-back, and their horses were returned to the country for 
wintering. Several of the members boarded in Franklinton, and one or two in the country. 
On adjournment several who lived at Portsmouth and down-river points "descended the 
Scioto in skiffs," says an early Ohio State Journal. 

In January, 1817, the General Assembly provided for the appraisement of the work done 
by the land proprietors in the erection of buildings and to make settlement with them 
according to contract. An amicable settlement was made, the proprietors being paid 
$35,000 which was found to be due after deducting the $50,000 they were required to expend. 
Thus Ohio acquired a capital at a very modest cost. 

TJhe capitol square was originally cleared of its native timber by Jarvis Pike, under the 
direction of Governor Worthington in 1815 or 1816. The square was enclosed with a rough 
rail fence, and Pike farmed the ground for three or four years, raising wheat, corn, etc., till 
the fence got out of order and was finally destroyed. The square thereafter lay in commons 
till 1834, when the state, Alfred Kelley, agent, built a neat substantial fence of cedar posts 
and paling painted white. About the same time Mr. Kelley transplanted from the forest 
to the square a number of elm strees, most of which survived. 

Of the four proprietors or members of the Columbus land syndicate, less is known of 
James Johnston than of any of the others. He was here in 1812, and of the four men put 
the largest area of land into the pool. During the five years of the syndicate's existence 
he remained with it and at the final settlement in April, 1817, he received quit-claim deeds 
from the others, as they did from him, for all unsold lots originally contributed. He failed, 
owing to land speculation, in 1820, and thereupon moved to Pittsburg, where he died in the 
summer of 18-12 at an advanced age. 

Lyne Starling, who came early to Franklinton to join his brother-in-law, Lucas Sullivant, 
was a leading figure there and in Columbus till his death in 1818 at the age of 65 years. 
His name is found written through the early mercantile and civic history. He traveled in 
Europe after the founding of Columbus and, after his return, continued to serve prominently 
in the development of the city. He remained a bachelor and a half dozen years before his 
death gave $35,000 for the founding of Starling Medical College, now a part of the College 
of Medicine of the Ohio State University. 

Alexander McLaughlin, after taking rank as one of the wealthiest men in the State, 
failed in business in 1820 for the same reason as did James Johnston. He had bought 
heavily of real estate which depreciated in value and left him unable to meet his obligations. 
In his later years he supported himself by teaching a common country school. He died 
in 1832. 

John Kerr, who died in 1823, left a young family and a large fortune which was soon 
dissipated. He was a man of secretarial bent and left a mass of papers, now owned by the 
Western Reserve Historical Society, which make possible a tolerably accurate estimate of him, as 
well as of his business associate, Alexander McLaughlin. These papers ( examined for this 
narrative by W. F. Felch ) show that John Kerr was horn in County Tyrone, Ireland, of 
Scotch-Irish parentage, his father being probabJv Matthew Kerr. He came to America in 
1789, landing at Philadelphia, in September of that year. He was naturalized at Pittsburg, 
May 17, 1798, and there it was he nut and became associated in business with Alexander 
McLaughlin, a merchant. A little memorandu n hook in the collection contains an account of 



30 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

a trip down the Ohio river and up the Hocking- river in March and April, 1800. It is the 
diary of a young man prospecting for a home and blind neither to fine qualities of the young 
women nor to the beauty of the scenery. The first intimation of his association with 
McLaughlin follows the story of this trip and bears date of May 10, 1801, and there is 
Kerr's verification of a bill of goods bought in Philadelphia. It seems that McLaughlin 
who was a merchant at different times in Pittsburg and Steubenville, opened a branch store 
in Chillicothe in July, 1802, and put Kerr in charge of it. An inventory puts the value 
of the stock at about $35,000. Under date of August 29, 1801, James Ross, of Pittsburg, 
introduced McLaughlin to Governor St. Clair in these words: 

This gentleman resided many years in Pittsburg, a man of pure integrity, attention to 
business, sound understanding and honorable judgment. It is not likely that he will solicit 
any appointment, but if you have occasion for the services of such a man in any of your 
offices, I am well persuaded that you will find him every way meritorious and trustworthy. 

For many years all letters addressed to McLaughlin by Kerr were carefully copied in 
long hand in a letter-book which is a part of the collection. The last entry was made in 1806, 
about the time they began buying land as a part of their joint business. Here is a significant 
entry : 

It appears per account that the 10th of Nov. 1807, there remains in stock, debts and 
property to be applied to the land adventure the sum of $14,012.95, errors excepted. Contra 
Cr. Nov. 10, by Scioto Bank lottery, $145. By stock for our nett capital, $16,295.20. Lost, 
$373.53. Proceeds, $15,921.67. 

It thus appears that McLaughlin and Kerr had at that time some $15,000 to invest in 
land warrants. The terms of their partnership are not known, nor is it known that they 
operated together in any but the Columbus deal. The difference in their subsequent fortunes 
would indicate that Kerr was the more conservative of the two or that jhe was saved by lack 
of capital from ruinous purchases. 

John Kerr served as agent of the Columbus land syndicate from April, 1813, to June, 
1815, when he declined longer to serve and Henry Brown was appointed in his place, serving 
till the business of the syndicate was closed in April, 1817. In the turning back of lots at 
that time, John Kerr received only four. The first lot sold in the original plat of Columbus 
was the northeast corner of Broad and Front street, to James Galloway, of Greene county 
for $200. Lucas Sullivant made the next purchase for $302, buying on the north side of 
Broad, second lot west of High. Amasa Delano, of Chillicothe, with rare foresight, bought 
the northeast corner of Broad and High for $651. The Broad street lot where the Hayden- 
Clinton Bank building now stands was sold for $400. The lot on Broad street first east 
of the Chamber of Commerce building was sold for $300. These were the first five sales, 
four of them to non-residents, indicating that there was no inside ring of buyers. Of local 
buyers (probably Franklinton residents), besides Lucas Sullivant, there were, according to 
the Kerr papers: Reuben Wixom, Daniel Cozer, John Putnam, Daniel Ross, Robert McBrat- 
nev, John Smith, John Baird. Mcl'arland & I'olsom, Ebeneezer Duty, William Moore, 
Michael Fisher, Thomas McCollum, Townsend Nichols, Josephus Collett, John Shields and 
James Kilbourne. There were buyers from Chillicothe and some from even as far as Lexing- 
ton and Paris. Kentucky, and Ft. Wayne, Indiana. The sale was not rapid, often only one 
or two a day, the banner salt- being eleven in one day. In the period from June 12, 1812, 
to the following August 2, only thirty lots had been sold. The original Methodist "meeting 
house lot" was located on the west side of Fourth street, second south of Rich street, and was 
bought August 13, 1813. The original Presbyterian "meeting house lot" was at the south- 
west corner of Spring and Third streets, and was bought just one month later. The price 
of outlots, east and north, was $150. Some curious comments are found on the old record 
of lot sales. For instance. Isaac Taylor "intends to erect a brewery next year"; Townsend 
Nichols, "payable in joiner's work"; Richard Courtney, "to furnish nails"; Thomas Pye, 
"working on the Stale House"; Daniel Salsherry, "making shingles for the Penitentiary." 

John Kerr was a many-sided man. His papers indicate that he was an ardent student of 
arithmetic and music, sonic of the books being filled with mathematical problems carefully 
worked out and the musical notation of more than fifty tunes neatly written in almost copper- 
plate hand. He made good architectural drawings and was a surveyor. In other books are 
poetical effusions, love letters and political screeds. While in Chillicothe, he was president, 



COLUMBUS BORN A CAPITAL 31 

probably the organizer of the Polemic Society, which hired a room from Peter Spurck at 
$1 a night and maintained a library for whic i John Kerr bought books up to 1810 — 108 
volumes in all, costing $142.39. Whether or not that library was transferred to Columbus 
w,hen Kerr moved here is not definitely known, but it is suspected that it was. At any rate, 
on April 8, 1816, the first meeting of the Columbus Literary Society was held at the Colum- 
bus Inn. Rev. James Hoge was chairman and John Kerr was secretary. A long constitu- 
tion was adopted and stock was sold at $5 a share, and $1 dues payable in April of each 
year. One curious provision was that a subscriber should be permitted to retain a duodecimo 
volume two weeks, an octavo three weeks, a quarto four weeks and a folio six weeks. The 
following list of shareholders is interesting: 

James Hoge, 5 shares, John Kerr 4, Joseph Miller 4, Henry Brown 2, Thomas L. 
Hawkins 1, Alexander Morrison 1, Robert W. McCoy 2, ffm. Long- 1, .Tames Kooken 1, 
David Nelson 1, James Johnston 4, Robert Brotherton 1, Percival Adams 1, Joel Buttles 1, 
John M. Strain 1, Josephus Collett 1, Jacob Real) 1, Orris Parrish 2, George Anthony 1, 
Archibald Benfield 1, Francis Stewart 1, Arthur O'Harra 1, Gustavus Swan 1, William 
Reasor 1, Robert Culbertson 1, Joseph Vance 1, Abraham I. McDowell 1, David Scott 1, 
Samuel Barr 1, Samuel Parsons 1, John A. McDowell 2, John Ball 2, Michael Fisher 1, Philo 
H. Olmsted 1, Jarvis Pike 1, David S. Brodrick 1, Christian Heyl 1, William McElvain 1. 
Additional the next year: S. W. Pierce, Isaac Taylor, John E. Baker, A. Parrish, Samuel 
Shannon, Isaac Harrison and John Shields. 

This provided a fund of $280 the lirst year and an additional $35 the second year — all 
from the sale of shares. The annual dues the first year amounted to $38, for the second 
year, to $45. These funds would at best have been meager enough for the purchase of books 
and the necessary expenses. But they were even smaller because there was failure promptly 
to pay dues. The first year the dues were but $25.50, and there was a bill of $116.45 for 
books. Book purchases in 1818 amounted to $100 and in 1819, to $316.45. This seems to 
have brought a crisis, for there is a record to the effect that Dr. Hoge, to reduce the in- 
debtedness, sold books from his own library to the amount of $63.50 and that $205 was 
otherwise paid, leaving a deficit February 9, 1819, of $50.23. R. W. McCoy was librarian 
in 1817, and so heads the list of such officials in Columbus. Orris Parrish, lawyer and 
judge, was assistant. 



CHAPTER VI. 

BOROUGH LIFE UNTIL 1834. 

Depression After the War — First Merchants, Newspapers and Market house — Visit of Presi- 
dent Monroe — Litigation Over Land Titles — A Great Squirrel Hunt — Glimpses of 
Home Life — Betsy Green Deshler's Letters and Emily Merion Stewart's Chronicles — 
Epidemic of Fever — First Appearance of Cholera. 

The war of 1812 brought good times to both Franklinton and Columbus. In the camps 
west of the river there were sometimes from 2000 to 3000 men awaiting marching orders. 
The presence of these and their friends as well as those who are always attracted by 
military doings created a market for labor and produce. Both the government and indi- 
vidual purchases were large, and some of the pioneers were able to pay for their property 
out of the profits of their business. Money was plenty and prices were high. But with the 
close of the war there came a decided slump. The transient population dwindled away, money 
became scarce and barter was resumed, with prices for foodstuffs showing a drop of 60%. 
Labor went unemployed and the buyers of lots suffered untold hardships to hold them. 

The proprietors of the land, says Martin, usually made their sales of lots by title bond. 
Upon receiving a fraction of the price in cash and annual notes for the remainder — without 
interest if punctually paid, otherwise to bear interest from date — they executed a bond binding 
themselves to make a deed when the notes were paid ; and it frequently happened that, after 
one or two payments and a small improvement had been made, the whole would fall back 
to the proprietors. As they had a monopoly of the land, they were able to keep the prices 
up, and there was not much of a decline until 1820 when two of the proprietors themselves 
got into financial trouble. 

With the creation of Columbus as the capital, business began to be transferred to it from 
both Franklinton and Worthington. Lucas Sullivant and others built a mill, afterwards occu- 
pied by the Ohio Manufacturing Company; John Ransburgh in 1813 built a mill and carding 
machine, a mile below Franklinton on the Scioto, which was subsequently known as Moeller's 
mill; John Shields and Richard Courtney built a sawmill just below the site of the present 
Penitentiary, and the same Mr. Shields built a flouring mill on Peters' run in the southeastern 
portion of the town. 

Among the first general merchants were: Henry Brown & Co., Richard Courtney & Co., 
J. and R. W. McCoy, Samuel Culbertson, Robert Russell, Samuel Barr, Jeremiah Armstrong. 
L. Goodale & Co., J. Buttles & Co., Starling & De Lashmutt. I). F. Heaton, tailor, appeared 
in 1811; also Eli C. King, tanner; John McCoy, brewer; Joseph Grate and Nathaniel W. 
Smith, silversmiths, the latter making a specialty of grandfather clocks which Stephen 
Berrvhill, a school teacher, set up. 

The first market house was erected in tli • middle of High street a little south of Rich 
street, in 1811. It was paid for by the contributions of property-owners in the vicinity. 
The market remained there until 1817 when, by an agreement with the Council, John Shields 
erected a two-story structure on West State street, the first story for the market being of 
brick and the second story with rooms which Shields rented for various purposes, being of 
frame. Religious meetings were sometimes held there, but when Shields sold his interest to 
John Young, amusement and gaming rooms were located over the market, and the first 
billiard table was there installed. In 1830, the city bought Young's interest and erected on 
the site a larger market house which was used till 1850, when the Fourth street market 
house was opened for use. 

In 1811 Tile Western Intelligencer was moved from Worthington to Columbus and has 
since been continuously maintained under various names, now the Ohio State Journal. A 
census by James Marshal in 1815 showed a population of 700. In 181(>, David Smith es- 
tablished the Monitor, newspaper. In 1817 Samuel Cunning came from Pennsylvania and 
erected a tannery. In I, SI it Moses Jewett, Caleb Houston and John F. Baker built and 
operated a sawmill on the Scioto just above Rich street. In 182] Jewett and Hines began 
the manufacture of cotton yarn by horse power in a frame building on Front street between 
Rich and Friend; and in 1822, Ebeneezer Thomas and others began the carding, weaving and 



BOROUGH LIFE UNTIL 1834 33 

spinning of wool by horse power, a business which in 1834 was moved by George Jeffries to 
the canal dam where water power was for a time used. These early manufacturing enter- 
prises were not very profitable and were not long continued. 

In those early years the Fourth of July was religiously celebrated, first in Franklinton 
and later at Stewart's Grove (now Washington park), capitol square, or elsewhere in 
Columbus. In 1822, the orator was Rev. James Hoge, who expressed strong anti-slaver} 7 
sentiments. In the same year at Gardiner's tavern, was the first celebration of Jackson's 
day (January 8, the battle of New Orleans), the speakers being Henry Clay, Thomas Corwin 
and others. There is no record of another observance of Jackson's day till 1835. On the 
occasion of the celebration of the Fourth, the spectacular feature was the marching of the 
Franklin Dragoons, the history of which dates back to 1812. The first captain was Joseph 
Vance, then in order, A. I. McDowell, Robert Brotherton, P. H. Olmsted, Joseph McElvain 
and David Taylor. In 1821, the Columbus Artillery appeared, Captain E. C. King, later 
Captain N. E. Harrington. 

In 1817, Columbus had its first visit by a President of the United States. The visitor 
was James Monroe who, with his party, all horseback, was returning from inspecting the forti- 
fications in the Northwest. The Presidential party stopped first at Worthington, where 
Colonel James Kilbourne made the welcoming speech. The Franklin Dragoons, Captain 
Vance, escorted them from Worthington to Columbus, and there was a formal reception, with 
speaking, for them in the State House, the committee of citizens consisting of Lucas Sulli- 
vant, Abncr Lord, Thomas Backus, Joseph Foos, A. I. McDowell, Gustavus Swan, Ralph 
Osborn, Christian Heyl, Robert W. McCoy, Joel Buttles, Hiram M. Curry, John Kerr, Henry 
Brown and William Doherty. Hiram M. Curry, treasurer of state, made the speech of wel- 
come and the President responded as a President should to the honest efforts of the best 
citizens of an infant city. 

But neither the compliments of a President nor the struggles of the pioneers could stay 
the hand of misfortune. Alexander McLaughlin and James Johnston, two of the four 
founders of the city, failed and the depression was such that much of the real estate of 
the town was thrown on the market, some through sheriff's sale. Lots that had commanded 
$1,000 were sold for $300, while others that had been held at $200 and $300 were sold for 
as little as $10. A scourge of malaria and fever fell on the town; most of the inhabitants 
were sick and many died. And as if that were not enough, the titles to the land that had 
been sold by Starling, Kerr and McLaughlin were assailed in the courts. Starling's half- 
section had originally been granted to one Allen, a refugee from the British provinces 
during the Revolutionary war. Allen had sold it to his son, the son had mortgaged it and 
allowed it to go to sheriff's sale at which Starling bought it. Each step in the proceedings 
was questioned. The suits were brought in 1822-23, and it was not till 182(3 that Starling's 
title was affirmed. Kerr and McLaughlin's half section had belonged to one Strawbridge and 
had been duly bought and paid for. Their title was attacked because the deed showed that 
Kerr and McLaughlin had bought the property from an agent acting for Strawbridge and 
not from Strawbridge through an agent. That dispute, begun in 182fi, was ended in the 
following year in favor of Kerr and McLaughlin. 

The end of this litigation was an occasion of great rejoicing in Columbus. Mr. Star- 
ling, his lawyers and friends celebrated the victory at the National Hotel, the predecessor 
of the Neil House, and were in such a state at last that they were all put to bed in one room. 
But they were not allowed to rest. The whole town was happy and when later in the night 
a crowd gathered to serenade the sleeping victors, the latter were obliged to hurry into their 
outer clothing and appear. In the darkness and the confusion, John Bailhache, who was a 
very small man, and Lyne Starling, who was a very large man, exchanged clothing and 
were found sweating and swearing and in a thoroughly ludicrous plight by the advance 
guard of the screnaders. It was a night that none of the celebrants ever forgot. 

In 1820 the improved area terminated on the east at Fourth street, and stumps were still 
standing in High street. There were three dwellings on the west side of High street between 
Broad street and the Spring street gulley On the cast side going north there was nothing 
until Wilson's tanyard on the present site of the Dispatch building was reached ; then only a 
vacant cabin at Spring and Higli streets. On High street opposite the capitol square, going 
south, were the residences of George Nashee and Gustavus Swan; three groggeries known as 
the "Three Sisters," the National Hotel (predecessor of the Neil House), Tom Johnson's 



34 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

bookstore, McCullough's tailor shop, Marsh's bakery and R. W. McCoy's dry goods store. 
Most of the business district was south of State street. 

The buffalo had been driven from the forests of Franklin county before the advent of 
the pioneers, but there is abundant evidence that the deer was still here. These animals, 
whose flesh was used for food and whose hides were made into clothing, were frequently 
shot in the forest, as well as in the river. It was their habit to come to the river in the 
night and feed on the grass that grew in the water. Hunters would float down the stream 
in canoes, blind the animals with their torches and then shoot them. Panthers and wildcats 
and wolves were here — the last named in such numbers that the General Assembly in 1809 
placed a bounty on wolf scalps, continuing it till 1852. 

Squirrels were so numerous as to be a great menace to crops, especially corn. In 1807, 
it was made the duty of every taxpayer to kill them. At the time of paying taxes, he was 
required to produce a certain number of squirrel scalps (the number to be determined by the 
township trustees), and for every scalp over the quota he received three cents, while for 
every one under it he was fined two cents. In the fall they seemed to migrate by the river, 
and men waded into the stream and killed them by the dozen. In April, 1822, 9000 
squirrels were killed in Franklin county, 5000 in the immediate vicinity of Columbus. In 
August of that year, a great squirrel hunt was organized in all the townships of the county, 
the call to a hunting caucus being issued by Lucas Sullivant, Samuel G. Flenniken, John A. 
McDowell, Ralph Osborn, Gustavus Swan and Christian Heyl. At the caucus, the county 
was divided into two districts, with a field marshal for each. A match was arranged, the 
prize being a barrel of whisky. At the round up 19,660 squirrel scalps were counted, and 
some hunters did not make returns. The winning team beat the other by 5000 or 6000 
scalps, and no doubt consumed the whisky. 

Some glimpses of the home life of the period are offered in the writings of Mrs. Emily 
Stewart, the youngest daughter of Wm. Merion, sr. Her father in 1818 built a brick house 
on the west side of High street, south of Moler street, which was still standing in 1918, neg- 
lected but occupied by transients glad of the shelter. The house faces south, and it is 
without adjustment to the present streets. Describing the mother of this pioneer home, she 
writes : 

Every garment worn by the family was made from the raw material. The flax had to be 
spun, woven, bleached and made into garments. The table linen, toweling, bedding, and even 
the sewing thread were hand-made. The wool of a hundred sheep was brought in at shear- 
ing time. Mrs. Merion had it washed, picked, carded, spun, scoured, dyed, woven and made 
into flannel, jeans, linsey, blankets, coverlets and stocking yarn. The men's clothing was all 
home-made; even their suspenders were knitted. The floors were covered with beautiful 
carpets, not rag, but all wool of her own dyeing. The milk of 15 to 20 cows was brought 
in twice a day, to be turned into butter and cheese. 

The brick oven, which held four pans of bread and 12 pies, was heated every day in sum- 
mer and twice a week in winter. Fruit in its season was pared and dried in the sun. Canning 
was unknown. Tomatoes, of which a few plants were placed in the flower beds, were purely 
ornamental and were called Jerusalem apples. Soda was not to be had (at the stores). Mrs. 
Merion made it by leaching hickory ashes, boiling lye into potash and baking it until it 
dried and whitened. With this and buttermilk she made delicious biscuit, batter cakes and 
corn bread. 

The pioneer's wife had no time to improve her mind. All her time was spent in work. 
The long winter evenings were occupied with sewing, knitting or spinning on the little wheel. 

The old house, the scene of this activity, was the product of the skill of several pioneers 
who were prominent for one reason or another. The bricklayer was Mr. Loughery, whose 
daughter, afterwards Mrs. Win. M. Awl, was famous in the early charities. David W. 
Deshler, head of the house of Deshler, did the carpenter work. James Uncles did the plas- 
tering. Rev. George Jeffries, founder of the Baptist church here, preacher, teacher and 
school director, did the painting and glazing and made the case for the grandfather's clock 
that was used in the house. 

A good wife and mother of the time who, in letters to relatives in Pennsylvania, added 
to tin- picture, was Mrs. Betsy Green Deshler, wife of David W. Deshler, pioneer carpenter. 
In 1817, Mr. and Mrs. Deshler came from Easton, Pa., to Columbus and bought a lot on the 
north side of Broad street just west of High street, a part of the tract on which the Deshler 
Hotel now stands. The price was $1000. They paid $200 cash and gave a gold watch 
worth $200, and were to pay $100 in 1819 and $200 in 1820. '['here they built a two-room. 



BOROUGH LIFE UNTIL 1834 -1-*^ * 8^>U 



one-story frame, one of the rooms being used for a time as a workshop. "Everything is 
cheap/' she wrote October 2, 1817, "and plenty except salt and coffee and a few other 
grocery articles" brought from long distances. The peaches are the finest she ever saw 
some of them nine inches in circumference. They have kind neighbors and are invited to 
help themselves from the gardens. In January, IS 18, she wrote that the Methodist meeting 
house was the only one in Columbus and the Presbyterians, rather than so the mile to the 
Franklinton church, are having service in the State House. In March, 1818 she wrote 
that a neighbor, Auditor of State Osborn, cut up their pork and showed them how to salt 
it, afterwards smoking it for them in his smokehouse. In August, 1818, she wrote that she 
had been very sick and that her husband had obtained work at the State House bv which 
he hoped to make enough money to make the payment on their lot. She adds that the 
Presbyterian meeting house has been built and the pews sold to pay the cost. Thev have 
bought one for 37-J cents. In February, 1820, she wrote that her husband had worked 
every day for five months, but had not received a dollar in money; everything was trade 
In September, 1820, the work had disappeared and many families had moved awav. On 
Christmas day, 1820, she wrote that Mr. Deshler had got his first job for ten months a 
contract to make shelves for the State Library. February 11, 1821, she wrote that Colum- 
bus had been lively during the winter, owing to the session of the legislature and the courts. 
She had seen Henry Clay, a visitor in the town, and found him genteel, but verv plain in 
his dress, his coat having buttons as big as a dollar. The letters she wrote in 18' > l- >:>0 
were, indeed, doleful. They had lost their first-born and both she and Mr. Deshler had 
been sick, as had most of their neighbors, all suffering from the epidemic fever The 
thoughts of the people were on sickness, taking care of the sick, and hard times. There 
was no business, and there were many funerals. "Our burying ground," she wrote Sep- 
tember 29, 1822, "has averaged ten new graves a week, for a number of weeks past. She 
called the ailment bilious fever, reported that even the most robust did not feel safe and 
some of the stricken had died in three or four days. For work one could o-et all kinds of 
produce, but very little money. In eighteen months Mr. Deshler had not received $20 
in cash. The stagnation in business continued through 1823-21, and to the original sickness 
was added what Mrs. Deshler called influenza. In March, 1826, she reported that the epi- 
demic had abated and in the following November, that the town was quite healthv and 
lively, with provisions plenty and cheap. In the following year, when her son, William G. 
Deshler, was but ten weeks old, she died, aged 30 years. 

In 1821 the county seat was moved from Franklinton to Columbus, the courts beino- 
installed in the United States court house that had been erected on the capitol square across 
from the Xeil House in 1820, the county offices occupying a building that was erected a 
few years later just east of the court house building. Both of these structures were on 
state property, the county paying for the office building, and the court house havino- been 
erected with money donated by citizens, to which was added a small state appropriation. 

In 1830, the Mechanics' Beneficial Society, which had just been organized for mutual 
relief in case of sickness and for general improvement in literature and science o-ave a 
public dinner to Henry Clay, who was here occasionally in the earlier days aro-uino- cases 
in the United States courts. There was a parade, July 22, followed by a dinner, with a 
political speech by Clay. In that year, too, the wharf lots were laid out bv order of the 
city council, with the thought that they should always remain city property. 

The presence in the early city of the members of the General Assembly, the judges and 
the lawyers who came to plead cases added much to the social life of the capital. The gov- 
ernor lodged at inns, sometimes witli his family and sometimes without, and the dinners 
given by or for him were events of great importance. In the General Assembly there were then 
as always some men of loose living, and the papers and correspondence of the time chronicle 
protests against the influence of their "ambling and hilarious doings on the morals of the 
town. 

In the summer of 1833, cholera first made its appearance, being accompanied bv febrile 
maladies not easily distinguished in the first stages from cholera itself. The scourge con- 
tinued from July to October, a third of the 3,000 population fleeing to the country to escape 
it. The deaths in that period numbered 200, one-half of which were attributed to cholera. 
Discouragements were numerous, but the prospect was not all black. 

A traveler who approached the city from the east in the spring of 1831 wrote in a 



m HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

letter: "When the day dawned and the sun rose from beneath the eastern forest, it dis- 
elosed the fairest sight I have beheld this side of the Alleghenies. Columbus is generally 
acknowledged to be the most beautifully situated town in the State. To the eye which 
delights in the prospect of natural scenery, either desire of hill and dale, forest and river, 
it presents attractions of no ordinary kind. The location is so elevated, on the ascending 
bank of the Scioto, as to command a complete view of the western horizon, which extends 
quite to a semi-circle, and is level as the horizon of the ocean. The sunsets are glorious 
beyond description, and almost every evening the west presents a scene which, while it 
invites the skill, would, I fear, baffle the cunning of the most glowing pencil." 

In 183 i, the population was between 3,000 and 4,000, wrote Mrs. H. M. Hubbard in 
1885. Capitol square was enclosed the same year. That part of the city lying between 
Broad and Rich streets, east of Fourth, was a common in which was a large pond called 
"Hodgkins' pond," extending from State southeast to Main street. From that point to the 
river flowed a small stream called "Peters' run," which long since disappeared. Where 
Spring street now is was another stream which was crossed at High street, horses wading 
and pedestrians walking on a rude bridge of two logs, from which small boys were accus- 
tomed to fish. Drinking water was supplied by living springs in the eastern part of the city. 

In 1835, Columbus numbered 18 so-called dry goods stores, where could be found with 
dry goods, goods not dry — whiskey, rum and other strong drinks. Also groceries, hats, caps, 
stoves, shoes, in fact, everything for the comfort and use of inner man and woman. Colum- 
bus had two weekly newspapers, no dailies, four steam manufactories. For illuminating pur- 
poses tallow dips were used, and the streets were unlighted. 



CHAPTER VII. 

CITY LIFE FROM 1834 TO 1860. 

Business and Professional Men — Michigan Boundary Dispute — Business Depression — Dr. 
Lapham's Reminiscences — Orris Parrish Family History — Effort to Remove the Capi- 
tal — Whig Convention of 18^0 — War with Mexico — California Exodus in 18Jf9 — Re- 
appearance of the Cholera — Visit of Louis Kossuth — First Republican Convention — 
Know-Nothingism — State Treasury Defalcation — I'isits by Lincoln and Douglas. 

Columbus was incorporated as a city in 1831. It then had a population of about 3,500, 
with 10 lawyers, 11 physicians, eight clergymen, 36 mercantile establishments and nine 
taverns. The lawyers were Gustavus Swan, Orris Parrish, Noah H. Swayne, P. B. Wilcox, 
Lyne Starling, M. J. Gilbert, Mease Smith, John G. Miller, Samuel C. Andrews and John 
D. Munford. 

The physicians were Samuel Parsons, John M. Edmiston, M. B. Wright, Peter Jackson, 
Peleg Sisson, Robert Thompson, Wm. M. Awl, N. M. Miller, S. Z. Seltzer, J. S. Landes and 
P. H. Eberly. The clergymen were James Hoge, Presbyterian; Wm. Preston, Episcopalian; 
Thomas Asbury, Jesse F. Wiscom, L. B. Gurley and Russell Bigelow, Methodist; George 
Jeffries and Edward Davis, Baptist. 

The taverns were: National Hotel, John Noble; Franklin House, (High and Town), 
J. Robinson & Son; Globe Hotel, Robert Russell; Lion Hotel, Jeremiah Armstrong; Swan 
Hotel, Christian Heyl; White Horse, afterwards Eagle Hotel, David Brooks; Union Tavern, 
Amos Meneely; Farmers and Mechanics' Tavern, T. Cadwallader, and a boarding house by 
Ira Grover. 

Among the store-keepers were: I.. Goodale & Co., Buttles & Matthews, J. & S. Stone, 
A. P. Stone, D. W. Deshler, McCov & Work. John, Reuben and David Brooks, Tunis Peters 
& Son, Brotherton and Kooken, Olmsted & St. Clair, Robert Russell & Co., W. A. Gill & Co., 
Wm. A. Piatt, I. X. Whiting and John Young. 

In 1835 came the excitement incident to the Michigan boundary dispute, involving the 
ownership of a strip of land from Lake Erie to the western boundary and including the 
city of Toledo. In February the legislatures of both states laid claims to the tract, and 
Acting Governor S. T. Mason, of Michigan, sent militia to the spot. Governor Lucas, of 
Ohio, sent a commission to locate the boundary and later dispatched about 500 militiamen to 
give the commission protection. In spite of this precaution, nine members of the Ohio sur- 
veying party were seized by the Michigan troops and held. Under this provocation, the 
Ohio General Assembly was called in special session and made preparations for war. The 
Adjutant General reported 10,000 men ready for service and the General Assembly appro- 
priated $300,000 for immediate use and authorized a loan of $300,000 more. At that point 
President Jackson put a restraining hand on the Michigan authorities. Mason was removed 
from office, and Congress sustained Ohio's claim, giving to Michigan in lieu of the tract, 
the northern peninsula. Tims the controversy ended without bloodshed. 

In 1836 Alfred Kelley built his handsome colonial, stone front house on Broad street, 
just east of Fifth street. The site was then so far out and was so cut off from the rest of 
the city by morass that it was called "Kelley 's Folly.'' But Mr. Kelley knew well what 
he was doing. He mastered the springs, reclaimed the morass and made beautiful the tract 
on which the old house still stands, with Memorial Hall and the Elks Club House between 
it and Fifth street. 

On November 5, 1836, General William Henry Harrison was a guest of the city. He 
was dined at Russell's Hotel and welcomed in a speech by Alfred Kelley. In his response. 
General Harrison referred to his coming to Ohio 10 years before and to his military experi- 
ences in and around Columbus. 

From this time on for several years the city suffered from the general business depres- 
sion, and everybody went into politics to "save the country" and so escape from bis own 
particular ills. Both the Democratic and Whis parties held exciting conventions in Colum- 
bus in 1838, and there was much partisan bitterness. 

Dr. I. A. Lapham, who was secretary of the Ohio Board of Canal Commissioners from 



38 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

1832 to 1836, during his residence in Columbus, kept a diary, from which it is learned that 
his salary was $400 a year, but was not required to give all his time to the work of the 
office. He boarded at first at Noble's National Hotel but, after a few weeks, at the home 
of Mr. Medberry, Penitentiary engineer, at $1.75 a week, which, he notes, is $39 a year less 
than he paid at Portsmouth. In June, Lapham "made an engagement with Henry Brown, 
Treasurer of State, to sleep in his office and guard the public funds." "I am now writing," 
he said in a letter to his brother in June, 1833, "in a little office, whose door, and window 
shutters are faced with thick sheet iron. I have locked, barred and bolted the whole and 
therefore think myself secure. At the head of my bed is a loaded pistol, ready for use in 
case of necessity. The Treasurer's office is in the same building with the Canal Commis- 
sioners' office. The addition to my salary is $100, per annum." 

The cholera broke out while Lapham was here. On July 14, he records a death in the 
town; on the 23rd, two deaths at his boarding house, both victims being well at breakfast 
time and dead at the time for the evening meal. "There have been three or four deaths a 
day," he writes, "and cases unnumbered since that day." On September 8, he wrote: 
"Columbus is not yet free from cholera, but it is not as bad as it was," and there are hopes 
that the heavy rains will wash it away. 

"It is a busy time with me now." he wrote January 19, 1834. "Recording the proceed- 
ings of the board, copying their reports, assisting in settling with county treasurers who bring 
their collections to the state treasury, each year in January, are my principal duties." He 
also speaks of having become a member of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio 
and having been appointed to an office with the duties of custodian, for he says that members 
of the society are to send to him their collections which are for the present to the arranged 
in the office where he works. In a letter to his brother, January 30, 1835, Mr. Lapham 
speaks of a large case of drawers and shelves closed by glass doors and inscribed "Cabinet 
of the Historical and Philosophical Society' of Ohio," containing petrified "ram's horns," 
"calves' horns" and "honey comb" and many other curious stones, mussel shells, snail shells, 
minerals, ores, boulders, bugs, butterflies, dried plants, etc. There is a glimpse of the 
politics of the time in the following extract: 

I wish you would exert your imagination a little, and see me in the Canal Commissioners' 
office, sitting at a small desk appropriated to the use of the secretary of the hoard. Imagine 
further that you see at my right hand Mr. Kilbourne, standing at a high desk and writing 
a long report relating to the books, accounts and vouchers of the Auditor and the Treasurer 
of State for the last three years. Observe the dark frown on his brow, and you will be 
able to anticipate something of the nature of his composition; perhaps it relates to some 
wolf-scalp vouchers that are missing, or perhaps to the $10,000 of 3 per cent, money drawn 
from the United States Treasury without authority and paid into the State Treasury when 
it suited the convenience of the one who drew it; or perhaps it may relate to the $504 paid to 
a certain printer for work which could have been done by others for half that sum * 
Imagine further that Mr. R. is writing a chapter on the effect of the July rains and floods on 
the canal, for the annual report, and Judge Tappan studying some abstract question of law 
or politics, or possibly reading the Globe. If he opens his mouth, it will be to wish, perhaps, 
that Judge McLene would resign his present office and become a candidate for the Presidency 
of the United States, and promise to vote for him, provided he would do so. 

In a letter, dated July 7, 1835, Mr. Lapham wrote to his brother that he had been 
appointed by the Council of Columbus, which had just been incorporated as a city, as City 
Surveyor, and that he has to superintend the laying of about a mile of wooden conduit 
and the construction of five fire cisterns, 6,000 gallons each. He asks his brother to note 
how they put the logs together in Cincinnati, as he thinks the manner of running one log 
into another is objectionable. 

Mr. Lapham moved to Milwaukee in 1836. His study of storms and warnings of 
their approach was one of the things that led to the establishment of the United States 
Weather Bureau. The United States Geographic Board in 1916 named Lapham peak in 
Waukesha county, Wisconsin, for him. 

The following interesting excerpt from the unpublished family record of Mrs. Marcia 
Parrish Rhodes, offers a glimpse of life in Columbus from 1830 to 1845: 

Orris Parrish and Amelia Butler, my father and mother, were married in Circleville, 
March 5, 1816. Their bridal trip was made on horseback to Columbus, where they at once 
established their home. My father was a young lawyer, full of energy and overflowing with 



CITY LIFE FROM 1834- TO 1860 39 

courage and confidence. My mother was then 2-1, and my father but two years older. Their 
first home was on Broad street, the second west of High. The house between was the home 
of David W. Deshler, and his bank was on the corner afterwards, for many years. My 
father must have realized some of his early anticipations, for he could have been married 
only a few years when we removed to a new house, with ample grounds, I being carried 
across the State House square in a cradle on the broad shoulders of Josey Kag, the man of 
all work. 

The grounds of this new home lay between State and Broad, and Fourth and the alley 
back of Third street. On the last named were the handsome homes of Jeremiah McLene, 
P. iB. Wilcox, John W. Andrews and Demas Adams. These names bring up a multitude of 
memories connected with the old friends of my father and mother — dear Mrs. Wilcox, with 
her lovely face and winning manners; Mrs. Preston, just as charming; Mrs. Hannah Neil, 
devoted to all good works; Mrs. Alfred Kelley, whose home seemed then out in the country; 
Gustavus and Joseph Swan; Dr. Goodale, who made every one happy with the large means 
accumulated by his business ability; Mrs. Broderick and Mrs. Stirling, nieces of Dr. Goodale 
and women of such strong character and such traits essential to the life of pioneer women 
that they filled a unique place in the society of Columbus. Auntie Broderick, as we called 
her, had a heart big enough to include every one. In sickness she was the first in good offices, 
for we had no nurses then. On joyous occasions she was necessary to assist in the decoration 
and in making everything a success. Her home, plain and simple though it was, was head- 
quarters for the young people — warm, bright and cheerful. Passing through many sorrows. 
she kept her cheerfulness and faith in people to the last. Mrs Stirling, at the head of Dr. 
Goodale's establishment, had scope for her executive and housewifely accomplishments. 
Hospitable as he was, her social duties might seem absorbing. But a strong churchwoman, 
she never forgot her duties as such. An exquisite needle-worker, her embroideries and all 
things necessary to beautify her home were remarkable. Her recipes were much sought for. 

The Court and State Houses were of brick, a brilliant ugly red, and the cupolas and 
woodwork a dazzling white. In the latter was the State Library, and it speaks well for 
the people of Ohio that at that early day there was an intelligent interest in it. The librarian 
for many years was Mr. Mills, a dear friend of our family, from whose wife, Marcia Mills, 
I received my name. 

The grounds around our new home were large, filled with beautiful forest and fruit trees, 
One in particular, called the "Old Elm," was a grand tree, from which hung a fine swing, 
safely guarded, in which it was our ambition to touch with our feet the immense branches 
above. This was a grand rendezvous for George, Sarah and Jennie Swan, Maria Wilcox, 
Sarah and Jim Doherty, Ann and Irwin McDowell (afterwards General), Mary Noble, 
Ann Eliza and Lizzie Neil and Lauretta Broderick, all friends of my elder sisters, Mary 
and Martha. There were eight children of us and we lived a busy and delightful life. 
We were sufficiently cared for, but had great liberty, under certain restrictions. We did 
not rule the house, as is too much the case today, but we had plenty of company and 
were not a great deal from home. School, Sunday school and church, had their important 
place and due influence. Our father was a Circuit Judge and often from home, but he 
had every confidence in the judgment and ability of our mother and was often heard to 
say that "she could carry out any plan she had resolved upon." 

In my earliest years there was no Episcopal church building and but a small congre- 
gation. Our services were held, when possible, in the old Dutch church on Third street 
between Town and Rich streets. There were immense hay-scales next to it, a mystery 
to me for many years. Then I remember going to new Trinity, on Broad street near High. 
It was a handsome church for th,ose days, and the first rector was James Preston, a man 
deservedly loved and esteemed. We crossed the Public Square diagonally to reach the 
Sunday school, and for many years the great stones, cut and ready for the new State 
House, lay unused, offering temptations, every Sunday, too great to lie resisted, for us to 
climb and jump over, much to the horror of the older members of the family. The dear 
old chants and hymns, the pealing of the organ and the true congregational singing are 
all dear to my memory. 

Mr. Noble kept the National Hotel, opposite the State House, where the Neil House 
now stands. The Robinsons had charge of the hotel, corner of State and High, called, I 
think, the American. The influx of strangers, Columbus being the capital, and the presence 
of members of the Legislature made such demands on these hotels that many families 
received friends, remaining in the city for the winter, as guests. There was a marked 
difference between the society of Chillicothe and that of Columbus — the former conserva- 
tive and with few strangers and life, for a pioneer town, on a sure foundation; Columbus 
just the reverse. To the latter, as capital, many came, connected with the government. 
All political life and influence had there sts headquarters. Strangers and adventurers 
were drawn to it. Persons of note were sure to come and be publicly welcomed. When the 
Ohio and Erie canal was finished and the joy of the West over a new way of communicating 
with the East fonud public expression, Governor DeWitt Clinton visited Columbus and was 
the guest of my father. 

The markets were excellently supplied, and all food was very cheap. I remember a 
quarter of venison selling for 25 cents; eggs, three and four cents a dozen; butter, six and 
eight cents a pound. I can see my father now with his market basket and George Scott fol- 
lowing with two more, all filled to overflowing for our large family which sometimes numbered 



40 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

twenty. Relatives and friends came, as they did in early English life, to make a visit, 
remaining months and even years. There were many needs not supplied and my mother 
was a busy woman. Candles were all made in the home, moulded or dipped, and were the 
only means of lighting large rooms, except occasionally an Argand or sperm oil lamp. 
Beef was put up, spiced or corned; hams smoked or cured according to Epicurean recipes, 
and the preparation of sausages, tenderloin and sidemeat offered opportunity for the 
housekeeper to show her skill. I remember the old-fashioned methods of the kitchen — 
the immense fireplace with cranes and pothooks; the skillets with iron covers, on which 
coals were heaped; the reflector in which the direct heat of the fire browned the biscuit 
and cornbread to a turn; the roaster or spit, where turkeys, ducks and geese were roasted 
before the fire, basted and turned by the spit until ready for an appreciative table. At a 
respectful distance we watched the heating of the great brick oven, near the fireplace. After 
the light, dry wood had burned down, the coals were raked out, and pumpkin, mince and 
apple pies and an array of cakes were put in on an immense wooden shovel, and the door 
closed. It must have required great skill to know just when the oven was at the right 
temperature, but cooks were cooks in those days. We children did not dare to invade the 
kitchen on such occasions as this whjen the baking for several days was done; but there 
were other delightful times, when we could roast eggs, with a straw put into each to prevent 
an explosion, and roast apples in the hot ashes till the golden juice bubbled out. Corn, 
Stripped of its husks, was leaned against the huge andirons and turned until ready for our 
feasts. And what feasts we had out under the immense cherry or apple trees. My mother's 
maids were always from Radnor — nice, self-respecting, intelligent Welsh girls. They soon 
married, but there were always sisters of cousins to take their places at once. We often 
afterwards met these girls in much more elevated positions, and they proved themselves 
equal to their new social duties. The servant girl problem had not yet appeared. 

My father, as I have said, was a Circuit Judge, his circuit reaching to Sandusky, then 
called Portland, on the lake; and several times I was his companion. Squeezed into a little 
sulky, well named and only intended for one, with my belongings in a little leather trunk 
under the seat, I bad much converse with him, and was dependent upon myself at an age 
when the children of today are hardly out of the nursery. My father knew every one, and 
I was always kindly eared for. He was held in high esteem as a lawyer; he was brilliant, 
forceful and eloquent, but bitter and sarcastic when aroused. He had a fine library and took 
much pains that his children should lie well read. He died at 48, after several years of semi- 
invalidisiu, and six weeks later, when just ready to be admitted to the bar, my oldest 
brother, Grosvenor, died at the age of 20. Then, for economical reasons, my mother sold 
the home and, with her five children moved to Delaware. 

In KS.SJS, the General Assembly passed an act providing for a new State House and 
then, in the partisan passion of the time, seemed to regret its action. Many tales were 
circulated to the disadvantage of Columbus. A bit of the rank partisanship of the time was the 
accusation that Samuel Medary, then state printer, had been appropriating to his own use 
the outside quires of every package of state paper. An investigating committee reported 
that lie bad done nothing unjustified, as the paper he had taken was unfit for public use. In 
retaliation Medary charged Wm. B. Lloyd, of Cuyahoga, who belonged to the Whig party, 
witli surreptitiously altering certain accounts. On investigation, this charge was sustained, 
and an effort was made to unseat him. Then many prominent Columbus citizens, friends of 
Lloyd, signed a paper declaring their belief in bis innocence. This angered the Democrats, 
and a bill was at once introduced repealing the act for a new State House. That was in 
18 10, eight months after the cornerstone for the new State House bad been laid. The 
repealing bill passed both houses in the spring of IS 10. and a resolution was offered request- 
ing tile Governor to invite propositions for the permanent location of the capita] elsewhere. 
The House adopted it at once, but the Senate referred it to a committee which reported it 
back with a majority report against and a minority report for it. The majority report 
held that remove the capital would be to break faitli with Columbus. That was not as good 
an argument as it seemed to be, for the capital had been located at Columbus, witli the express 
stipulation, accepted by the proprietors of the land, that it could be removed after 1840. 
Hut that stipulation was ignored by both the friends and foes of Columbus, having been 
forgotten or lost. This, together with the inadequacy of state funds, delayed action. In 
1842 Newark made an attractive offer for the capital, and another effort was made to pass 
the resolution requesting the Governor to invite proposals from other cities, but after being 
adopted in the Senate, it was defeated in the House, that vote marking the end of the 
agitation to remove the capital, though the anger of the Democrats was by no means ap- 
peased. In the legislature of that year, partisanship ran high. The Whigs absented them- 
selves and the Democrats charged that they were harassed in their work by local Whig mobs. 
This charge was investigated by a committee of citizens who reported that the alleged mobs did 



CITY LIFE FROM 1834 TO I860 41 

not exist and that no disrespect was ottered or intended by any citizen to any legislator or state 
officer. 

In 1839 Welsh citizens filed a protest with the General Assembly against its refusal to 
publish the Governor's message in Welsh, while printing it in German. In the same year the 
State Agricultural Society out of which came the State Board of Agriculture, was formed. 

The great Whig convention of 1810 was h;ld in the open air at the corner of High and 
Broad streets, February 21 and 22. It was a marvelous outpouring of people who came 
by the roads and the canal, 27 boats filled with people arriving in one day and numerous 
wagons with log cabins, canoes and other decorations coming over the muddy roads. The 
streets were gay with colors and banners of many kinds. Rain fell as the thousands came 
and rain fell as they lingered for the business, but there was no dampening of the ardor 
of the great throng. There was a parade in the rain the second day, followed by a conven- 
tion outdoors, the delegates and others standing in a continual down-pour to listen to the 
speeches of General Resin Beall and Thomas Ewing. Thomas Corwin was nominated for 
Governor and resolutions against the spoils system of appointments and the centralization 
of power were adopted; also a set of reasons for opposing Van Buren. The crowd was 
variously estimated at from 12,000 to 20,000. 

Partisan feeling ran so high that Columbus Whigs and Democrats held separate cele- 
brations of the Fourth of July. Vice President R. M. Johnson, Wm. H. Harrison and John 
Tyler were all visitors in Columbus that year. Harrison's election to the Presidency was 
an occasion of great rejoicing and, following his death, there were services in his memory, 
May 21, 1841. 

The first balloon ascension Columbus had ever seen was made from the State House 
grounds by Richard Clayton, July 4, 1842, and in the same year Charles Dickens and his 
wife were guests at the Neil House, while en route through the State. That was the year, 
too, of the first inaugural ball, the occasion b?ing the incoming of Governor Wilson Shannon. 
The ball was given at the American House, with inauguration suppers at the Franklin House 
and Oyler's City House. 

In 1843 the Mechanics Beneficial Society dedicated a building with hall, erected with 
its own funds. A. G. Hibbs was president at the time and John Grenleaf secretary. The 
former on that occasion presented to the society an oil portrait, executed by Win. Walcutt, 
of James Russell, inventor of the Russell planetarium, one of the wonders of the day. Mr. 
Russell was by trade a cabinet-maker, who was born in New Hampshire and had come to 
Ohio when he was 20 years old. 

The Columbus Horticultural Society was organized in 1845, Bela Latham, president; W 
S. Sullivant and Samuel Medary, vice presidents; Joseph Sullivant and M. B. Bateham, 
secretaries, and John W. Andrews, treasurer. This society acquired by gift the first tract 
of land which later went to make up Franklin park. It gave annual exhibitions and for 
some years maintained an active existence. 

To the call for troops for the war with Mexico in 1846, Ohio responded so promptly that 
the state's quota was filled in three weeks. From Columbus went the Columbus Cadets, 
Captain Wm. A. Latham; the Montgomery Guards, Captain George E. Walcutt, later Cap- 
tain J. T. Mickum, on the resignation of Walcutt owing to ill health. These went down the 
canal to Camp Washington at Cincinnati and were assigned to the Second regiment of Ohio 
Volunteers. In 1847 two other companies were recruited in Columbus — the Franklin Guards, 
Captain M. C. Lilley, and a German company, Captain Otto Zirkel. After a farewell 
demonstration on High street, these companies departed by stage and were assigned to the 
Fourth regiment of Ohio volunteers. The first two companies, after a year's absence, re- 
turned and were welcomed July 5, 1847, Samuel Medary making the speech. In the same 
month a fifth company was recruited here for a Lancaster regiment. James Markland 
captain, Wm. A. Latham having been promoted to lieutenant colonel. On December 10, 
1847, a complimentary dinner was given here to Colonel George W. Morgan, of the Second 
regiment, and a sword was presented to him. In the summer of 1848, the last of the volun- 
teers returned from the war, and there was a great demonstration. The returning soldiers 
were escorted to Jaeger's Grove in the southern part of the city, 54 girls dressed in white 
encircling them with a wreath of oak and evergreen as they marched. At the grove, 
Samuel Medary made the address of wclcom •■. 

The next considerable commotion in Columbus was in 1849 when organized emigration 



42 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

to California in search of gold was begun. In February, the Franklin California Mining 
Co., headed by John Walton, and the Columbus and California Industrial Co., Joseph 
Hunter leader, were organized, with about 30 members each. They were carefully or- 
ganized and the articles of agreement were filed here. Each man put in $200; they were to 
travel and work together under something like military discipline and in 18 months they 
were to return and settle according to the terms of the agreement. The Walton party dis- 
banded before it reached its destination, some going on and others returning. Some of 
both parties reached California, but there is no record of their return and settlement, as 
proposed. Columbus also sent out another party of seven and doubtless contributed to other 
parties passing through, but the successes, if any, were individual, and there is nothing to 
indicate what Columbus got out of the gold craze. 

The cholera again appeared in Columbus in 1849, and again many fled from the scourge. 
Others remained, and the resourceful ones organized to fight the disease which, however, 
raged from June 21 to September 1.5, causing 200 deaths in the city and 116 in the peniten- 
tiary. The cholera returned in 1850 and, from July 10 to September 1, was held accountable 
for 225 deaths in a population of 18,000, one-fourth of whom fled and remained away till the 
scourge should abate. There was no cholera in 1851 and none in 1853, but in 1852 and 1854 
there were a few cases, and that its last visitation. 

There was much improvement in business conditions in 1850. The evil of a depreciated 
and unstable currency had been corrected by the creation of the state bank with numerous 
branches, and there was escape from the old financial mire. Railroad building had begun, 
and on February 26, 1850, the first passeng ?r train arrived over the Columbus & Xenia 
railroad. In the same year the General Assembly delighted itself with an excursion over 
the road to Cincinnati and return. In 1851, the city council appointed a committee, of 
which W. A. Piatt was chairman, to raise $3,000 to pay the expenses of the State Fair. In 
1850 the first fair had been held at Camp Washington, Cincinnati, and Columbus resolved 
to have the second. Mr. Piatt raised the money, and the fair was held on land owned by 
Michael L. Sullivant, near the old Court House in Franklinton. The fair was a success, but 
Columbus did not get it again till 1855. It was not held here again till 1864. The 1865 fair 
was also held here and then it went elsewhere till 1874, when it was located here permanently. 

In 1851 some women appeared in Columbus wearing bloomers, and some men wearing 
shawls in place of overcoats. Spiritualism had its beginning and there were lectures, seances 
and spirit rappings, Tennie C. Claflin being one of the demonstrants. Equestrianism came 
into social favor for both men and women and there were occasional cavalcades of 50 or 
more couples. 

The railroad to Cleveland was completed in 1851 and that to Zanesville in 1852. The 
Franklin County Agricultural Society, organized in 1851, bought a tract of eight acres, now 
a part of Franklin park, and appointed Lucian Buttles, W. I.. Miner and M. I.. Sullivant 
a committee to improve the ground. 

Distinguished visitors in 1852 were Horace Greeley and General Winfield Scott, the Whig 
candidate for President. The remains of Henrv Clay, who died June 29, arrived here July 
8, 1852. There was a procession to meet the bodv and bear it to the Neil House, and the 
bells were tolled and minute guns were fired till it reached its destination. At the Neil 
House where the remains reposed over night, and at the City Hall, there were appropriate 
addresses by William Dennison and Aaron 1". Perry. 

1852 was also the year of the visit of Louis Kossuth, who came to this country pleading 
the cause of an independent Hungary. He came from Cleveland, February 4, over the 
new railroad, and was met at the station by a number of civic and military bodies and es- 
corted to the Neil House, into which Kossuth, his wife and Mrs. Pulasky made their way with 
difficulty on account of the crowd. A sympathetic meeting that evening packed tlie City 
Hall, thousdl Kossuth was not present. The next day at 1 1 o'clock, Kossuth spoke from a 
platform that had been erected in front of the old Court House to a crowd that packed High 
street. He was introduced bv Win. Dennison and welcomed bv Samuel Galloway. That 
evening there was another large meeting in the Citv Hall, and the Franklin Countv Hun- 
garian Association was formed. Judge Wm. R. Rankin, president. On the 7th the two 
houses of the General Assembly convened jointly in the Odeon building, and Kossuth was 
escorted thither by Governor Reuben Wood. Lieutenant Governor Medill formally welcomed 
Ilim and Kossuth eloquently replied. A third meeting packed the City Hall that evening, 



CITY LIFE FROM 1834 TO I860 43 

which was addressed by Kossuth. The Cit\- Council had for some reason taken little part in 
this enthusiasm and the friends of Kossuth held a meeting and fiercely denounced it for its 
inaction. Altogether it was an exciting period of five days for Columbus, and when Kossuth 
left he was $2,000 richer by reason of the offerings made to him for the cause. Some pas- 
sages from Kossuth's speeches here are word quoting, so keen was his insight into the 
genius and destiny of America and so pertinent to the issue of the recent world war. In 
his first speech he said: 

Go on, young Eagle of America! Thy place is no more upon the top of the low hills 
where thou restest till now growing in proud security. Thy place is high up near the sun, 
that with the powerful sweep of thy mighty wings thou mayst dispel the clouds of despot- 
ism which prevent the sun of freedom over all Europe to rise. 

In his speech to the General Assembly he said: 

The destiny of mankind is linked to a common source of principles and within the 
boundaries of a common civilization community of destinies exists. Hence thje warm 
interest which the condition of distant nations awakes nowadays in a manner not yet 
recorded in history because humanity was never aware of that common tie as it now is. 
With this consciousness thus developed, two opposite principles cannot rule within the same 
boundaries — democracy or despotism; there is no transaction between Heaven and hell. 

And this : 

The time draws near when by virtue of such a declaration as yours, shared by your 
sister states, Europe's liberated nations will unite in a mighty choir of hallelujahs, thanking 
God that His paternal care has raised the United States to the glorious position of a first- 
born son of freedom on earth. 

These are words that express the thought of 1918, yet they were spoken in 1852. Kossuth 
failed as a liberator, but he was a true prophet. 

In 1853 the railroad to Urbana was completed and the first train was run over the road 
July 1. 

A convention of Whigs, Democrats and Free Soilers, held in the City Hall, later in Neil's 
hall, marked no doubt the beginning in Ohio of the movement that resulted in the organization 
of the Republican party. Those present represented the discontented elements of the parties 
named. They declared concurrence in the Michigan recommendation for a general conven- 
tion of free states to take measures to resist the encroachments of slavery. Judge Joseph 
R. Swan was nominated to the Supreme Court and was later elected by 80,000. For the 
new political coalition the name Republican was suggested among others, but none was 
adopted. The following year there was a great convention of the same elements in the 
Town street Methodist church. It resolved to resist the spread of slavery, called the new 
party Republican and nominated Salmon P. Chase for Governor. 

Know-Xothingism appeared in Columbus in 18.5.5 and was the cause of some rioting. The 
German societies fell under suspicion of anti- Americanism and on July 4 a procession of 
Turners was jeered at and attacked. Stones were thrown at the marchers, some of whom 
responded with their revolvers. The worst of the trouble was at High and Town streets, 
where Henry Foster, one of the stone-throwers, was fatally shot. Nineteen Germans were 
arrested and after a hearing all were discharged except six who were put under $500 bond 
each. 

The remains of Elisha Kent Kane, Arctic explorer, were brought to Columbus, March 
8, 1857, were received and cared for by a committee and lay in state in the Senate chamber, 
guarded by the State Fencibles. There was a civic and military parade, followed by a meet- 
ing with speeches in eulogy of the deceased. 

Great excitement followed the resignation of W. H. Gibson as Treasurer of State, June 
13, 1857, and the immediate appointment of A. P. Stone to the vacancy. The cause was 
the discovery of a heavy defalcation which subsequent investigation showed to be $574,112.96. 
It was also revealed that the defaulter was Gibson's predecessor, John G. Breslin. When 
Gibson took the office, he concealed the defalcation, being moved to that action by the fact 
that he was Breslin's brother-in-law and also his surety. Both were condemned in a public 
indignation meeting; both were indicted and found guilty. Gibson was granted a new trial 
which was never held. He served his country witli distinction during the Civil War and 
atoned for his part in the crime. 



44 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Columbus experienced another period of hard times beginning in 1857. Money was 
scarce, business men were in debt and there were many failures. 

The Wm. G. Deshler home at Broad and Third street, where he lived for 58 years, was 
built in 1859. 

In the same year, both Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln visited Columbus. 
Douglas came September 7 and addressed a meeting on the east terrace of the State House. 
The speaker's platform was erected facing the building, the acoustic effect of which was bad; 
so, when Lincoln came September 10, the platform was built with its back to the building. 
For this, his first speech in Ohio, Lincoln was introduced by George M. Parsons. Mrs. 
Alice Corner Brown thus describes the two meetings : 

It was my happy privilege, in company with my father and mother, to hear the speech 
of Mr. Douglas and the reply of Mr. Lincoln, both delivered to small audiences on two 
sombre autumn afternoons. Near the northeast corner of the 10 acre State House square a 
steam engine was boring an artesian well. It was not noisy, but the sounds were regular 
and insistent; and, after speaking a few minutes, Mr. Douglas, looking weary and annoyed, 
stopped, saying, "I can't speak against a steam engine." As soon as word could reach the 
engine-driver, the boring ceased and the speech went on. Appeal, not argument; entreaty 
to change conditions, not recognition of the great trend of events characterized his address. 
A perfunctory round of applause without enthusiasm punctuated its close, and silently the 
200 men who had stood on the ground throughout the harangue dispersed, seemingly not 
one converted to the plan of voting up or voting down slavery in the territories. 

Mr. Lincoln came and was apparently introduced to the same audience. There were 
seated on the east terrace about a score of women when there came from the Capitol behind 
the group, a tall, sad-eyed, earnest, grave man. Taking up the assumptions of his rival, 
he showed the fallacy of the local option of dealing with the extension of slavery into the 
territories. He indulged in no .jokes, no witticisms. The crisis was too real and too awfully 
pregnant with fate. The impression left on the mind by the address was the vast import 
of events which no trifling or jugglery or vainglorious and boastful pro-slavery or anti- 
slavery men could delude the nation into excusing, viz., the invasions of free territory by 
armed men and the bloody encounters which followed. 

At the close of Mr. Lincoln's address, the ladies who had been seated at his right were 
presented to him. I did not then know that I was shaking hands with the next President of 
the United States, the hero and martyr of the coming crisis in our history. 

The artesian well referred to in the preceding comment was one of the vain hopes for a 
permanent underground water supply. Moved by success in other places and the prospect 
of having on State property its own inexhaustiible supply of pure water, the General Assem- 
bly, in 1857, appropriated $2,500 to make the boring. The work began November 1, 1857, 
and continued till October 1-1, 1859, exhausting not only the first appropriation, but also a 
second of $3,000. Prof. T. G. Wormley made tests in August, 1859, when a depth of 2,025 
feet had been reached and found a pressure of 861 pounds per square inch, but no water 
came. When the bore had reached a depth of 2,328 feet, the effort was abandoned and the 
mouth of the well was closed with a stone. 

With a view to preserving the good will between the states threatened by strife, the 
Genera] Assembly, in I860, invited the legislatures of Kentucky and Tennessee to visit 
Columbus. The invitation was accepted and the visitors arrived, January 26. They were 
welcomed cordially, entertained with a dinner and departed the following day. 

In 1861, Columbus was again visited by Lincoln and Douglas. The former came Febru- 
ary 13, this being one of his stopping places while en route to Washington to take up the 
duties of President. He was met at the station by city and state officials and was escorted 
through crowded streets, amid cheers and salutes, to the State House. He was introduced 
to the General Assembly, jointly convened in the hall of the House, and spoke briefly. He 
also spoke to a throng at the west front of the State House and held a reception in the 
rotunda. He was entertained at the home of Governor Dennison and left the next morning 
for Pittsburg and Washington. Douglas stopped on his way from Washington to Chicago. 
He was beaten and disappointed, but he was none the less a man. He made two speeches 
here, in each of which he pledged his support of Lincoln in putting down insurrection and 
preserving the Union. 

for about 30 years, beginning in 1827, with a few intervals of inactivity, there was a 
military organization in Columbus known as the Columbus Guards. From 1837 to 181 1, this 
organization, with Joseph Sullivant as captain, John M. Kerr and Elijah Backus lieutenants 
and M. C. Lilley orderly sergeant had a fin- reputation. In 1 S 13 the Guards organiza- 



CITY LIFE FROM 1834 TO 1860 15 

tion was vitalized by Captain W. F. Sanderson, and in 1846 it was reehristened the Mont- 
gomery Guards. In 1855 the Columbus Guards reappeared, Captain M. C. Lilley. The 
two German artillery companies which sought vainly to get into the Mexican war in their 
original formation, were led by Captains Frankenberg and Jacobs. In 1819 we read of the 
Columbus Light Guards, Captain George E. Walcutt, and the Columbus Light Artillery, Cap- 
tain James A. Markland. In 1855 came the State Fencibles, Captain Henry Z. Mills, later 
Captains J. O. Reamy, Theodore Jones, Joseph Riley and A. O. Mitchell. In 1857 came 
the Columbus Vedettes, Captain Tyler, and in 1860 the famous Governor's Guards, Captain 
Isaac H. Marion. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

IN CIVIL WAR TIME. 

Columbus a Center of Military Preparation — Camp Jackson and Camp Chase — Prompt Re- 
sponse by the City to Every Call — Morgan's Raid, the Imprisonment and Escape — 
Camp Tod and Tod Barracks — News of Lee's Surrender — In Mourning for Lincoln — 
Abandonment of Camp Chase — Ohio's War Governors. 

By IV. Earrand Felch. 

On February 13, 1861, Abraham Lincoln, the newly elected President, en route to 
Washington, stopped at Columbus — an occasion that was made memorable by the excitement 
incident to the uncertainty of the future and a demonstration by the military organizations. 
The bombarding of Fort Sumter, April 13 following, awoke Ohio and the capital city to 
action. Before the bombardment ended, twenty full companies had been offered to Governor 
Dennison for immediate service and their enrollment was begun before the Governor's sum- 
mons had gone out to the state at large. Ths Governor's Guards, the Vedettes, the Fenci- 
bles, the Montgomery Guards and the Steuben Guards, all of Columbus, at once began 
recruiting. Of the 75 members of the Fencibles who then entered the service of the country, 
57 later became commanding officers, ten non-commissioned officers and eight remained as 
privates. 

Columbus at once became a center of military preparation. Every train brought a new 
contingent. The newspapers found it impossible to announce all enrollments. Their offices 
were besieged by eager inquirers, day and night. The crisis was so imminent and tremend- 
ous that there was at first confusion and fear, but with the announcement of a decided 
policy came order and calm. Following the President's proclamation, the General Assembly 
appropriated $1,000,000 for war purposes and authorized the Sinking Fund Commission to 
borrow money at 6% interest on certificates exempt from state taxation. Cincinnati took 
one-fourth of the amount, D. W. Deshler's Bank .$100,000, and the remainder was soon dis- 
posed of. Thirteen regiments of troops constituted the first quota; in two days time, men 
for twice the number had offered themselves. No adequate provision had been made for 
feeding and sheltering so large a body of men. Volunteers came in gala attire, as if to a 
political convention or celebration ; some wore their best suits and high hats and there were 
no uniforms for which to exchange civilian garb. Various styles of soldier garb appeared, 
but that most favored consisted of a red shirt, blue trousers and a felt hat. There were 
no tents, and the recruits were quartered at hotels and private houses at from 75 cents to 
.$1.25 a day for board. The construction of barracks at Cioodale park (Camp Jackson) was 
begun, and in the meantime, the Capitol, benevolent institutions, Starling Medical College 
and even the Ohio Penitentiary, the largest buildings in the city, were used for sleeping pur- 
poses. Though most of the men were patient to a remarkable degree, postponing their 
breakfasts till dinner-time and their dinners till bedtime, some appropriated what food they 
found at hand and on one occasion 1,000 men made a raid on the hotels and restaurants. 
C. P. L. Butler, Theodore Comstoek, Luther Donaldson and W. G. Deshler organized and 
financed a temporary provisioning plan by which the cost was reduced one-half and the ac- 
commodations vastly improved. 

Of the twenty-three regiments that had rsponded to the Governor's call, 12,7(57 volun- 
teers had muskets and 197 had sabres. Advocate-General Wolcott arranged for 5,000 
muskets in New York, and sent home a large supply of tent-poles by express, in advance of 
the requisite coverings, — a humorous situation which was made use of liberally by the 
grumblers. Senator Garfield procured another 5,000 muskets of the Governor of Illinois, 
and Mr. Wolcott also arranged for the purchase of $100,000 worth of Enfield rifles in 
England, for immediate use. Several hasty clothing-contracts were also made. 

On April 22, there were already enough troops in Camp Jackson to form a third regi- 
ment; on tin' 26th it contained 7,000 men, and the next day, 7,826, the barracks being- 
crowded to their utmost. Cam]) Dennison, near Loveland, was instituted to relieve the 
(•(ingestion, anil 15 companies were transferred on the 29th, leaving 6,435 at Cam)) Jackson. 



IN CIVIL WAR TIME -47 

Others were sent for the protection of Washington, for the safety of which there was much 
anxiety, and the work of receiving, organizing and transferring troops went on. 

On May 28 workmen began taking down the barracks in Goodale park and transferring 
them to a site four miles west of the city; this bore the name of Camp Jackson until June 
20, 1861, when it was changed to Camp Chase — a name it still boasts. It contained 160 
acres, which were ploughed, harrowed and rolled to a level smoothness, and by June 12 
there were 160 houses on it. It was under National, not State, control. Dr. Norman Gay 
was its surgeon, and Wm. Jameson, its suttler; both of Columbus. The Zettlers provisioned 
the Camp at $11.65 per hundred rations. 

Governor Dennison was fortunate in having at this time the assistance and advice of 
Col. Charles Whittlesey and Lieutenants O. M. Poe, J. W. Sill, and W. S. Rosecrans, all 
of whom became famous. C. P. Buckingham of Mt. Vernon became his Adjutant-General, 
and Geo. B. Wright, of Newark, his Quartermaster-General on July 1. 

The second proclamation of President Lincoln, May 3, called for 12,000 volunteers for 
three years. Accordingly, the 23d to 26th regiments, inclusive, were at once organized in 
Ohio, for the purpose of pushing the occupation of West Virginia by Federal forces; the 
23d, with Col. W. S. Rosecrans at its head, was organized at Camp Jackson June 12, and 
on July 25 it was ordered to Clarksburg, West Va. The 21th, with Col. Jacob Ammen, 
afterwards a general, was sent to West Virginia, July 26. 

Major Robert Anderson, the hero of Ft. Sumter arrived in Columbus from Pittsburg, 
May 16, and received the plaudits of the populace for the few moments his train was held, 
Governor Dennison accompanying him as far as London, Ohio. A secession flag was re- 
ceived in Columbus, July 6, captured by the 14th O. V. I., at Carrick's Ford, Va. ; it was 
6 by 15 feet in size, bore red stripes on a blue field with seven stars among which was a 
rattle-snake skin stuffed with cotton twine. This was an object of speculation and derision. 
On July 24, Major General Fremont visited Camp Chase, for the day, and was greeted 
vociferously by the 5,000 soldiers there. Early in August a train of 27 cars of ammunition 
and artillery for General Fremont's army in Missouri passed through Columbus — the entire 
train being sent by express from Pittsburg; this was followed soon after by other express 
shipments almost as important for him. 

Early in July a recruiting office for the 18th U. S. Infantry was opened in Columbus, 
by Col. H. B. Carrington, and before the close of the month 200 men were camped about 
four miles north of the heart of the city, on the Worthington Plank road; this, probably 
near the Olentangy Park, was called Camp Thomas, in honor of U. S. Adjutant General 
L. Thomas. Another rendezvous for the 16th Ohio regiment was established in September 
near Worthington, and first called Camp Wade, afterwards Camp Lyon. A prisoner's camp, 
the same month, was named Camp Carlisle and to it were committed a large number of Con- 
federate prisoners. 

The return of the original Three-Months' volunteers, beginning during the latter part 
of July, caused another congestion of troops. But, on July 18, the advance of McDowell's 
Army from Washington was noted in the Ohio State Journal witli flaring head-lines: "The 
March on Richmond Begun — Fairfax Court House Invested — General Johnston in Full Re- 
treat — General Patterson in Close Pursuit." °n July 21 the famous Bull Run battle was 
fought and lost ! Thousands of Ohio volunteers had been sent home and this disaster dis- 
sipated the delusion that they were not longer wanted. The call for a million more men 
quickly followed the President's call for 300,000 on July 1. Columbus responded nobly; 
many of the three months' men returning to the front. 

At the close of 1861, the Adjutant-General of Ohio reported that there were in the 
field 16 regiments of infantrv, 1 of cavalry, and 12 batallions of artillery; with 22 more 
regiments of infantrv and 1 of cavalry full or nearly full, and 13 in process of formation. In 
all the State were 77,8 14 men in the three vears' service and 22,380 in the three months' service. 
The administration of Governor David Tod began January 13, 1862. He retained 
Adjutant-General C. P. Buckingham, Quartermaster-General George B. Wright, and Commis- 
sarv-General Columbus Delano, from his predecessor's staff; the first-named remained in office 
only until April 18 when he was summoned to take a position in the War Department at 
Washington, and was succeeded by Charles W. Hill. Surgeon-General C. E. Weber was 
succeeded in Ortober by Dr. Samuel M. Smith of Columbus. At the opening of this admin- 
istration the condition at the front was discouraging. A huge army had long laid inactive 



48 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

on the Potomac, and the Confederate flag floated within sight of the Capitol. On February 
0, Ft. Henry fell, and on February 16, Ft. Donaldson. The effect on Columbus was mag- 
ical. The good news passed rapidly from lip to lip, flags were unfurled and cannon and 
church bells joined in unison in the celebration. 

Seven months later occurred the bloody battle of Shiloli, which entirely reversed the 
period of rejoicing. The slaughter had been fearful and the people recoiled in horror. 
The first information of the battles of April 6-7 reached Columbus on the 9th. The public 
responded nobly, through the Aid Society and otherwise, to the Governor's appeal for 
assistance; and a few hours later Francis C. Sessions was on the way to the scene of the 
conflict bearing ample funds for aid and comfort to our stricken soldiers. During April a 
great number of the sick and wounded were brought to Columbus, on their way from the 
front, to recuperate. Many were destitute of money, most all, of food; but the women of 
the city responded immediately witli quantities of food and creature comforts, as in all simi- 
lar cases. 

On May 25 the surrender of Yorktown was recorded as the turning-point of the war, 
and the cry, "On to Richmond" was started with great enthusiasm as the tocsin of victory. 
But, while McClellan was advancing up the James river, Stonewall Jackson swept down 
the Shenandoah, cleared the Virginia valley of Union troops, appeared before Harper's 
Ferry, and the cry of "On the Washington" was raised by the Confederates. 

Governor Tod issued a hasty call, May 26, 1862, for three-months' volunteers to defend 
the National Capital. Citizens poured into Camp Chase in great volume, and the 84th to 
88th, regiments, inclusive, were organized, numbering over 5,000 men. On August 1, the 
President ordered a draft of 300,000 men to serve for nine months. The State was by this 
proclamation divided into five districts, of which the central counties including Franklin, 
was the fifth, with their rendezvous at Camp Chase. Several "war meetings" were held on 
the west front of the Capitol, to secure money for Franklin county men to escape the draft. 
At the first, July 15, Governor Tod addressed the meeting, and $25,000 was subscribed. 
Another was held, August 20, for raising bounty-money for our soldiers. By this means 
3,176 enlisted men were financed by October 19, of which 1,131 had been furnished by the 
city. Franklin county was thus saved from the draft which occurred in the State at large, 
October 1, including 12,251 men. 

Particulars of great battles between the armies of Pope and Lee, in Virginia, August 28, 
29, and 30 did not reach this city until September 2, causing renewed apprehension, and a 
fortnight later came news of the frightful carnage at Antietam. During the first five days 
of September, General Kirby Smith's raid northward through Kentucky against Cincinnati, 
created almost a panic in Columbus, and a call for 700 minute men, or as they were known, 
"squirrel-hunters," brought forth that number who were immediately despatched to Cincin- 
nati, and compelled his retirement. 

The battle of Stone River began December 31, 1862, and closed with Bragg's retreat 
during the night of January 3, 1863. In this affray 1,730 men were killed and 7,802 
wounded. Many Ohio regiments were engaged. Francis C. Sessions again represented Ohio 
mi the battle-field, as an emissary of mercy. He reported 2,000 wounded from Ohio. Gov- 
ernor Tod rented the Ladies' Seminary, then known as the Esther Institute, on East Broad 
street, (the Athletic Club site) for hospital purposes. It accommodated 350 patients. 

The first official announcement of the battle of Gettysburg and the turning-point of the 
war was made in a bulletin at 10 a. m., July t : 

The President announces to the country, that the news from the Army of the Potomac 
to 10p.m., of the third is such as to cover the army with the highest honors and promises a great 
success to the cause of the Union, and to claim the condolence of all for the many gallant 
fallen; and that for this he specially desires, on this day, that He, whose will, not ours, 
should ever be dime should be everywhere remembered and reverenced with the profoundesf 
gratitude. 

The news came filtering in, until July 6, when a "splendid victory" was announced, on 
July 8, by the Ohio State Journal: 

The moment that the magic words, "Vicksburg Surrendered," met the eye of the multi- 
tude .... there went up such a shout — three wild huzzas, and "three more for 
Grant," — as never issued from unloyal lungs. Old men wearing the silver crown of honor 



IN CIVIL WAR TIME 49 

that time weaves for age, threw up their hats and led in the wild chorus of shouts that 
made the midday welkin ring. Neighbor grasped the hand of neighbor, while the triumph 
of the moment beamed forth from every face and lighted up every eye. 

The effigy of Jefferson Davis was burned at a bon-fire, at the corner of Third and Town 
streets, in the evening. 

Following close upon the heels of this noted victory came the unexpected and daring- 
raid of General John Morgan's cavalry through Indiana and Ohio; breaking through Burn- 
side's lines in Kentucky, they reached and crossed the Ohio sixty miles below Louisville, 
July 9. There were 2,460 men in the raid. They reached the Ohio border Julv 12, and 
Governor Tod called out the militia to repel the invasion, part to appear at Cincinnati, part 
at Marietta and part at Camp Dennison; the militia of the central counties were to report to 
Brigadier General John S. Mason at Camp Chase. Immediately 50,000 militia men re- 
sponded, Franklin county furnishing 49 companies, numbering 3,952 men. Morgan and 
900 of his men succeeded in crossing the river and, hotly pursued, rode north through east- 
ern Ohio as far as Salineville, Columbiana county, where they were surrounded. Morgan's 
surrender was made through a militia captain. Burbeck, whom he was using under duress as 
a guide, after exacting from him the terms that, if captured, officers and men should be 
paroled. These terms were rejected by Governor Tod, and the raiders were incarcerated 
in the Ohio Penitentiary, July 27, 1863. Morgan and thirteen others effected their escape 
November 27 by digging through the cell floors into a sewer, then through a wall into a 
court from which the outer wall was sealed. How the escape was made, what outsiders 
helped and the responsibility for the escape were long subjects of controversy. 

On September 21 came news of the battle of Chickamauga, in which Captain Joshua 
M. Wells, for whom Wells Post, G. A. R., was named, was one of the slain. The excava- 
tion for the U. S. Arsenal building (Barracks) was begun the same month. The removal 
of General Rosecrans from the command of the Army of the Cumberland created in Colum- 
bus, as elsewhere, much unfavorable comment. On October 17, the President called for 
300.000 more volunteers, one-tenth from Ohio, 700 from Franklin county. Camp Tod, named 
for the Governor, was located, about August 1, in the vicinity of the old state quarry, and 
was occupied by the 86th Ohio. Tod Barracks was built north of the Union Station, 316 
feet on the east side of High street and a depth of 750 feet, surrounded by a board fence 
12 feet high. Construction began October 20 and was completed December 1, 1863. It 
was used for recruits, sick and wounded soldiers and for the temporary custody of de- 
serters. Of these last named there were many. At one time 700 deserters from Camp Chase 
were reported, and from the 33 regiments in the field, the total was nearly 5,000. Numer- 
ous canards found circulation, alternately favorable and unfavorable to the Union cause and 
resulting in unjustified exultation or depression, 

John Brough was inaugurated Governor, January 11, 1861, and gave his great execu- 
tive talents to the winning of the war, with the result that Ohio, in military operations, sur- 
passed that year all the other northern states. Columbus became the chief rendezvous for 
recruiting and organizing fresh levies. Ohio's quota of 20,000 veterans re-enlisted here 
for three years more. 

Early in the year, Governor Brough instituted a plan for calling out a sufficient militia 
force to guard the forts, railways, and to relieve the veterans for active service. At a 
meeting of the governors of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, in Washington, a plan was 
formed for using 85,000 infantry troops for this purpose, to serve 100 days. Eleven new 
one-year regiments were organized this year, — from the 173d to the 183d Ohio. 

Tod Barracks had already deprived Camp Chase of much of its prestige. On March 
3, the commandant quarters there were destroyed by fire, which rendered it still more mori- 
bund. On April 27, 230 survivors from the boiler explosion on the Sultana near Memphis, 
were sent to Camn Chase, and arrived May 1. Basil Duke, of Morgan's Raiders, was trans- 
ferred from the Ohio Penitentiary to Camp Chase in February. The number of prisoners 
of war in Camp Chase on August 6, was about 3,500, the camp having been reduced to this 
extremity in service. 

News of Sheridan's victory at Five Forks readied Columbus April 2, and revealed, 
"as by a sunburst, the beginning of the end." With the fall of Richmond, the next day, 
flags were flung out all over the city. In the evening a great crowd assembled at the west 



50 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



front of the Capitol and listened to despatches read by Governor Brough, who also ad- 
dressed the assembly, and he was followed by other prominent men. 

The news of Lee's surrender to Grant on April 9, at 4:40 p. m., reached Columbus the 
same evening by special dispatch. 

Churches gave up their congregations, hotels their occupants, and one grand, loud, 
continued shouting song told the people's joy. Cannon thundered, hells clanged, bonfires 
blazed. A monster crowd collected, and were addressed by Governor Brough, Hon. Octavius 
Waters and others. 

A general celebration took place the following Friday, April 14, at 2 p. m. The people 
assembled at the east front of the Capitol, and Hon. George M. Parsons was called upon 
to preside; after prayer by Rev. Granville Moody, Hon. John Sherman addressed the happy 
concourse. In the evening the whole city was illuminated, and the Capitol glittered from 



'I8ftj*w% 



M 



, i * ■ * i . t i 



"' 






Lincoln Funeral Cortege, April 29, isn't 

foundation to cupola. A large meeting was addresed by Dr. Moody, Col. Given, Rev. A. G. 
Byers, and Hon. E. E. White. 

On the following morning, while the city was decorated with emblems of rejoicing, 
(Saturday, April 15), the news of President Lincoln's assassination the previous evening, in 
Washington, reached Columbus. A suspension of business was declared; flags were half- 
masted and the city draped with mourning. On Sunday evening, the largest assembly that 
has ever gathered in the Capitol square was drawn thither by this great sorrow, for com- 
munity religious services. Part of the assemblage consisted of soldiers from Tod Barracks, 
who came en masse, bearing the State and National flags, draped, and marching to slow 
dirge music. The people at the west terrace were addressed by Rev. A. G. Byers, and 
those at the east by Rev. Granville Moody. 

On the 19th, the day of the funeral in Washington, business was suspended, bells were 
tolled, and minute guns fired. The funeral train came to Columbus via Cleveland, on the 
morning of the 29th, The procession, on its arrival, was formed in five divisions. It has 



IN CIVIL WAR TIME 51 

been called the most impressive and imposing procession ever seen in Columbus. A funeral 
oration was delivered at the east front, by Hon. Job E. Stevenson; and at 6 p. m. the doors 
of the Capitol were closed, the bugles sounded the assembly call, and the procession returned 
to the depot. The catafalque remained in the rotunda for several days, until the day of the 
burial of the martyred President at Springfield, Illinois. Every morning until May -i, fresh 
flowers were placed around the dais, where the body had rested, and thousands visited it 
daily. 

By order of April 14, 1865, further recruiting in Ohio stopped. But military arrivals 
and departures at Tod Barracks were almost continuous during the early months. Con- 
federate captives, numbering 2,200, taken by General Thomas, arrived at Camp Chase, 
January 1; 1,200 more from Hood's army, January 6, and 522 more from North Carolina, 
were received on May 5. On May 15, 108 of these took the oath of allegiance and were 
given transportation to their homes. The number of Confederates at Camp Chase June 1, 
was 3,200, but by June 28 the camp was entirely cleared of them. A great number sought 
and found employment in the city. 

The discharge of government employes at Columbus began in May. The last of the 
volunteers returning from the field, arrived ii 1866; the last volunteers to be discharged 
in Ohio were Lieutenant F. W. Robinson's detachment, from the Fourtli regiment of vet- 
erans, August 3, 1866. 

An army train of 250 wagons, each drawn by six mules, passed through the city, bound 
for Fort Leavenworth, September 22, 1865; it had come from Washington, over the National 
road; and another train of 256 wagons, for the same destination, arrived September 28, and 
was corralled over night in Franklinton. These traveled at the rate of 1 5 A miles each day, 
The last train marched into Springfield, Ills., where the mules were sold and the wagons 
forwarded by rail. The volunteer army was entirely extinct on July 20-21, 1866. The 
prison property at Camp Chase was offered for sale at public vendue, July 11, 1865, by 
order of General Richardson. Camp Thomas by order dated early in October was discon- 
tinued. During February, 1866, all military records at Camp Chase had been removed to 
Columbus, and that camp ceased to exist as an army post. On May 3 the Ohio State 
Journal published its obituary: 

It is no longer a military center, no more a living thing; the city is deserted, the giant 
form a skeleton. Hundreds and thousands of armed men paraded as the guardians of the 
living thing; a single man, unarmed, keeps watch and ward over the remains of the thing, 
dead, waiting for burial .... The rows of barracks remain unchanged; the flowers 
planted by some careful housewife of some careless officer, are ready to record that "the 
hand of woman has heen here;" the flag-staff stands without pulley, rope or flag; the 
chapel, with its half-change in the latter day to a theatre remains a monument of the one, 
a tell-tale of the other; the prison-pens frown still with barred gates, hut are silent within. 
In one, the scaffold on which Hartrup and Oliver were executed stands firm — the grim 
guardian of the ghostly solitude — and with beam in place and trap half sprung seems 
waiting for another victim. Everywhere are the marks of the skeleton. The pump-stocks 
have all been withdrawn from the wells, the windows from the buildings; grass is growing 
in the parade ground. 

Old shoes tumbled into promiscuous groupings tell which buildings have been last 
occupied, and the marten boxes give some signs of life. A little fruit tree in the midst of 
all this loneliness blossoms and puts forth leaves with all the proud defiance of nature and 
with a scornful fling with every wave of the wind, for the works of man perishing on every 
side. 

A word of praise must be tendered to Ohio's "War Governors," in closing this desul- 
tory account. Salmon Portland Chase, the first of the list, was born in Cornish, N. H., Jan- 
uary 13, 1808, and died in New York City, May 7, 1883. He was governor of Ohio in 1855, 
and again in 1857 — hence not strictly a "war governor" but of national prominence. During 
these four years, the Republican party was organized, and in 1860 Mr. Chase was a favorite 
of many Republicans for President. When President Lincoln was inaugurated, Mr. Chase 
became Secretary of the Treasury. At the close of the Civil War lie resigned from the control 
of the Treasury department, and was shortly afterward appointed to the Chief Justiceship 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, and filled that office until his death. 

William Dennison was born in Cincinnati, November 23, 1815, and died in Columbus, 
June 15, 1882. His parents were of doughty New England stock, who had settled in Cin- 
cinnati about 1808. He graduated at the Miami University in 1835, witli honors, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1810 and remained in practice until 1859. In December, 1810, be mar- 



52 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



ried Ann Eliza Neil, and removed to Columbus. In 1859 he was elected Governor, and 
when the Civil War broke out he had nine months of his term to complete. 

David Tod was born at Youngstown, Ohio, February 2, 1805, and died there, November 
13, 1868. His father was a native of Connecticut, who emigrated to Ohio, was a lieutenant- 
colonel in the war of 1812, and later a judge of the Superior Court. David Tod was 
educated for the law in 1838, was elected to the Ohio Senate, and in 18 14 was Democratic 
candidate for governor. He was a "hard money" man, and was credited with the saying that 
rather than resort to soft money he would do as the Spartans did — make money out of pot- 
metal. The Whigs had pot-metal medals struck and raised the cry of "Pot Metal Tod," 
which stuck to him so effectively that he was defeated. He was a man of much humor, 
and on one occasion was asked why he spelled the name Tod with one "d." He replied that 
God spelled his name with one "d" and He was a worthy man to imitate in all things. 
Governor Tod was minister to Brazil for some years, and in 1860 he was vice-president of 
the Charleston convention, where the secession of the Southern Democrats broke up the con- 




up chase Cemetery for Confederate Dead 



vention, and thereby helped pave the way for rebellion. His tenure of the office of Gov- 
ernor was during the most heated and passionate period of the Civil War. 

John Brough, the last Governor during the civil strife, was born at Marietta, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 17, 1811, and died at Cleveland, August 29, 1865, being the only governor of Ohio 
who died in office. His parents were pioneers of the state. He became a printer, and for 
some time edited the Western Republican and Marietta Advertiser; he later removed to 
Lancaster and purchased the Ohio Eagle. He was elected to the legislature from Fairfield 
county in 1838, and soon after became Auditor of State. While auditor lie purchased a 
newspaper in Cincinnati, changed its name to the Enquirer, and was connected with it for 
a few years. In 18-18 he practically withdrew from politics until his election as Governor 
in 1863. His fiery speeches and attractive eloquence endeared him to the people of Ohio 
and earned him the nomination for Governor. 

diaries Anderson, lieutenant-governor, served out Governor Brough \s unexpired term. 
He was a brother of the famous Major Anderson, the hero of Fort Sumter. He was colonel 
of the 93d Ohio, and was wounded at the battle of Stone River. After his brief governor- 
ship lie lived in retirement in Kentucky, for the balance of his life. To him, Ohioans owe 
a deep debt of gratitude, as lie was the apostle and author of the common school system of 
Ohio. 



CHAPTER IX. 

LEADING EVENTS FROM 1865 TO 1900. 

Rapid Growth of Population — Visit of President Andrew Johnson — Large Area, Including 
Franklinton, Annexed to Columbus — Military and Veteran Organizations — Memorial 
Hall Project — Visit of General Grant — Court House Fire — Election Frauds — National 
Encampment of the Grand Army and Centennial Exposition — Visit of the Duke of 
I eragua — Frdnklinton's Centennial — War with Spain. 

After the Civil War there was in Columbus a period of prosperity and energy in public 
and private improvements. In the decade from 1850 to 1860 the population had grown 
only about 800 — from 17,822 to 18,629. But at the close of the war there came a new 
vitality with a steady growth which has never been checked. In 1870, the population was 
31,274; in 1880, it was 51,674; in 1890, it was 88,150; in 1900, it was 125,560; in 1910, 
it was 181,511, and in 1918 (estimated) 230,000. 

The soldiers returning from the front found street cars in the Columbus streets. The 
streets themselves were about as bad as they could be, but business was good and the 
people were prosperous and filled with a desire for better things. There was a considera- 
ble extension of the city to the north, and the burning of the Insane Asylum in 1868, 
making advisable the removal of the institution to the hilltop on the west, opened up a new 
addition east. 

President Andrew Johnson, accompanied bv Secretaries Welles and Seward, Generals 
Grant, Steedman, Rousseau, McClellan and Custer and Admiral Farragut, visited Columbus 
September 12, 1866. General C. C. Walcutt headed a military escort for the party; and 
the President, welcomed by Mayor Bull, made a speech in defense of his policies. A dinner 
at the Neil House, without speeches, followed. General Benjamin F. Butler made a politi- 
cal speech here, October 4 of the same year. 

In 1869 the B. E. Smith mansion at Fourth and Broad streets, now the Columbus Club 
house, was erected, and the City Hall was begun. The latter was to have been completed 
January 1, 1871, at a cost of $124,400; but it was not completed till March, 1872, and its 
actual cost was .$175,000. It was formally opened March 28. It was intended to be a very 
beautiful and useful structure, but it has been neither. 

By joint action of the City Council and the County Commissioners in 1870, an area of 
4,052 acres, including Franklinton, the original settlement, and Middletown just east and 
a hamlet called Birmingham, west of Goodale park, was taken into the city of Columbus. 
The population of Franklinton, while not great, was so considerable as to make better pro- 
tection necessary. The annexation gave new life to the section and it soon became the 
progressive West Side, with many new homes as well as manufacturing establishments. 
Twenty years later the population was about 12,000. In 1919 with millions spent in 
grade crossing elimination and other millions being spent in flood protection, the population 
has increased and spread to the hilltop and beyond where a handsome residential section has 
been created. 

At the close of the Civil War there continued to be a marked popular interest in 
military organizations. The Hayden Guards appeared in 1865; the Meade Rifles and the 
Coldstream Zouaves in 1866; in the same year the Columbus Vedettes were reorganized, Cap- 
tain G. M. Bascom, and the survivors of the State Fencibles organized a States Fencibles 
Association, Theodore Jones president and T. J. Jannev secretary. In 1867 appeared the 
Sherman Guards, Henry Heinmillcr captain; the Emmett Guards, E. T. DeLaney captain; 
the Capital City Guards, Wesley Stephens captain and the National Union Guards, A. T. 
Zeigler captain. Jacob Albright was captain of the Coldstream Zouaves. 

In 1874 the Columbus Cadets were organized under the supervision of General C. C. 
Walcutt. Wade Converse was major. William Waggoner and Martin A. Gemuender were 
captains, and George Hardv and Charles B. Comstoc k were lieutenants. This was a de- 
tached organization ; it drilled and marched on special occasions and for some years gave an 
annual ball. 

In 1877 the Governor's Guards, another independent organization, was organized — Fred 



54 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Plasterer captain, L. R. Doty first lieutenant and Henry Comstock second lieutenant. It 
also marched on special occasions and gave receptions and social entertainments. Its use- 
fulness having ceased, it was disbanded in 1881, the feeling then being that militarv com- 
panies not a part of the Ohio National Guard and subject to full discipline were not desirable. 
The Ex-Soldiers and Sailors' Association of Franklin County was the first organiza- 
tion of Civil War veterans and in 1878 had about 200 members. In 1881 it bought a 
number of lots in Green Lawn cemetery for the burial of ex-soldiers and in 1883 inaugu- 
rated a movement for a suitable monument. Through its influence in 1886 the General 
Assembly authorized a tax levy to raise $10,000 to pay for such a monument. A sugges- 
tion that the monument be erected at Broad and High streets was rejected and the shaft 
was put up in Green Lawn in 1891. 



Hill 

6 'i 





High mul Broad Streets Looking East, lh 



In 1870 the first water works system was installed, as narrated elsewhere; the State 
street bridge was opened for travel July 11 of the same year. The North Market House 
was completed in 1876. 

The city was stirred socially in 1871 by the coming of Prince de Lynar of Germany 
and his marriage to Miss May Parsons, Rt. Rev. Bishop Mcllvaine officiating. 

In 1871 the State Fair was held here and has since been an annual event. 

On July 22, 1877, the great railway strike that spread over a considerable portion of 
the country, developed in Columbus. Pan Handle firemen and brakemen met in Goodale 
park and resolved that no more trains should pass through Columbus till wages were 
restored. The police tried and failed to protect the movement of trains. On the 29th, 
1000 special policemen and the Columbus Cadets were called into service and failed. Then 
the Governor ordered out 23 companies of the Ohio National Guard. August 1 saw order 
restored and the troops were sent home on the 4th. 

On February 28, 1877, President-elect Hayes was tendered a farewell reception in the 
Senate chamber, with speaking in the hall of the House. He thanked all for kindness and 



LEADING EVENTS FROM 1865 TO 1900 55 

courtesy to him while Governor and spoke with some uncertainty of the future. He was 
followed to the train the next morning and made a similar speech from the rear of the train. 

On invitation from a meeting of citizens, General and Mrs. U. S. Grant, then returning 
from a tour of the world, visited Columbus, December 12, 1879. A committee of citizens 
and of the Council co-operated in the arrangements and the visit was made the occasion of 
a great demonstration, in which many persons from outside of the city joined. Governor 
R. M. Bishop made an address of welcome, and the General briefly responded. A parade, 
a dinner, a ball under the auspices of the Governor's Guards, a reception, a song of welcome, 
composed by J. A. Searritt and sung by the sehool children, and fireworks display were 
features of the day. 

J. C. McCoy Post, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized January 7. 1881 and 
in the same year, the Woman's Soldiers' Aid Society, an auxiliary of Wells Post, was or- 
ganized. Joshua M. Wells Post, G. A. R., was organized June 19, 1881, and in the follow- 
ing year, the Woman's Relief Corps, auxiliary to Wells Post, was organized. Elias J. 
Beers Post, G. A. R., was organized July 5, 1889. In 1882, Dennison Camp, Sons of 
Veterans, was organized and incorporated. 

The Ex-Prisoners of War Association was organized in 1882. Its first officers were: 
John T. Harris president, Robert Dent vice president, S. W. Gale secretary, D. S. Wilder 
treasurer, E. C. Beach chaplain. 

The Thurman Light Guards (Co. B, 14th O. X. G.) Captain A. B. Coit, appeared in 
1878, and the Walcutt Battery, Captain E. G. Donaldson, in 1882. 

In 1881, the Fourteenth Regiment, O. N. G., Col. George D. Freeman, was ordered to 
Cincinnati to assist in quelling a riot resulting from a failure of justice in the Berner case. 
There was fighting in the street before the mob was subdued, and two men of the Fourteenth 
were killed — Leo Voglegesang and Israel S. Getz. The remains were brought home after the 
military service had been performed, and buried with military honors. The regiment, under 
Colonels George D. Freeman, A. B. Coit and John C. Speaks, has since served at various 
times to preserve order when mob violence was threatened and has always acquitted itself 
with credit. It has been one of the great mainstays of law in Ohio in peace times, and in 
times of war it has promptly been admitted to the national service. 

In 1885, the Columbus Memorial Association was incorporated to commemorate the service 
of the Franklin county soldiers and sailors in the Civil War, the idea being to erect a building. 
The charter members' were: H. M. Neil, E. C. Beach, C. C. White, George W. Smith, X. B. 
Abbott, John G Mitchell, C. T. Clarke, Carl X. Bancroft, George Cunningham, James 
DeWolfe, John H. Grove, John Beatty, George D. Freeman, W. M. Armstrong, A. B. Coit 
and George K. Nash. At the election in April, 1887, the people voted to levy a tax to raise 
$100,000 to erect the proposed building. The amount was found to be insufficient and 
the enterprise was temporarily deferred. In 1901-6, the project was carried to a successful 
conclusion with the erection on Broad street at Sixth street, of Memorial Hall, with num- 
erous rooms for the use of the veteran and pioneer organizations and a great auditorium, 
seating 1,000 persons. 

A large part of the records in the Franklin County Court House was destroyed by a mys- 
terious fire, December 12, 1879. This gave fresh impetus to a movement already existing for 
a new building which should be more secure. In the spring of 1881 the people voted for 
the issue of $500,000 bonds for the construction of a new Court House. George H. 
Maetzel was appointed to prepare the plans and Henry C. Xoble was designated by the 
Common Pleas judges to act with the commissioners in the approval of the plans. George 
Bellows was superintendent of construction. Pending the erection of the new building the 
county courts and officers were provided with rented rooms in adjacent buildings. The 
cornerstone of the new building was laid July 4, 1885, and the completed structure was 
dedicated July 13, 1887. A new jail was also erected just east of the Court House. The 
cost of the latter with boiler house and equipment was $170,000. The jail cost $165,000. 
The total of bonds issued was $1(51,000. 

An attempted fraud in the count of the votes cast in the city in the election in October. 
1885, was the occasion of much controversy and excitement. The fraud was in altering the 
figures of the tally-sheet of Precinct A. Thirteenth Ward, so as to add 300 votes to the 
Democratic total. The forgery was accomplished by taking the returns from the safe of 
the County Clerk, Saturday night, changing a 2 to a 5 and replacing the returns at some 



56 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



time before Monday morning. A similar fraud was discovered in Cincinnati, and there was 
the appearance of an effort by these forgeries to elect Democratic members of the General 
Assembly and so make certain the election of a Democratic United States Senator. Many 
Democrats as well as Republicans denounced the crime, and there was a long, but fruitless 
effort to discover and punish the guilty. There were several indictments, some reputations 
were ruined and one poor tool was sent to the Penitentiary. 

The great events of 1888 were the twenty-second national encampment of the Grand 
Army of the Republic and the observance of the centennial of the first settlement on Ohio 
soil. For the latter there was a great exposition calculated to exhibit the life and growth 
of the State. The State Board of Agriculture, the Archaeological and Historical Society 
and the State Horticultural Society co-operated in the preparation. The General Assembly 
appropriated $20,000 for the purpose and gave the State Board of Agriculture permission 
to bond the grounds for $50,000 more. General Samuel H. Hurst was chosen Director- 
General and an elaborate program of days from September 4 to October 16 was adopted. 
Columbus undertook to raise $100,000 — $25,000 for the centennial and $75,000 for the 
encampment. The total of subscriptions was $80,093, of which the centennial got $22,986. 




^jrr, \A**± 



Opening Punith nf Ohio Centennial. 1SSS 



The exposition began September 1, 1888, with a parade of the Ohio National Guard and 
a great gathering in the auditorium, one of the ten buildings that had been erected for the 
occasion. Governor J. B. Foraker was the orator and Coates Kinney the poet of the day, 
and 1,500 school children sang an ode composed by Henry T. Chittenden. Mrs. Foraker 
touched a button and the wheels of the exposition began to revolve. The exposition ap- 
pealed to many interests, brought together many thousands of people and fitly celebrated 
tlic century of progress. 

The encampment which opened on t he 9th proved to be one of the greatest ever held. 
The arrangements which were planned at weekly meetings for months before the opening, 
were in charge of a general committee, of which Colonel A. G. Patton was chairman, the 
other members being D. S. Grav, C. D. Firestone, John G. Mitchell, A. D. Rodgers, H. C. 
Lonnis, C. T. Clark, M. H. Neil, N. B. Abbott, David Fanning, Carl N. Bancroft, R. M. 
Rowand, G. C. Hoover, Emerson MeMillin, Theodore H. Butler, Andrew Schwarz and W. 
D. Brickell. C. D. Firestone was vice chairman and Alfred E. Lee secretary. The Society 
of the Army of West Virginia arranged to have its annual reunion at the time of the en- 
campment, and a committee, of which J. M. Rife was chairman, co-operated with the larger 



LEADING EVENTS FROM 1865 TO 1900 



57 



committee. Four camps were prepared, two west of the United States Barracks, one on 
Nineteenth street between Broad and Long and one at Neil avenue and Goodale street. 
Tents were put up for 55,000 men and dining halls were built. Accommodations for 
women and children were arranged for at hotels and private homes. High street was 
illuminated with arches. The locomotive, "General," captured and used by the Andrews 
Raiders in 1862, was brought for exhibition. The veterans of the Civil War came on time 
— 100,000 of them, it was estimated, with 150,000 others, wives, children and friends. They 
filled the camps, the hotels and most of the lodging houses. The parade was a marvel with 
not fewer than 50,000 men in line. It was a great encampment, a joy to the organiza- 
tion and a credit to the city and the members of the committee in charge. There was a 
deficit, of course. The camps had cost more than expected and the dining halls had yielded 
far less than they were planned to yield. The total cost of the encampment was $68,967.13 
and the deficit at its close was $21,413.56, but this was extinguished by the gate receipts 
at the exposition, Columbus day, and a second solicitation of subscriptions. 

On June 3, 1890, the street railway employes, who had formed a union, struck for 
shorter hours and more pay. No attempt was made to run cars till June 5, when a car 




Hi f/li Street in 7.s 



Looking South From Broad Street 



was run on Long street to High, where it was derailed and abandoned. An effort the next 
day to reach an agreement failed. The company tried a court injunction on the 7th, but 
that, too, failed owing to public sympathy with the strikers, great crowds blockino- the 
progress of the cars. On the 9th there was another conference, at which a settlement was 
reached and on the 10th, traffic was resumed. By the agreement, the working dav was re- 
duced from 16 to 12 hours and wages were increased. 

The remains of General Wm. T. Sherman, who had died in New York, February 14, 
1891, passed through the city on the 21st, en route to St. Louis. The train was greeted 
by the solemn booming of cannon. A great civic and military parade marched up Hio-h 
street to the Union Station, where a sympathetic crowd of several thousand had gathered. 
When the funeral train left, it was followed by a special carrying members of the Ohio 
General Assembly and the Fourteenth and Sixteenth regiments, Ohio National Guard, who 
went to St. Louis to participate in the funeral ceremonies. 

Bishop Watterson's silver jubilee was observed August 9, 1893, by a large gathering 
of distinguished churchmen, among whom was Archbishop Elder. Pontifical High Mass was 
celebrated in the morning at the cathedral and in the afternoon there was a parade of local 



58 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



and visiting Catholic societies, and in the evening there was a reception for the Bishop in 
the City Hall, with a banquet at the Chittenden Hotel. 

The city was visited June 8, 1893, by the Duke of Veragua and members of his family, 
direct descendants of Christopher Columbus. They had come from Spain, by invitation, to 
attend the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, celebrating the -iOOth anniversary of 
the discovery of America and, by invitation, they came to Columbus to see the largest city 
in the world bearing the name of their distinguished ancestor. There was a patriotic 
demonstration, with a street parade planned and commanded by General C. C. Walcutt. 
The parade was headed by General Walcutt and staff, followed by Superintendent J. A. 
Shawan, of the public schools, representatives of the parochial schools and about 10,000 
children from both public and parochial schools. The marchers bore the Stars and Stripes 
and the colors of Spain and many patriotic mottoes and, as they passed the reviewing stand, 
deposited their tribute of flowers. The National Guard and police guarded the streets and 
no accident marred the great demonstration. 

In 1897, the people of Columbus gave a considerable part of their effort to the cele- 
bration of the centennial of Franklinton. The first steps were taken by Father D. A. 




Farewell l„ ih< Ti 



SpanUh-Ai 



ir.i 



Clarke, of the Holy Family church, who called a meeting of West Side citizens at the West 
Side Market Hall, May 24, 1897. Committees were appointed and went to work. The 
Board of Trade responded with similar committees for the East Side and there was co-opera- 
tion resulting in the selection of September 11, 15 and l(i as the dates and the natural 
amphitheater west of the Central Hospital for the Insane, as the place. On the opening 
day, there were addresses by I). .1. Clahane, chairman of the executive committee. Governor 
Asa S. Bushnell, Mayor Samuel L. Black and General John Beatty. On the second day, 
there was a civic and industrial parade; addresses by United States Senator M. A. Hanna, 
Bishop John A. Watterson and Colonel E. I.. Taylor. On tin- third day, there were ad- 
dresses by Rev. J. H. Creighton and Congressman John J. Lentz, chorus singing of Keller's 
American Hymn and of "The Buckeye Pioneers," words by Osman C. Hooper and music 
by Ella May Smith, a special song for the occasion. On each of the days there were 
sports, fireworks, sham battles and other amusements, and in the Highland avenue school 
building there was a historical exhibit of great interest. 

The call for troops for the short war with Spain brought to Columbus for the third 
time since its founding the stir and excitement of military preparation. In 1846, there 



LEADING EVENTS FROM 1865 TO 1900 59 

seems to have been no special place of rendezvous. In 1861 Goodale park (called Camp 
Jackson) was used until Camp Chase was made read}'. In 1898, a 500-acre tract east of 
the city, just beyond Bullitt park, was chosen. H. A. Axline was Adjutant-General of 
Ohio and when war became certain, he sent a force to prepare the camp at that spot. The 
city extended its water mains to the site, the ground was laid out and lighted by electricity 
and the tents were set. The outside companies of the Fourteenth regiment arrived in the 
city April 27 and made temporary headquarters at the Armory, on Goodale street. On the 
29th, the entire regiment marched to Camp Bushmill, as the rendezvous had been called, 
great crowds cheering them on the way. In the afternoon, Battery H of the First regi- 
ment Ohio Light Artillery proceeded to camp. Then followed the First regiment, of Cin- 
cinnati ; the Third, of Springfield ; the Eighth, of Akron, and three companies of the Ninth 
Battalion (colored); the Second, of Kenton; the Sixteenth, of Toledo; the Seventeenth, of 
Chillieothe, and the Fifth, of Cleveland. The remainder of the artillery regiment arrived 
at camp at the end of the week, making the number of men in camp more than 8,000. 

Great crowds of people came to the city Sunday — the wives, sweethearts and friends 
of the soldiers — and the day was one burst of enthusiasm, following the demonstrations at- 
tending the arrival of each body of troops. Then followed days of drill in cold, rainy 
weather, with dress parade in the evening which, despite the weather, proved very at- 
tractive to the people who, while not warlike, were universally sympathetic and eager for 
the liberation of Cuba. This feeling was accentuated with the coming of the news of 
Dewey's victory in Manila Bay, and the second Sunday in camp brought even a greater 
number of visitors to the city and camp than did the first. The militiamen were about 
completing their physical examination prior to their admission to the fighting forces of the 
United States when two battalions of cavalry organized after the call arrived. On May 
13 the troops were ordered to move to Camp Thomas, Chickamauga, and on the following- 
day, the first troops left the city. Singularly enough, they were the cavalry, Colonel Day, 
who had been the last to arrive. The First regiment left Saturday evening, the Fourteenth 
(later the Fourth O. V. I.) left Sunday, and the other troops as fast as transportation could 
be provided, the later ones going to Tampa. Sunday's demonstration was most impres- 
sive, for these were the home boys going away to fight for somebody else's libertv. As 
the regiment marched west on Broad street, it was met by a civic parade, headed by Mayor 
Samuel L. Black, with the police, letter carriers, uniformed knights and others, while the 
church throngs and others looked on from the sidewalks and applauded. In the State 
House yard cannon boomed a farewell. Hardly less enthusiastic was the Godspeed given 
to the Ninth Battalion, Major Young, when it left on the following Friday. The colored 
people had arranged an escort of their own and presented to the departing troops a stand 
of colors, J. D. Tyler making the presentation speech at the reviewing stand near the 
entrance to the State House grounds. 

A little more than three weeks after the first troops arrived, the last had gone. The 
average number of troops in camp was 8,000, and everything had been satisfactorily done. 
The cost per meal per man was shown by the Adjutant General's report to have been seven 
cents, and the rations were said to have been of first quality. 

The return of the troops after the war was marked by similar demonstrations of en- 
thusiasm, to which was added congratulation at the early and satisfactory result of the 
intervention. The Columbus troops had served chiefly in the occupation of Porto Rico. 

In 1906', following the example in other parts of the country, the soldiers of that war 
organized Columbus Camp No. 49, Department of Ohio, United Spanish War Veterans. 
The first officers of the camp were: Commander, John C. Speaks; senior vice commander, 
Harold M. Bush; junior vice commander, Arthur C. McGuire ; adjutant, Charles W. Finley; 
quartermaster, Ben W. Chamberlain ; officer of the guard, Morton H. Hayes; surgeon, Henry 
M. Taylor ; chaplain, Henry W. Krumm ; trustees, MacLee Wilson, George B. Donavin and 
B. L. Bargar. Through this organization there has been much mutual helpfulness and the 
annual honoring of the memory of the dead. In 1908, the mothers, wives and woman rela- 
tives of the veterans of the Spanish war were organized as Columbus Auxiliary, No. 18, 
and have served the kindly, helpful purposes of such organizations. 



CHAPTER X. 

EVENTS FROM 1900 TO 1918. 

Memorial to President Wm. McKinley — Disastrous Strike of Street Railway Employes — 
Centennial of the Founding of Columbus — "Billy" Sunday Reznval — Great Flood of 
1913 — Demand for Flood Protection and Adoption of the Channel Improvement Plan 
— Troops at Camp Willis for Mexican Border Service — Border Service Medal — 
Woman Suffrage Movement. 

The death of President Wm. McKinley at the hands of an assassin in 1901 brought a 
real sorrow to Columbus where he had lived and served as Governor and during his period 
of residence had been a real factor in the city life. The suggestion that a memorial to 
him be erected at once found approval and it was quickly arranged that the state and the 
capital city should share equally in such a tribute. A popular subscription was opened 
and in a short time 15,000 persons had subscribed $2.5,000. The General Assembly ap- 
propriated another $25,000. H. A. MacNeil, New York sculptor, was engaged to design and 
erect at the middle of the west side of the Capitol square the memorial which is now the chief 
art work in the city. The commission which had charge of the work was composed of state 
and city officials, representatives of the Board of Trade and of the citizens generally. 
During the four years in which the sculptor was at work, Governors George K. Nash, Myron 
T. Herrick, John M. Pattison, Mayors D. C. Badger and Robert H. Jeffrey, L. C. Laylin, 
Walter D. Guilbert, Daniel H. Sowers, F. W. Schumacher, R. Grosvenor Hutchins, George 
W. Lattimer, John J. Joyce, O. A. Miller and George W. Bright were members. John G. 
Deshler was president, John Y. Bassell secretary and W. F. Burdell treasurer. 

The dedication of the memorial, September 15, 1906, the fifth anniversary of McKin- 
ley's death, was the occasion of a tremendous outpouring of people. Not fewer than 
50,000 persons were crowded into the Capitol square. Owing to some idle curiosity on a 
part of a few in the throng, a movement of the great mass at one time began which threat- 
ened a disaster, and it was necessary to adjourn the meeting which it was expected to have 
in the open air. The speakers of the day were Justice Wm. R. Day, United States Senator 
John W. Daniels, Past Commander Joseph W. Kay, of the Union Veteran I.egion, and Com- 
mander-in-Chief B. R. Brown, of the Grand Army of the Republic. They were heard 
in the evening by a great audience in Memorial Hall. 

The memorial, which faces to the west, has the general form of an arc, a pedestal at 
the center bearing an heroic size statue of McKinley as he appeared when delivering at 
the Buffalo Exposition his last public address. At each end and connected with the central 
pedestal by a granite bench are two allegorical figures intended to typify the American ideas 
and sentiments that underlie good government. On the right is the type of physical force 
and human energy in repose — a strong man beside whom is seated a youth of the coming 
generation in an attitude of intense study under the direction of practical wisdom and 
maturity. Together the figures typify prosperity through progress. On the left is the 
figure of a woman typical of those noble attributes of heart and home for which the country 
stands, the complement of those exemplified in the man towards whom she looks. Her left 
hand protectingly encircles the maiden at her side and places above the emblem of war 
the palm of peace. The maiden holds in her hand a wreath. This group is meant to sym- 
bolize the tribute of the people to McKinley. On the stone work on either side of the 
statuary and upon the pedestal itself are striking quotations from McKinley \s last address. 

The year 1910 was marked by one of the longest and most bitterly contested street 
car strikes on record. A labor union was organized among the employes early in the year 
and, through its officers, in the last days of March demand was made for increased pay 
on the basis of 27 cents an hour, for the right of the men to deal witli the company through 
the union, for the restoration of certain discharged employes and for time and a half for work 
beyond the schedule which was nine and a half hours a day. There were negotiations for 
several days and various efforts to prevent a strike, which culminated in a proposition by 
tile company to pay a cent an hour more, to listen to complaints from its employes at any 



EVENTS FROM 1900 TO 1918 



61 



time and to restore to their places most of the discharged men. The proposition was ac- 
cepted April 6 without a strike. 

Discontent, however, arose among the men. They charged that the agreement was not 
being carried out by the company, that union men were being discriminated against and 
that the leaders in the making of the March demand were being disposed of as rapidly as 
possible. Failing to get satisfaction from the company they struck July 24, and the com- 
pany undertook to run its cars under protection The employes then numbered about 600, 
most of whom were actively in the strike. Violence at once began, offered not so much by 
the strikers themselves as by roughs and idlers who felt behind them a popular disapproval 
of the company. Mayor Marshall, rinding that the police could not control the situation, 
called on the sheriff for assistance and, when the combined force failed, he asked Governor 
Harmon for troops. The troops came, 2,000 of them at first, and were quartered in the 
State House grounds, in Franklin and Washington parks and at the car-houses north and west. 
That was Julv 28th. On the 30th more troops were called, being used not to run the cars, 
but to suppress rioting and preserve order, and in the meantime efforts were made by the 
city, the state and business organizations to bring about a settlement. Terms were offered 
by each side and rejected or ignored by the other. 




View of Capitol and McKinley Monument 



Thinking the worst over the Governor sent the troops home and they left, half on the 
4th and the remainder on the 7th. The violence was then renewed, cars were stoned and 
there was some shooting in which a number of persons were hurt. Mayor Marshall ordered 
that police be put on the cars, the more readily to arrest rioters. Thirty-three members 
of the force refused to obey these orders and were dismissed by Chief Charles E. Carter. 
Others obeyed and special officers were sworn in, but the mob spirit persisted. On August 
15, Governor Harmon recalled the troops and took personal charge of the situation, but he 
was no more successful than the Mayor had been. The rioters procured dynamite which 
they used in efforts to destroy cars and car-houses. A score or more of persons who ven- 
tured to ride the ears were injured and Robert Mitchell died from the effects of an injury 
when hit by a stone. 

The city was now thoroughly alarmed; rewards were offered for the capture of the 
dynamiters, and the police and troops were more vigorous in their measures ; prisoners were 
made to understand that they would be prosecuted and punished if guilty. The extraordi- 
nary violence had alienated the sympathy of many, and gradually the ear traffic came into its 
customary security. But it was not till October 18 that the carmen voted to call off the 
strike and lift the business ban that had been laid on all who rode in the ears. The union got 
no concession from the company, though General Manager Stewart expressed a willingness 
to take back into the company's employ men who had not been identified with the violence, 



62 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

if their places had not already been tilled. Four of the arrested rioters were sent to the 
Penitentiary and two to the Reformatory. The cost to the state for the use of the troops 
was $ 180,0*00; the cost to the city was $75,000; the company lost a great volume of business 
and the men lost nearly three months' wages, and there was much damage to cars, car-houses 
and other property. And out of the long struggle grew a Socialist party with about 
10,000 votes. 

The centennial anniversary of the founding of Columbus was celebrated during the week 
of August 26, 1912, in connection with the State Fair. Monday, the 26th, was Columbus 
dav witli a parade of floats, an automobile parade and other features demonstrating the 
industrial and commercial life of the city and a great out-door meeting addressed by Gov- 
ernor Judson Harmon, Mayor George J. Karb and President W. O. Thompson, of the 
Centennial Commission. Tuesday was Ohio da}-, its features being a luncheon of the descend- 
ants of Ohio Governors, a woman suffrage parade of 1,000 persons, and a beautiful histor- 
ical pageant of numerous floats that moved on High and other central streets in the evening. 
Wednesday, Fraternal day, was especially marked by the coming from other cities in the 
state of a number of German singing societies, a parade with the local societies and a 
concert at Memorial Hall in the evening. On Thursday President W. H. Taft came, 
spoke at the Fair Grounds and was entertained by the lawyers at a banquet in the evening. 
Friday, Veterans' day, witnessed gatherings of Civil War and Spanish War veterans, and a 
tablet to soldiers of 'the American Revolution who are buried in Franklin county was un- 
veiled in Memorial Hall. Saturday, Children's day, was observed with a great pageant 
on Ohio Field in which many children took part. The week began with rain and ended with 
extreme heat which caused many prostrations at the children's pageant, but it was a sea- 
son of events worthy of the occasion and enjoyed by many thousands of visitors as well as 
the 200,000 residents. Of the street decorations the most notable was the Court of Honor 
built in Broad street between High and Third. Another feature was the historical exhibit, 
under the auspices of the Daughters of the American Revolution, at the Public Library 
building. 

In December. 1912, in response to a request of a committee of ministers, came Rev. 
William A. ("Billy") Sunday and his group of evangelistic workers. In the party, besides 
Mrs. ("Ma") Sunday, were: B. D. Ackley, Grace Saxe, Homer A. Rodehaver, Anna Mac- 
Laren Fred Siebert, "Uncle .limmie" Johnson, Rev. and Mrs. William Asher and William 
Collison. Great advance preparations were made for the revival. A fund was raised for the 
building of a tabernacle at Goodale and Park streets, with a seating capacity of 12,000 
besides seats for a choir of 1,200. Church and cottage prayer meetings were held and an 
agreement was entered into by which sixty of the churches closed on Sunday, releasing the 
pastors and members for religious work in connection with the revival. The project was 
opposed from the beginning by Rev. Dr. Washington Gladden, who disapproved both Sun- 
day's doctrines and methods. The Lutherans also held aloof, but for the most part all the 
Protestant churches of the city joined in the work which continued from December 2!) to 
February 16, 1913. I" that period 95 meetings were held in the tabernacle, sometimes as 
often as three a day, and at all but two of these "Billy" Sunday preached, occasionally 
also speaking in nearby towns. From the very first the daily newspapers treated the re- 
vival as a local event of first moment; religion was the first topic of conversation; business 
and social engagements were deferred or abandoned; everybody was intent on hearing or 
discussing the evangelist, and the few objectors only added to the zest. The newspapers 
with specially assigned reporters, pictured the great throngs that filled the tabernacle and 
reported the evangelist's sermons in full, as well as all the news of the life of the various 
members of the party. Bad weather had no effect on the meetings. People clamored at the 
doors long before they were open and never failed to fill the room. Some carried lunches 
which they ate between services, thus hearing two sermons a day. The employes of stores 
and factories went en masse to the services; throngs came from outside towns and filled seats 
that were reserved for them. The city and environs were stirred as never before by a 
revival. Reconsecrations and conversions numbered 18, ■'):!.'{, of whom 2,189 went forward 
on the last day of the meetings. All who signed cards had indicated their church prefer- 
ences and tliev were so divided among the different denominations, the pastors and workers 
of each church then seeking to gather in the converts. Many church membership rolls were 
lengthened by hundreds. The actual increase in church strength is uncertain; it is enough 



EVENTS FROM 1900 TO 1918 (53 

to say here that not all of the conversions proved to be lasting. The total of the offerings 
was $4.4,432.68. Of this, the personal offering to Mr. Sunday was about $21,000; that for 
current expenses, .$19,187.81; for charity, $2,381.55 and that for the women of the party, 
$1,115.55. 

Another great event of 191:3 was the flood which overwhelmed the West Side and set 
the rest of the city an unprecedented task of rescue and relief. Its immediate predecessor 
was the flood of 1898, which caused much property loss, drove people from their homes, 
halted the work in factories and closed for a time the water works and electric light plants. 
There had been floods from the time of the very earliest settlement at Franklinton ; in fact 
the location that Lucas Sullivant chose in 1797 for the town was shifted to higher around 
on account of an inundation in 1798. Others had followed in 1828, 1832, 1834, when the 
temporary National Road bridge was damaged; 1847, when that damage was repeated and 
water rose five feet in the warehouses along the Scioto; in 1852, when the river bottoms were 
inundated and Franklinton was isolated; in 1860, 1862, 1869, 1870, 1875, 1881 and 1883. 
Of these floods, two had occurred in January, two in February, two in March, two in April 
and one each in July, August, September and December. The danger time, it will be ob- 
served, was in the spring and winter months. Notably, too, there was an increase in the 
severity of the floods as the years passed, due, no doubt, in large part, to the encroach- 
ments on the river channel as the city grew. 

The West Side well knew the menace but even with the sad experience of 1898, it had 
no conception of the disaster that befell it March 25, 1913, and the days immediately fol- 
lowing. There had been heavy rainfall in the watershed of the Scioto and Olentangy 
rivers, Sunday, March 23. By 9 o'clock Tuesday morning the water overtopped the levee 
and by noon all the low ground was inundated. The destruction of the levees left the sub- 
merged section at the mercy of the river, which raged beyond the capacity of the channel 
for nearly five days. Those were days of terror for those caught in the flood and of tre- 
mendous effort at succor on the part of the municipal officials, police, soldiers and citizens. 
In many parts of the district the water ran in currents so swift that boats could not pass. 
Houses were bowled off their foundations and people who had gone to the upper stories for 
safety were thrown in the water and drowned. Some who had climbed into trees could 
not be readied by the boats and suffered from hunger and cold till they dropped into the 
waters and were lost. In these and other ways, 93 lives were lost. Thousands of people 
were imprisoned in their homes for three or four days ; others escaped, leaving all their pos- 
sessions behind only to find that they were swept away or otherwise destroyed by the water. 
The property damage was estimated by the engineers who made the flood protection survey 
later, at $5,622,000. The entire city was without water for 20 hours and the West Side 
for about a week; all the public schools were closed for three days and the nine public schools 
on the West Side for five weeks or more; railroads were unable to operate on their own 
tracks for weeks ; street car service throughout the city was suspended for two days and 
badly crippled for a week and ears were not run across the river for a month ; four street 
bridges were destroyed and many West Side streets were so filled with debris as to be im- 
passable. 

Three committees differently appointed for relief as soon as the need was seen to be im- 
perative were merged into one, with representatives of the Associated Charities, Chamber 
of Commerce, the city government and the citizens generally. A station for the gathering 
and distribution of supplies was established on Spring street ; the flooded district was sub- 
divided, school houses and churches where available were used as stations for rescue and 
relief; over the Rich street bridge, when its safety was assured, came a stream of refugees 
who were registered at the City Hall and sent to temporary shelter on the East Side. 
Superintendent J. I.. Fieser, of the Associated Charities, and his force of workers were in- 
valuable in systematizing the relief, while S. P. Bush, George W. Lattimer, W. G. Benham 
and others including Mayor George J. Karb and his official associates, lent themselves wholly 
to the great task. Robert F. Wolfe secured from Buckeye Lake numerous boats and, with a 
corps of helpers whom lie himself gathered and directed, did everything that was humanly 
possible to save the lives of those who had been caught in the flood. School principals, 
teachers and janitors helped as they could. Churches and lodges gave money and service; 
in fact everybody helped where he saw the need and there was a greater demonstration of 
human brotherhood than had ever before been shown in the city. 



(54 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

After the busy days and sleepless nights came the work of rehabilitation in which the 
National Red Cross supplemnted local workers with trained agents. A local rehabilitation 
committee and a special representative of the Red Cross worked together, giving discrimi- 
natingly to the sufferers in proportion to their needs. Legal aid was given free in necessary 
adjustments. The number of dwelling houses flooded was 1,071; number of persons fed 
from the relief supplies during the first days, 20,000 ; sufferers who owned their homes, 
1 306, of which 733 were mortgaged; homes in which there was a total loss of furniture, 
132 ; homes with a partial loss, 2,572. The Red Cross provided furniture in 2,363 cases ; 
working equipment in 210; clothing and bedding in 286; repairs and building in 390. The 
amount of money spent in this way by the Red Cross was more than $170,000. There is 
no way of estimating the amount otherwise spent, but it was certainly as much more. The 
Council in April issued $25,000 for obligation relief, and the total of bonds issued by the 
citv that year for sanitation, reinstatement and repair on account of the flood totaled nearly 
$300,000. ' 

A demand for adequate protection from Hood was immediately made following this 
disaster, and the Council empowered the Mayor and Director of Public Works to employ 
competent engineers to report the best method to be adopted. John W. Alvord and Charles 
B. Burdick, of Chicago, were employed in May and in September submitted a report, pre- 
senting 10 different projects and recommending two, either of which would cost, according 
to the estimates, more than $11,000,000. One of them proposed the abandonment of the 
old river channel around the bend and cutting a new channel to take the total flow across 
the West Side between McDowell and Skidmore streets. The other proposed detaining 
reservoirs above Dublin and Delaware and the substitution of a new straight channel for 
the old crooked one. 

After an acrimonious discussion in and out of the public press, in the course of which it 
was estimated that the city's share of the improvement by the favored plan would be $8,500,000 
the question was submitted to a vote of the people and overwhelmingly beaten. In the fol- 
lowing March, the General Assembly passed the Vonderheide act, creating flood districts 
with a commission by each to be appointed by the Common Pleas judges. The commission 
was instructed to prepare plans which, after approval by the judges, were to be executed 
by the commission, to which was given almost arbitrary power in bond issuing. For this 
district, Julius F. Stone, George W. Lattimer and George E. Williams were appointed as 
the commission, or conservancy board. This body employed the same engineers who, after 
a more thorough study, found that a plan of detaining basins, combined with channel im- 
provements would afford protection, not only to Columbus, but also to the district north as 
far as Delaware and south as far as Chillieothe, and that it could be executed for about the 
same cost as the cut-off channel plan. There was then an effort to enlarge the district, but 
it failed, and it then appeared that the whole cost would have to be assessed on the bene- 
fited part of Franklin county. This, with so costly a project, it was held by many, would 
amount almost to confiscation of the property in the flood district, already much depreciated. 
On this proposition the conservancy board split, Mr. Lattimer agreeing with the objectors. 
The plan, nevertheless, was presented to the judges who disapproved it. Then began a 
movement to ignore the conservancy board and have the channel improved by the city itself, 
and the city engineering division was asked to make an estimate on the cost of a 580-foot 
channel, substantially twice the old width. The first estimate showing that it could be 
done for $5,000,000, the Council directed the preparation of plans which could be executed 
for $3,500,000. That was done and a bond issue in that amount was submitted at the elec- 
tion in November, 1916. The proposition was approved by a large margin, the contracts 
were awarded, the necessary property appraised and acquired by purchase of condemnation 
and the work of channel widening was begun in April under the direction of R. H. Simpson, 
of the city engineering division. In August, 1918, about $500,000 had been spent in acquir- 
ing the needed ground and $250,000 on contracts. With three-quarters of the first million 
used, the Federal Government authorized the issue of a second million as a wartime neces- 
sity. The city now owns every foot of the west bank of the Scioto from the mouth of the 
Olentangy to the sewage disposal plant and all on the east side for the same distance, except 
the strip between Broad street and Rich street — the old wharf lots which the city, through 
a short-sighted policy, sold some years ago. An earth levee was constructed along the west 
bank, except for a distance 1,200 feet north of Broad street where concrete was used. The 

I 



EVENTS FROM 1900 TO 1918 65 

bend in the river was made less pronounced. A proposition to issue bonds in a sufficient 
amount to recover the old wharf lots and create there a Victory park was defeated at the 
polls in 1919 and also in 1920. The channel improvement was estimated in May, 1920, to be 
60' /( completed. 

The fifth war episode in Columbus history was that of 1916 when the Ohio National 
(iuard was summoned to Columbus to participate in the protection of the Mexican border. 
The civil war in the neighboring republic had left it without a responsible head and raids 
across the border had indicated that something must be done for the protection of Americans 
whose homes were in peril and that perhaps intervention would be necessary. The state 
military authorities chose for the camp a site at Upper Arlington which was elaborately pre- 
pared under the direction of Adjutant General B. W. Hough and named for the Governor 
Camp Willis. The Eighth regiment, Colonel Edward Vollrath, arrived at camp. July 29. 
That was followed on succeeding days by the Fifth regiment, Colonel Charles X. Zimmer- 
man; the Fourth, Colonel B. I.. Bargar ; the Sixth, Colonel W. V. McMaken; the Second 
Colonel G. D. Deming; the First squadron of cavalry and First battalion of field artillery. 
Physical examinations of the men began at once and were so rigid that of the 11,000 men 
who responded only about 8,000 were mustered into the federal service. Weeks of wait- 
ing followed, and there was much uncertainty as to how and where the Ohio troops would 
be used. A general railroad strike threatened and added to the uncertainty. But on August 
29th, the Fifth regiment left for El Paso and by September 6 all the troops had entrained 
for the border, the Eighth, Fifth and Fourth regiments, being brigaded together under 
command of Brigadier General John C. Speaks. The troops all went to El Paso and the 
news from the Fourth on the 17th was that the regiment was at Camp Perching. 

The camp site here was at once abandoned and its equipment sold at auction. 
There had been a misunderstanding between the War Department and the state military 
authorities, the former never intending, it seems, that the camp should be permanent. The 
latter had proceeded on another theory and had spent over $200,000 in preparing a camp 
for continuous use. Mess shacks, store houses, latrines, shower baths, etc., had been con- 
structed, roads built and gas, water and sewers installed. 

By act of the General Assembly, March 29, 1917, appropriating $5,000 for the purpose, 
a Mexican border service badge was struck for every man in the Ohio militarv organizations. 
It consisted of a bar, showing the national shield, stars and the Roman fasces, from which 
was suspended the medal proper. One side bore the seal of Ohio, surrounded by the words, 
"Mexican Border Service, 1916-1917." On the other side was inscribed, "Presented by the 
State of Ohio." 

Woman Suffrage Movement. 

For tile following acount of the woman suffrage movement in Columbus, the author is in- 
debted to Dr. Alice Mandane Johnston: 

The agitation for woman's rights began in Columbus in 1843-44, after Abby Kelly 
Foster lectured on anti-slavery and human freedom, a cause in which Ohio, because of its 
geographical location, was a storm center. Mrs. Rebecca A. S. Janney was the original local 
suffrage leader, and her mantle fell on Mrs. Elizabeth Coit, and hers in turn on Mrs. Belle 
Coit Kelton. 

The first woman suffrage petition ever presented to a governing body here was read in 
May, 1850, before the Ohio Constitutional Convention. A suffrage memorial was submitted 
March 23, 1854, to the General Assembly — the first of a long line. Among the prominent 
advocates of suffrage who appeared before legislative committees in the early days were Lucy 
Stone, Eucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Anna Dickinson, Dr. Anna Shaw, Sojourner Truth 
and Mary A. Livermore. 

In 1875 Frances Willard, at the home of a Columbus temperance crusader, Mrs. Eben 
Sargent (mother of Mrs. D. C. Beggs) first consecrated herself to the woman suffrage cause, 
and a franchise department was added to the Women's Christian Temperance Union — 
Mrs. L. B. DeSelm, leader of the crusade, Mrs. Anna Clark, Mrs. Mary Castle, Mrs. Sarah 
Innis and Mrs. James Taylor being among the local suffrage workers of the time. In 1884 
Mrs. Elizabeth Coit organized a local suffrage association which for many years met 
monthly at her home. In 1884 Rebecca A. S. Janney called a state suffrage convention in 
Columbus, the local delegates being Mr. and Mrs. O. G. Peters, Mrs. Elizabeth Coit, Mrs. 
Belle Coit Kelton, Judge John T. Gale and his mother, Mrs. Marv J. Gale. In 1885 Mrs. 



66 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Coit was chosen treasurer of the State Association, held office for 11 years and in 1900 was 
made honorary president. 

In 1888 Dr. Anna Shaw and Susan B. Anthony visited Columbus and held numerous 
suffrage meetings, the former addressing a committee of the General Assembly. Tiie first 
result of the long agitation was in 1894 when the right to vote in school elections was 
granted to the women of Ohio. In the same year the right of Ida M. Earnhart, wife of State 
Senator M. B. Earnhart, to register as a voter was sustained by the Ohio Supreme Court 
in a test case brought by the suffrage association. 

The Columbus Equal Suffrage League was organized in 1907 at the home of Mrs. O. G. 
Peters, and has held monthly meeting continuously to the present time. Among the early 
officers were Mrs. Belle Coit Kelton and Mrs. Charles Lentz. In 1909, under the manage- 
ment of Dr. Sara Fletcher, then president, the league conducted the successful campaign of 
Mrs. Dora Sandoe Bachman for member of the Board of Education ; at that election 300 
votes were cast by women. The league also aided in the election of the following women to 
the board: Miss Ella June Purcell in 1911; Mrs. Bachman and Mrs. Cora Mae Kellogg 
in 1913, Mrs. Kellogg in 1915, Miss Kate M. Lacey in 1917 and Mrs. Wm. McPherson in 1919. 

On May 3, 1912, the Ohio Constitutional Convention voted to submit to the electors the 
question of omitting from the constitution the vital words "white male." This was the suf- 
fragists' opportunity and the}' went zealously into the campaign. The Franklin County 
Woman Suffrage Association was organized, Mrs. Wm. Neil King president. Miss Jeannette 
Eaton secretary, with headquarters in the Chamber of Commerce building. Two suffrage 
weeklies appeared — Everywoman edited by Miss Sarah Swaney and Miss Mary Toole, and 
the Ohio Woman edited by Miss H. Anna Quinbv. There was street speaking by women, 
and there were meetings in factories and at picnics; literature was widely distributed and at 
a mass meeting in Olentangv park under the auspices of the Woman's Taxpayers' League, 
Belva Lockwood spoke to 10,000 people. As a part of the Columbus Centennial celebration 
in 1912, there was a stately and beautiful suffrage parade, organized by Mrs. Julius F. 
Stone, Mrs. Herbert Brooks and others, and at Memorial Hall in the afternon of August 27, 
Dr. Anna Shaw, Mrs. Raymond Robbins and Mrs. Ella Reeves Bloor made pleas for suf- 
frage. At the special election following, woman suffrage was defeated in the State by 
87.155 votes. Franklin county voted 12,284 for and 14,851 against suffrage. 

But the fight went on. Mrs. Snowden, wife of a member of the British Parliament, 
Jane Addams and Mrs. Emmaline Pankhurst came at different times in 1913 to speak. 
Petitions for another submission of the question were circulated in Franklin and 72 other 
counties and 131,000 signatures were secured. These were presented to the General Assem- 
bly July 30, 1914, and supported by many arguments. The Franklin County Woman Suf- 
frage Association, Mrs. Julius F. Stone chairman, Dr. Alice M. Johnston secretary and Miss 
Lucille Atcheson executive secretary, conducted a vigorous campaign of appeal to the con- 
sciences of men and there were many meetings with both local and outside speakers. At the 
election in 1914, suffrage was again defeated. 

A month later Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton, at the convention of the state association, 
summoned the women to another effort. The Columbus branch of the Congressional Union, 
whose aim was to secure the adoption by Congress of a resolution submitting to the states a 
suffrage amendment to the Federal constitution, was organized June 25, 1915, and there 
was much activity to secure suffrage by that means. 

After the national election of 1916, a bill was introduced in the General Assembly 
granting to women the right to vote in presidential elections in Ohio. After much discussion 
flic bill passed the House February 1, 1917, and the Senate two weeks later. On the 21st 
it was signed by Governor James M. Cox who declared in a speech in May that lie would do 
everything lie honestly could do to prevent the referendum on the act that was then being 
urged by its enemies. Nevertheless the question was submitted and the act was disapproved. 

This was followed April 16, 1917, by the adoption by flic City Council of a resolution, 
offered by Councilman J. C. Nailor, granting to women the right to vote in municipal elec- 
tions. This was submitted to the people in August, 1917, following a spirited campaign and 
was approved— 8648 to 7(i87. Three suffrage organizations arc maintained: The Franklin 
County Woman Suffrage Association, Mrs. Wm. P. Halenkamp president, and the Columbus 
Equal Suffraee League, Mrs. Charles Lentz president, and the Columbus branch of the Con- 
gressional Union, Mrs. Florence Ralston Warren chairman. 



CHAPTER XI. 

FIRST YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR. 

Review of the City's Activities — Spirit Before the Declaration of War — Council of National 
Defense — War Gardening — Visit of Marshal Joffre and Viviani — Early Recruiting — 
F. M. C. A. Campaign— First Liberty Loans— War Chest of $3,000,000— "Call to 
the Colors" Day — Ohio National Guard Mobilizes and Departs — Nai'al Hospital 
Unit — Ohio State University's Part — Red Cross and Other Relief Organisations — 
Women's Committee for Food and Other Conservation — Food and Coal Prices — Colum- 
bus at the Officers' Training Camp — War Savings Stamp Campaign — Draft Boards 
Work — Community and Training Camp Service — Pro-German Sentiment. 

At the declaration of war with Germany, April 6, 1917, Columbus sprang promptly and 
enthusiastically to the defense of American principles of national liberty and international 
good will. Sentiment, created by a patriotic press and pulpit and the thoughtful expression 
by citizens of all classes had kept well abreast of the national administration, and the only 
question was whether America had acted soon enough. Grateful for all the President had 
done to keep the nation honorably out of tin: war in Europe, the General Assembly, which 
had convened the preceding January, so expressed itself, February 20, declaring also its con- 
fidence in his high purpose. Later, when it appeared that this nation must enter the war, 
it sent a message of cheer to him and the great majority of Congress which was standing 
behind him with heart and vote. It had also thanked the Ohio National Guard for its 
services on the Mexican border in time of national peril and appropriated $5,000 to fur- 
nish each officer and enlisted man a badge of honor emblematic of that service. It had 
codified and revised the military laws of Ohio so as to bring them into conformity with 
the laws of the FJnited States and had appropriated a lump sum of $42(3,7 12. 10 for the 
maintenance of the Guard because it could not know exactly what the requirements of the 
new national army law would be. It had also authorized the Governor to make a military 
census of men in Ohio between the ages of 18 and 15 years and had voted to him an emer- 
gency fund of $250,000 to be used for the enlistment of men in the army and navy, in case 
of war, or otherwise, in co-operation with the President, for the protection of the nation. 
And to the Russian people it had sent a message of congratulation on the overthrow of 
autocracy. 

In both official and private life the conviction had steadily grown that war must come 
and ought to come. On April 2, a mass meeting was held at Memorial Hall. The audi- 
torium was packed and thousands were unable to gain admission. Mayor Karb. Professors 
J. A. Leighton and Edward Orton, jr., ex-Governor James E. Campbell, Martin J. Caples, 
Rev. A. M. Courtenay and Rabbi Joseph S. Kornfeld spoke. Resolutions reciting the wrongs 
of this country at the hands of Germany were adopted, and a committee consisting of J. 
A. Leighton, Max Morehouse and John T. Gale was sent to Washington to assure the Presi- 
dent of the support of Columbus in any action he might take in defense of the country. 

Plans were at once laid to recruit the Fourth regiment, O. N. G., to full war strength 
of 2,055 men and officers. President W. O. Thompson acting for the trustees and faculty 
of Ohio State University, wired to President Wilson an expression of abiding confidence 
in his high purpose and an offer of the resources of the university in men and in scientific 
and research laboratories, and on the very day of the declaration of war by Congress, 
enlistment offices for the army, the navy, United States Marines and Fourth regiment were 
opened. With Troop B as a nucleus, recruiting was also at once begun for the "Governor's 
Squadron" of cavalry, the Second Field hospital and the Second Field ambulance. The 
Athletic Club pledged to the United States an armored motor car, with a crew of 12 men. 

Soon after the declaration of war, Governor Cox appointed the following to constitute 
the Ohio branch of the Council of National Defense: A. A. Augustus, Cleveland; Samuel 
P. Bush, Columbus; ex-Governor James E. Campbell, Columbus; Martin J. Caples, Colum- 
bus; Fred C. Croxton, Columbus; Thomas J. Donnelly, Columbus; Frank P. Donnenwirth, 
Bucyrus; C. M. Eikenberry, Hamilton; James W. Faulkner, Columbus; Paul L. Feiss, 
Cleveland; H. S. Firestone, Akron; John P. Frey, Cincinnati; Gen. J. Warren Keifer, 



68 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Springfield; B. H. Kroger, Cincinnati; John Moore, Columbus; Frank E. Myers, Ashland; 
Joseph R. Nutt, Cleveland; John J. Quinlivan, Toledo; S. O. Richardson, Toledo; Daniel 
J. Ryan, Columbus; J. V. B. Scarborough, Cincinnati; W. S. Stone, Cleveland; L. J. Taber, 
Barnesville; Colonel H. E. Talbott, Dayton; Dr. W. O. Thompson, Columbus; W. W. 
Thornton, Akron; David Tod, Youngstown; James Wilson, Cincinnati. These men were 
chosen as representatives of capital, labor and the great forces engaged in transportation, 
manufacturing, education, agriculture and publicity. 

The council organized at once and inaugurated movements to increase crop production ; 
to educate more housewives in canning fruits and vegetables ; to secure the labor needed for 
the construction of the cantonments and for the cultivation of the fields, as well as the mak- 
ing of munitions; to prevent strikes and fires; to secure justice between employers and em- 
ployes by the enforcing of the labor laws, and to guard the health of the soldiers in the 
camps. The agricultural division, by gubernatorial appointment consisted of Dean Alfred 
Vivian, of the College of Agriculture, President W. O. Thompson, of the Ohio State Uni- 
versity; Louis J. Taber, of the Ohio Grange; Clark S. Wheeler, of the University Exten- 
sion department; C. G. Williams, of the Wooster Experiment Station. Fred C. Croxton was 
made the head of the labor-supplying division; and James W. Faulkner, head of the publicity 
work; and other committees were appointed to organize and inspire the state for its great 
task. 

A crop commissioner was appointed for every county, the counties were organized into 
districts, each with a supervisor, all co-operating with the central unit headed by Dean 
Vivian. As a result, according to the estimates of State Secretary of Agriculture N. E. 
Shaw, the wheat and corn crops were increased about one-third each and the oats crop 
was increased by one-fourth. The potato crop was doubled and the ordinary garden crop 
was quintupled. The wheat crop was estimated at 31,000,000 bushels and soon after harvest 
the Council launched a campaign for the production of 60,000,000 in 1918. 

The State Free Employment Bureaus were all reorganized and revitalized till they reached 
out into every section of the State for men to meet the demand for labor. From May 1, 
1917, to the following January, the number of persons for whom employment was found 
was 229,886; about 14,000 were sent to the farms and nearly 25,000 to Chillicothe for the 
construction of the cantonment, the building of which was well under way July 1.5. 

An agricultural survey of the State was made, discovering the needs of the farmers 
and reporting their acreage. The Council encouraged with liberal prizes the organization 
of boys' corn clubs and, in co-operation with the Public Utilities Commission, hastened 
the railroad movement of fertilizers, farm supplies and other wartime commodities. It 
made a survey of the coal mines and fuel supply and took up the important work of con- 
serving both fuel and food and regulating their use in the common interest. Mr. Croxton's 
work in food conservation later resulted in his appointment as State Food Administrator. 

In all this activity Columbus promptly joined. Extraordinary efforts were made to in- 
crease the number of vacant lot and backyard gardens, which for some years had been a 
means of partial local self-supply. The newspapers gave free publicity to the movement. 
Arthur W. Raymond, director of the Recreation Department; James W. Wheeler, of the 
Godman Guild, and other social workers and public-spirited citizens entered energetically into 
the food campaign. Real estate men and individual owners offered lots for cultivation, the 
King G. Thompson Co. giving nearly 100 acres for that purpose; and a tract of land near 
Shepard belonging to the city was turned over to the Recreation Department for cultivation. 
Twelve plowmen were employed by the city to plow and harrow the lots, and the Interna- 
tional Harvester Co. donated two tractors, with an operator for each, which plowed and 
harrowed 1 15 acres. The city paid the plowmen and charged the gardener only when he 
was able to pay. Garden seeds, secured from the government through Congressman 
Clement Brumbaugh, were given away and what tin' city had to buy was sold at cost. 
Everywhere it was recommended that only staple products such as potatoes, tomatoes, corn 
and beans be planted, and the advice was verv generally followed. Government bulletins 
on gardening were given out and there was some volunteer instruction of the uninformed, 
as well as official and other supervision of gardens. The Mayor proclaimed that pilfering 
from the war gardens would be severely punished, and there was little interference with 
the growing foodstuffs. 

The Board of Education also entered into the movement, provided lots for cultivation 



FIRST YEAT OF THE WORLD WAR 69 

and supervision of the work that was done by about 1,000 children, instructors giving two 
lessons weekly at each garden. These and other gardens, though the success was varied, 
produced well. The total number of vacant lot and backyard gardens supervised by the 
Recreation Department was 3,019, half of them plowed and harrowed by the department 
Business and fraternal organizations, churches and individuals early caught the spirit, helped 
in various ways and shared in the rejoicing at harvest time. 

The United States Barracks, long used as a recruiting and distributing center, took on 
new life. Under orders from Washington, the erection of seventy-two temporary frame 
buildings for barracks, lavatories and mess halls began, under the direction of Lieutenant 
Guv E. Manning, of the Quartermaster's Department, to increase the capacity of the post 
from 1,600 to 8,000 men. Flags appeared on homes and business houses. Factories began 
to receive war orders. Plans for speeding up production and transportation and for in- 
creasing conservation were laid. 

It was when Columbus was in the midst of this preliminary war work May 8, 1917, 
that the city was visited by the French mission to this country. The party was headed 
by M. Rene Viviani, Premier when the war began and then Minister of Justice, and 
Marshal Joffre, the hero of the Marne. Others of the party were Vice Admiral Chocheprat, 
the Marquis de Chambrun and M. Hoveleque. They had been formally invited to come to 
Columbus, but it was only as the result of an accident to the train, when east-bound from 
Lincoln's tomb at Springfield, Illinois, that acceptance was possible. News that the party 
would be able to accept the invitation was telegraphed here about noon, and hurried ar- 
rangements were made for the reception. The afternoon papers and the telephones were used 
to spread the news. When the train arrived late in the afternoon, a considerable escort was 
present with automobiles to convey the party from the station to the State House. High 
street was thronged, and a large crowd gathered about the improvised stand at the west 
front of the capitol building. There was a brief reception in the Governor's office, and then 
the visitors, accompanied by Governor James M. Cox, Mayor George J. Karb and others 
of the committee, proceeded to the stand. The Governor and Mayor made short speeches of 
welcome, the latter pledging that Columbus would provide financially for 500 French war 
orphans. M. Viviani and Marshal Joffre replied, expressing their appreciation of the cordial 
reception of the party in the Middle West and their gratitude for the Mayor's offer. It 
was a reception which,, both in the speeches and in the attitude of the people, was expressive 
of a new and abiding international friendship; and, as the Frenchmen were conveyed by auto- 
mobiles back through the gathering dusk to their train, they left with the people a new 
sense of the responsibility the war had brought. Subsequently under the leadership of a 
committee composed of Mrs. Philip Wilson, Mrs. Hermon Hubbard and Mrs. B. Gwynne 
Huntington, citizens subscribed nearly $22,000 for the partial care of 600 orphans for one 
year. 

The first weeks following the declaration of war were weeks of great activity in Colum- 
bus. Aside from the enlistment in the regular army and navy, there was recruiting for 
armv railroad service in France and for the marine corps. The examinations for admission 
to the officers' training camp at Ft. Benjamin Harrison netted 159 men who, May 12, left 
to begin their work. The Governor's Squadron of cavalry was increased and reorganized, 
with the following officers, by Adjutant General George H. Wood: Major, Simeon Nash; 
Troop B — Captain, Edward S. Thatcher; first lieutenant, Milo J. Warner; second lieuten- 
ant, Thomas R. Leahy. Troop G — Captain, J. Walter Jeffrey; first lieutenant, Malcolm D. 
Jeffrey; second lieutenant, Roy D. Prushing. Troop H — Captain Wayne C. Grey; first 
lieutenant, Richard H. Roy; second lieutenant, Paul Hann. This had hardly been done when, 
under orders from Washington that artillery and not cavalry was needed, the squadron was 
made over into an artillery unit, with Major D. V. Burkett in charge of the medical service. 

While some were planning to fight, others were planning to give support to the fighting 
nun through the Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. Food prices began to 
soar so unevenly as to show the need of some control. Flour went to $13 a barrel, eggs 
to 38 cents a dozen, butter to 15 cents a pound, beef to 30 cents and pork to 33 cents, 
while potatoes for seed went to $1 a bushel. L L. Pegg was appointed crop and- food com- 
missioner for the county, helped in the distribution of seed and gave gardening advice to 
those not already served by the city department. University or public schools. Protests 
against the high food prices were carried to the City Council which in June authorized the 



70 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



establishment on the Broad street side of the Capitol square of a producer-to-eonsunier 
market. The market was opened by Clark C. Doughty and conducted by him for several 
weeks with the result that prices on the regular markets were stabilized and somewhat 
reduced. 

Late in April, the school of military aeronautics was opened at Ohio State University 
with 14 men. This number steadily increased and, as rapidly as the class room and labora- 
tory work was completed, the men were sent elsewhere to learn other phases of the new work. 
Meanwhile the Dayton aviation field was being prepared and on July 15 was ready for co-op- 
eration with the school here. In the autumn, frame barracks for aviation students were erected 
on the university grounds. 

In the first month of the war, the Young Men's Christian Association began laying 
plans for the great work it was to do. Albert M. Miller, a former president of the associa- 
tion, was appointed on the national board to direct the Y. M. C. A. activities; and soon after- 
ward the local association resolved to support three units in the field, each with a building 
and five secretaries and the necessary equipment. A campaign in May for the $40,000 
deemed necessarv was at once successful. In the following November there was an eight- 




High Street nf Today, Looking North from Stale Street 



day "drive" for a total of $260,000, of which amount $50,000 was to be divided between 
the Young Women's Christian Association and the Woman's Auxiliary (Mrs. S. P. Bush, 
chairman) at Camp Sherman. Twenty teams of solicitors were organized with the follow- 
ing captains: J. J. Stevenson, Dr. Andrew Timberman, F. O. Schoedingcr, Robert F. Wolfe, 
F. A. Liehtenberg, Homer C. Gill, Charles F. Johnson, George J. Karb, Max Morehouse, H. 
S. Ballard, A. I. Vorys, O. R. Crawfis, E. F. Arras, Charles F. Harrison, Charles R. Frank- 
ham, W. A. Armstrong, H. L. Hopwood, Frank P. Hall, W. F. Cairns and Bruce T. Work. 
The total of the subscriptions was $353,905, or $93,905 more than the quota. In June, 
Y. M. C. A. work was formally opened at the United States Barracks, with Seth A. 
Drummond in charge. Besides the religious meetings, rooms were opened for reading, 
writing and entertainment of the soldiers who came and went by the thousands. 

The first effort to raise money for the federal government's war expenses was in May, 
1917, when the Columbus banks and building and loan associations subscribed for $1,000,000 
of 3% certificates, payable July 17 and convertible into Liberty loan bonds. The amount 
subscribed greatly exceeded the quota for the city. 

That was quickly followed by the offering of the bonds of the first Liberty loan. Of 
Hi, total of $2,000,000,000, Columbus and Franklin county were asked to take $5,110,000. 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 71 

The Clearing House and the Chamber of Commerce appointed the following- committee to 
devise ways and means for the conduct of the sale: Philip L. Schneider, chairman; F. W. 
Freeman, vice chairman; M. J. Caples, George J. Karb, Fred Lazarus, jr., Karl T. Webber, 
Harvey R. Young, Edwin Buchanan, J. Clare Miller and George W. Gillette. A number 
of sub-eommittees were appointed, the chairman of these including Claude Meeker, A. T. 
Seymour and Thomas H. Sheldon. John A. Kellev was made secretary, and County Auditor 
H. Sage Valentine was chosen to head the organization in the count}' outside of the city. 
Secretary of the Treasury W. G. McAdoo came to speak ; banks, business men and the news- 
papers earnestly supported the committee, with the result that the subscriptions in city and 
county totaled $7,519,900, the subscribers numbering 11,312. 

When the second Liberty loan of $3,000,000,000 was offered in the following October, 
Columbus and Franklin county were asked to take $6,421,050; they took $12,553,500, the 
number of subscriptions being approximately 23,701. This campaign was conducted by the 
same committee with even more notable aid than before from the Publicity sub-committee 
consisting of Harvey R. Young chairman, W. R. Ortman, Ralph Hirsch, Joseph R. Hague 
and M. R. Thomas. These men filled the newspapers and the billboards with high-class 
advertising, all of which was subsequently reproduced in a brochure, "Over the Top in Colum- 
bus." Secretary of the Navy Daniels and Senator Atlee Pomerene spoke during the 
"drive." 

The third Liberty loan campaign was inaugurated with a parade and meeting at 
Memorial Hall, April 5, 1918, Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus, of Chicago, being the principal 
speaker. A sales army was organized under the direction of the same general committee, 
Philip L. Schneider chairman. Ninety vice chairmen were appointed, one for each trade 
or profession, and these made other appointments until a sales force of several thousand 
was created. The quota for Columbus and Franklin county was $6,569,100. The sale re- 
sulted in the subscription of $7,780,300; number of subscribers, 19,753. 

In the first nine months of the war there had been, aside from the bond campaigns, 
so many separate solicitations of money for war relief purposes that there was search for 
some plan that would meet all needs with a minimum of campaigning effort. The several 
campaigns had yielded subscriptions aggregating $1, 034,599, but practically the same group 
of several hundred busy men had given their time over and over again to soliciting sub- 
scriptions, and it had been impossible to organize any drive so as to give all the people 
an opportunity to subscribe. In a community of 250,000 not more than 12,500 individuals 
had given anything. To correct these injustices and to provide for all the war relief needs 
for twelve months commencing April 1, 1918, the Chamber of Commerce proposed a campaign 
for a community war chest of $3,000,000. The plan was to invite contributions from indi- 
viduals, corporations, associations, firms and others, constituting the whole number of con- 
tributors a volunteer organization to be known as the Columbus Community War Service, 
to the end that not only the money power, but also the man power of the community might 
be mobilized for the period of the war. 

This project, having been carefully worked out, was submitted to the Mayor who 
appointed a general committee of one hundred and twenty-three persons, largely those who 
had attended previous conferences and representatives of every interest in the community. 
This committee was authorized by the Mayor to effect a permanent organization and adopt 
by-laws. This the committee did, electing an executive committee, directing it to determine 
the amount to be raised for the needs of the year, to plan and execute the campaign for rais- 
ing the amount and finally to expend the sum raised, meeting judiciously but with patriotism 
every just call for financial help. The executive committee was composed of the following: 
Chairman, S. P. Bush; vice chairman, Frederick A. Miller; secretary, George W. Gillette: 
treasurer, Lee M. Boda ; John G. Deshler, Robert F. Wolfe, Simon Lazarus, W. E. Bird, S. 
D. Hutchins. B. W. Marr, A. T. Seymour, John Briggs and George V. Sheridan. W. H. 
Hartsough was made office manager of the war chest. 

The committee fixed the amount to be raised at $3,000,000 and estimated the number of 
subscribers at 75,000. It suggested a scale of giving: For individuals earning less than 
$2,000 a year, one day's pay a month, or 4%; for those earning from $2,000 to $3,000. V, : 
$3,000 to $5,000, 67c: $5,000 to $10,000, 10%, and so on up to 15', for those with incomes 
from $15,000 to $50,000. It was arranged that subscriptions could be paid in monthly in- 
stallments, and many wage-earners authorized their employers to deduct the amount of their 



72 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

subscriptions from wages and forward to the war chest. A campaign and administration 
expense fund of $36,000 was raised at the outset, so that every dollar subscribed during the 
campaign could be used solely for the purpose for which it was given. Then began a care- 
fully planned and zealously executed campaign, with advance subscriptions amounting to 
about .$750,000. There was newspaper and poster publicity; mass meetings were held, at 
which twenty Canadian soldiers, with only twenty-eight legs among them, appeared and spoke; 
factories and stores were organized and canvassed; the people of the outlying townships 
were solicited, and the homes in the city were canvassed. The community was thoroughly 
combed till there was not a man, woman or child in the city who had not had an opportunity 
to «ive. The five days campaign closed Saturday evening, February 9, with a total of 
$3 071 088 subscribed by 73,126 persons. But that was not all. The momentum of the cam- 
paign was so great that thousands of dollars came in daily in the next few weeks till the 
total number of subscribers was 90,000 and the fund was $3,37-1,526, or about $13.50 per 
capita. Thirty-six per cent, of the population subscribed and the average subscription was 

$37. • 

The success of the movement was due to three things: The patriotism and humanity of 
the people; the fairness of the schedule of subscriptions and the public confidence in the 
executive committee who had frankly stated in advance that in disbursing the money it would 
recognize as of first importance those agencies of relief and aid countenanced by the United 
States government, such as the Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A., the Knights of Columbus, and the 
Jewish relief organization. It also promised that no funds would be appropriated out of 
the war chest for any cause that failed to give satisfactory evidence that it was necessary, 
worthy and properly administered and that the amount sought was just, and that it would not 
approve any further solicitation for war needs during the administration of the fund. 

Prior to that, besides the funds elsewhere mentioned, the Knights of Columbus had 
raised $3,000 for the national fund for religious and recreational work at the camps, local 
Jews had sent $25,000 to their relief fund, the Dispatch had raised $1,100 for a soldiers' 
athletic fund and the Citizen had collected in 25-cent subscriptions $2,200 for tobacco for 
soldiers. 

While Congress debated the plans for raising an army, recruiting for both army and 
navy proceeded. Columbus dentists organized a unit of the Preparedness League, with Dr. 
H. C. Dean as president and Dr. D. P. Snyder as secretary. The physicians similarly or- 
ganized, with Dr. Charles S. Hamilton as chairman. Patriotic meetings were held, the 
colored citizens having one of their own, with a parade directed by Major John C. Fulton 
and Captain Howard C. Gilbert. 

June 5, 1917, fixed by Congress as registration day for all men between 21 and 31 and 
designated by Governor Cox as "Call to the Colors" day, was the occasion of a general 
patriotic demonstration. The voting booths in the various precincts of city and county, 
manned by the regular election officers, were the places of registration. Flags were numer- 
ously displayed, bells were rung and whistles blown. At most of the booths women pinned 
badges on the coats of the registrants, the number of whom in city and county was 25,826. 
This gratifying result was accomplished with a single unpleasant incident — the futile effort 
of a few radical Socialists to arouse opposition to the draft. The distribution of circulars 
urging refusal to register resulted in a raid by city and federal authorities on a printing 
office in the Wesley block and the arrest of Amnion Hennaey, Harry E. Townslev and two 
others. At the trial before Judge John E. Safer, of the United States court, both men 
named were found guilty. Townsley was sentenced to two years imprisonment and Hen- 
naey to two years and nine months imprisonment at Atlanta. 

Franklin county's quota for the first national army of 1,000,000 was 1,188 and for the 
selection of these men, in accordance with a system worked out at Washington, five draft 
boards were appointed by the federal government, on recommendation of Governor Cox, as 
follows : 

Xo. 1 — John C. Dougherty chairman. Dr. Starling S. Wilcox (succeeded by Dr. W. L. 
Towns), Theodore Leonard, Edmund A. Cole (succeeded February 1, 1918, by Frederick 
Shedd). 

No. 2 — Karl T. Webber chairman. Dr. E. J. Emerick (succeeded March 22, 1918, by Dr. 
W. E. Edmiston), Edward Woolman, Randle Baker. 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 73 

No. 3 — Rutherford H. Piatt chairman, Dr. Hervey W. Whitaker, Lott B. Burke, Edward 
W. Swisher. 

No. -1 — Edward B. Gerlach chairman, Dr. Jesse A. Van Fossen, H. M. Van Hise, Edgar 
L. Weinland. 

No. 5 — (County) — W. J. Kinnaird chairman, E. E. Pegg, Dr. Frank C. Wright, Fred- 
erick N. Sinks. 

These boards established headquarters in Memorial Hall and summoned the registrants 
for examination in the determined order. A district board of appeals, similarly appointed for 
southern Ohio, sat in the Federal building. Its members were: William E. Bird, J. Russell 
Kilbourne (succeeded by John B. Brown) and Dr. Wells Teachnor, of Columbus; D. H. 
King, of Marion, and John L. Zimmerman, of Springfield, (succeeded by Garrett S. Clay- 
pool, of Chillicothe). It heard and passed on many claims of exemption, reporting its 
findings to the local board from which appeal had been taken. 

The city and county's full quota had been certified by the last of August, and on the 
.'50th, the selected men paraded in Broad street and were cheered by a great throng of people 
estimated at 15,000 or more. From a stand opposite the State House Supreme Judge 
Maurice H. Donahue and former Governor James E. Campbell addressed the gathering, 
while Rabbi Joseph S. Kornfeld offered the benediction. On September 5th, 5 per cent, of 
the selected men left for Camp Sherman at Chillicothe to begin their training. On the 22nd, 
another and larger group went, and on October 7th a third. On the 27th, the negro selects, 
numbering 195, followed to the same destination. Every one of the departures was marked 
by a public ovation, and the men had every reason to believe that, as they went to prepare 
for war they had the cordial support of the community. The whole operation was carried on 
with a maximum of enthusiasm and a minimum of opposition or "slacking." Only in a few 
instances were alternates called upon for service. 

The Ohio National Guard began to mobilize in July, and was recruited to full divisional 
strength of about 26,000 men under the old division formation, 14,129 having enlisted after 
the declaration of war. The State Fair ground, called Camp Karb, was the principal rendez- 
vous for the local units of the Guard, Col. S. B. Stansbery in command. There and at Central 
Market hall, which was headquarters for the Ninth Battalion, 1,905 guardsmen were taken 
into the Federal service as follows: Governor's Squadron, 570; Companies B and I, Fourth 
regiment, 300; Headquarters company, 58; Machine Gun company, 78; Supply company, 40; 
Second Ambulance company, 150; Second Field Hospital company, 80; Ammunition and 
Supply Train, 45; Military Police, 86; Battery C, 150; Signal Company B, 18; Ninth 
Battalion (colored), 300. 

On July 15, the official roster of the Fourth regiment, with special reference to Colum- 
bus men in command, was as follows: Colonel, Benson W. Hough, Delaware; Lieutenant 
Colonel, George Florence, Cireleville; chaplain, John J. Halliday, Delaware; captain and 
adjutant, Charles S. Gusman, Cireleville. Battalion Commanders — Major R. G. Allen, Wash- 
ington C. H; Major Frank D. Henderson, Marysville; Major Louis S. Houser, Chillicothe. 
Battalion adjutants — First Lieut. John S. Bailey, Columbus; First Lieut. Henry H. Grave, 
Columbus ; First Lieut. Robert S. Beightler, Marysville. 

Supply Co. — Captain Oscar O. Koeppel and Second Lieut. Harold D. Woollev, Colum- 
bus. 

Machine Gun Co. — Captain Robert F. Watson, Delaware; First Lieut. George W. Graff, 
Columbus; Second Lieut. Wm. F. Busch, Delaware; Second Lieut. Thomas E. Hardman, 
Columbus. 

Company B — Captain Frank L. Oyler, Columbus; First Lieut. Wm. Paul, Washington 
C. H; Second Lieut. Earl W. Fuhr, Columbus. 

Company F — First Lieut. John S. Stevenson, Columbus. 

Company I — Captain Robert Haubrich, Columbus ; First Lieut. Price W. Beebe, Cleve- 
land ; Second Lieut. Charles A. Watson, Columbus. 

Company K — Second Lieut. John W. Rees, Columbus. 

Other companies in the regiment were recruited and officered in Cardington, London, 
Marion, Marysville, Cireleville, Greenfield, Chillicothe, Delaware, Lancaster and Washing- 
ton C, H. 

On August 13, the Fourth regiment, 2,055 strong left the various stations, with five days 
rations, and proceeded to Mineola, Long Island, where its strength was increased, under a 



74 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

general order, by the addition of 16 men from every other infantry regiment in the state, 
to 3,605. 

While the companies of the Fourth regiment were taking the train for the East, other 
troops at Camp Karb paraded on Broad street, and were reviewed by Governor James M. 
Cox and Mayor George J. Karb, who spoke a farewell and benediction, while thousands 
looked on and cheered. A part of these troops, including the Division Supply Train, Major 
Robert S. McPeak; the Second Ohio Ambulance Co., Captain D. T. Dawson, and Battery A. 
Third Ohio Field Artillery, Captain Thomas A. Leahy, left ten days later, for Camp Sheri- 
dan, Montgomery, Alabama. On September 10, Battery B, Captain J. Walter Jeffrey; Bat- 
tery C, Captain Wayne C. Grey; the Second Ohio Field Hospital, Major H. H. Sniveley, 
and the Second Brigade Headquarters Company left for the same cantonment, Brigadier 
General John C. Speaks, O. X. G., having been appointed a brigadier general in the regular 
army, had preceded them thither. The Ninth Battalion, Major John C. Fulton, soon fol- 
lowed. 

In the reorganization at Camp Sheridan the Columbus officers and their commands were 
as follows: Colonel H. M. Bush, commanding 134th Field Artillery; Major J. Walter 
Jeffrey, 135th Field Artillery; Major L. W. Jacquith, Signal Battalion; Major H. H. 
Sniveley, 146th Field Hospital; Captain D. T. Dawson, 146th Ambulance Co.; Colonel 
Perin B. Monypenny, 112th Ammunition Train; Major Robert S. McPeak, 112th Supply 
Train; Colonel John M. Shetler, Division Quartermaster; Major John C. Fulton, Ninth 
Battalion infantry; Captain Walter W. Van Gieson and Second Lieutenant Arthur Pickens, 
112th Military Police. 

General Speaks' headquarters staff included the following Franklin county men: Major 
R. D. Palmer, Lieut. A. C. McArthur, Lieut. S. S. Speaks, Lieut. F. E. Ross, Sergeant 
Major L. D. Bower and Privates D. C. Davis, H. B. Mohler, C. D. Lechliter, J. E. 
O'Harra, L. C. Heller and R. G. Beck. 

One of the events at Camp Sheridan which deeply stirred Columbus was the transfer 
of General John C. Speaks from division headquarters and his subsequent examination by 
a military board, by which he was declared to be physically disqualified for service abroad 
and was honorably discharged from the army in which lie had a few months before been ap- 
pointed a brigadier general. 

Meanwhile the boys of the old Fourth regiment, O. N. G., thoroughly seasoned by their 
service on the Mexican border the previous year, were being prepared on Long Island, as 
the 166th infantry of the 42nd ("Rainbow") Division, Brigadier General W. A. Mann, for 
an early trip to France and service on the western battle front. 

The Columbus Academy of Medicine, through a committee consisting of Dr. Andre 
Crotti, Dr. V. A. Dodd and Dr. G. C. Schaeffer, conferred with the American Red Cross 
Headquarters at Washington as to the service it could best render, and was asked to or- 
ganize a naval hospital unit. Dr. Dodd was made director and given authority to assemble 
a unit consisting of six medical officers, ten nurses and an enlisted non-medical personnel 
of 29. As finally organized, the medical officers of the unit were as follows: Dr. V. A. 
Dodd, Dr. Fred O. Williams, Dr. Arthur M. Hauer, Dr. Jonathan Forman, Dr. Philip J. 
Reel and Dr. Carl C. Hugger. Miss Carrie Churchill was chief nurse. The non-medical 
personnel was as follows: R. D. Mullen, F. G. Holtkamp, C. M. Huffman, F. J. Conway, 
H. F. Jones, J. J. Kelly, jr., C. A. MacDonald, D. M. Richmond, J. A. McNamara, J. E. 
Streit, C. H. Douglas, J. P. Greene, R. R. Vance, H. V. Hager, O. C. Voss, E. O. Hawkins, 
II. F. Yerges, T. W. Tennant, L. J. Harris, William Laney, Maynard Otey, Clarence Linden, 
Herschel Cross, E. E. Rhoades, Aldrich Elston, E. Wade, Taylor Farrow, Howard Wormley, 
Joseph Sloane. The unit was ordered to duty as follows: Medical Officers October 15, 
1917; non-medical personnel November 19, 1917. The duty of the Unit was to take charge 
of tin- hospital at the Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Virginia. 

Ohio State University, under the leadership of President Thompson, early threw its 
forces into the work of preparing the nation for war. The University's offer of help to the 
nation acquired substance through the efforts of the College of Agriculture to increase crop 
production throughout the State and of the colleges of Chemistry, Engineering, Medicine. 
Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine and others to provide men and means for the national 
service. Ohio State was one of six universities in the country selected by the War Depart- 
ment to maintain schools of aviation, and Major George I.. Converse, the permanent in- 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 75 

structor in military science, took temporary charge of the training of recruits until the 
arrival of Captain Stratemeyer, of the Aviation corps, U. S. A., several members of the 
faculty helping to teach the theory and mechanics of flying. 

The declaration of war came at about the middle of the second semester, and arrangements 
were made, under proclamation by Governor Cox by which students were dismissed with credit, 
to engage in agriculture, to go into the officers' training camp at Ft. Benjamin Harrison or 
enlist for other service in the national defense. Many took advantage of this opportunity, 
and the student body at commencement season was much depleted. On the recommendation 
of President Thompson, solicited by the departments at Washington, 20 men of the university 
were commissioned second lieutenants in the army and four in the United States Marine 
Corps. Others, after examination, were appointed military instructors at West Point, ac- 
cepted as students of aviation, or as physicians or dentists in the Medical Corps. Members 
of the faculty gave freely of their services for increased crop production, labor employment, 
food conservation, Y. M. C. A. and relief organization activities, as well as to laboratory 
instruction and experimentation. 

In the School of Military Aeronautics, there were added courses for the education of 
adjutants and the military instruction of men who had already taken the course in balloon- 
ing. Frame barracks in the form of a great square, a brick building with workshops and 
class rooms and a hospital were erected. For the accommodation of the young men who came 
at the rate of more than 100 a week, making a constant soldier-student population of 1000 or 
more, the university authorities vacated the Armory and Hayes Hall and gave over Ohio 
Union to them for mess purposes. Major J. E. Chaney succeeded Captain Stratemeyer in 
military command, and Professor F. C. Blake, of the university faculty, took charge of the 
instruction, with a large staff of university men and army officers. The period of training 
varied from six to eight weeks, and every week a class was sent elsewhere for practice in 
actual flight. The university also provided a landing field for airplanes on the bottom west 
of the group of buildings, and numerous flights were made thither by the men in training 
at the Dayton grounds. 

Further evidence of the earnest co-operation of the university with the government in the 
war was furnished by the unfurling, May 25, 1918, of a monster service Hag, bearing 2, 640 
stars, each representing an alumnus, a student or a faculty member wearing the khaki. Of 
that number, 892 were officers — 21 in the navy and the remainder in the army. Lowry F. 
Sater made the presentation speech and President W. O. Thompson made response, a large 
audience applauding, all making the most stirring incident in campus history. 

I.ate in July, 1917, came the appeal of the American Library Association for books and 
magazines for the soldiers and sailors, in which the Columbus Public Library (John J. 
Pugh), the Ohio State Library (Charles B. Galbreath) and the Ohio State University Library 
(Miss Olive Jones) heartily joined. About 4,000 books had been sent from the Columbus 
Public Library to Camp Sherman at Chillicothe when, in the spring of 1918, the drive of 
the A. L. A. for 2,000,000 books from the nation was begun. With the aid of the Patriotic 
League and the newspapers, some 25,000 books were collected from Columbus homes and sent 
to the Public Library where they were catalogued, and prepared for shipment. 

The Columbus committee of the American Fund for French Wounded was organized as 
early as May, 1915, holding its first meeting's at the home of Mr. and Mrs. A. W. 
Mackenzie. Later meetings were held at the Columbus Country Club, at the Green-Joyce 
building and finally at Trinity Parish house, where permanent headquarters and a shipping 
office were established. The working membership in November, 1917, numbered about eighty 
with the following officers: Mrs. Alfred Willson chairman, Mrs. Silvio Casparis vice chair- 
man, A. W. Mackenzie treasurer, Mrs. A. W. Mackenzie secretary, Mrs. Herbert Gill, Mrs. 
Edward J. Wilson, Mrs. Alexander Forrest and Mrs. J. H. J. Upham, executive board. This 
was one of 500 committees in the United States which furnished supplies to more than 1,000 
hospitals in France, independent of but co-operating satisfactorilv with the Red Cross. 
Miss Louise Brent in 1915 went to France for work in the distributing bureau in Paris, 
where she became secretary and member of the administration board there. Miss Ruth 
Caspavis also early went from Columbus and became the director of the motor service of tin- 
organization. In the fall of 1917, Miss Lueile Atcherson went from Columbus to become 
secretary of Miss Ann Morgan, whose great fortune was being so generously used in the 
work. The Columbus committee, while it made no special appeal for funds, by November, 



76 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

1917, had raised enough money to provide the material for 118,289 articles which, made by 
the workers, had been shipped to France. These articles were valued at $10,902.21. In 
this task, help was given by the Clintonville Welfare League and the ladies of the Catholic 
War Relief Association. 

The American Red Cross Chapter, organization of which had been authorized by the 
national body July 3, 1916, in an initial campaign in the following March, secured a mem- 
bership of 375. But later, when there was a fuller realization that war, with its wounded, 
was at hand, and under the impetus of a national campaign, this was increased to 30,000 
yielding .$'90,000 in membership fees. When in June Columbus was called upon to give 
$250,000 to the nation-wide $100,000,000 fund for Red Cross services in the war, a vigorous 
campaign was begun, with H. J. Schwartz as manager and the following team captains: 
Dr. Andrew Timberman, James Ross, Stanley Borthwick, F. O. Schoedinger, Max More- 
house, Samuel A. Kinnear, Walter Jones, Claude Meeker, F. A. Miller, F. W. Schumacher, 
J. H. Frantz, Simon Lazarus, Robert E. Pfeiffer, Ray Zartman, King G. Thompson and 
J. S. Warwick. Teams of women, under the direction of J. L. Hammill, w 7 ere also organ- 
ized witli the following captains: Mrs. M. J. Caples, Mrs. W. O. Thompson, Mrs. J. E. 
Beery, Miss Anna E. Riordan, Mrs. Nathan Gumble, Mrs. F. R. Huntington, Mrs. W. H. 
Martin, Mrs. Thomas M. Bigger, Mrs. Julius F. Stone, Mrs. T. B. Sellers, Mrs. Calvin Sold 
and Mrs. John M. Caren. To this appe.il the city responded by giving $366,000. The 
chapter organized by electing George W. Lattimer chairman, King G. Thompson first 
vice chairman, Samuel P. Bush second vice chairman, B. Gwynne Huntington treasurer, 
George W. Gillette secretary, James L. Fieser assistant secretary, Mayor George J. Karb, 
Martin J. Caples, Arthur I. Vorvs and Matthew B. Hammond members ex-offieio; Edward 
L. McCune, chairman military relief committee; James E. Hagerty, chairman civilian 
relief; H. J. Schwartz, chairman membership and finance. General headquarters were 
established in the Joyce family home, -171 East Broad street, which had been offered rent- 
free, and it was soon filled with volunteer workers, under the general direction of Mr. 
McCune. Branches were established in Westerville, Groveport, Harrisburg, Plain City, 
North Columbus and other places, and working units in many of the churches and at Ohio 
State University. The Catholic Women's War Relief Association early organized, with 
Mrs. William P. Anawalt as president and operated in part as a branch of the Red Cross, 
using the Knights of Columbus building, Sixth and State streets. In May, 1918, Secre- 
tary E. L. McCune was able to report as affiliated and working in co-operation with the 
Columbus Red Cross Chapter two branches, six auxiliaries and 87 working units; also that 
6067 pledged workers were engaged from one to several days a week, producing hospital and 
other garments and surgical dressings. The product of these workers was gathered and 
shipped, and troops passing through the city were provided witli refreshments. 

The civilian relief committee, James E. Hagerty chairman, early organized with a corps 
of trained workers and an advisory committee to give medical, legal, financial and other 
help to the dependents of soldiers and sailors in service, the purpose being to do for the ones 
left behind what the absent would have done, to give comfort and help to the former and to 
relieve the anxiety of the latter. Free medical care and legal advice were given, also full 
information about insurance, allotments and allowances, and there was continuous communi- 
cation with Red Cross field directors and government officials in the interest of soldiers and 
their dependents. Miss Florence Covert was in charge. To provide trained workers for this 
service Dr. Hagerty conducted home institutes at Ohio State University, graduating many 
young women, after a series of lectures and a period of actual work. 

Early in the summer of 1917, classes in dietetics, home care for the sick, first aid and 
surgical dressing were conducted. Then came the organization of the Junior Auxiliary, 
under the leadership of Mrs. Samuel L. Black. Hundreds of boys and girls were enrolled 
and worked during the summer in the Columbus Art School building, producing different 
useful articles. Later, the headquarters were removed to High street, where the work was 
continued and membership was extended to all the schools, making the school boys and girls 
a really effective and constructive force. 

At the October meeting of the chapter, the constitution was revised so as to place the 
authority and the management of the work in the hands of an executive committee of eight, 
with power to elect its own officers, who were to serve as officers also of the chapter. The fol- 
lowing committee was chosen: George W. Lattimer, E. L. McCune, B. Gwynne Huntington, 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 



77 



James E. Hagerty, H. J. Schwartz, James L. Hamill, Mrs. Samuel L. Blaek and Mrs. 
Martin J. Caples. Mr. Lattimer was elected president, Mr. Huntington treasurer and 
Mr. McCune secretary. Mr. Gillette, the first secretary, had resigned owing to the pressure 
of other work, and Mr. Fieser, assistant secretary, had gone to Cleveland and been suc- 
ceeded by Robert L. Bondy. 

Mrs. George W. Knight was in charge of the surgical dressing work of the Red Cross 
and early opened classes and was assisted in the instruction by Miss Jane Sullivant. Mrs. 
Charles L. Ireland superintended the many units engaged in sewing, inspected the finished 
hospital articles and acted as secretary of the educational classes. 

Just before Christmas, 1917, there was another membership drive, during which Red 
Cross window transparencies were sold. Under the direction of Mrs. Charles E. Carter a 




Franklin County Memorial, Which 
and Ifii/h Streets 



force of 1,000 workers in automobiles made a house-to-house canvass to all parts of the city, 
selling in one day more than 7,000 transparencies, adding to the number that had previously 
been sold in stores and factories and making a score of 20,000 more members, or a grand total 
of 50,000. According to a report in March, 1918, by Mrs. Charles S. Hamilton, 6,067 women 
in Franklin county were working in the several units, averaging 11.', hours a month. 

When the second national Red Cross drive for $100,000,000 was made in May, 1918, 
Columbus' quota was paid out of the war chest of $3,300,000 raised in the county earlier 
in the year. 

The Catholic Women's War Relief Association, Mrs. W. P. Anawalt president, was further 
officered by Mrs. Andre Crotti first vice president, Mrs. Henry Miller, second vice president, 
Miss Maud Flynn third vice president, Mrs. S. I). Hutchins secretary, Mrs. Mary McNamee 



78 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

treasurer. In November they reported ten branches, with a working membership of 500 
women and an auxiliary in Zanesville with 300. Besides working for the Red Cross, they 
eo-operated actively with the American Fund for French Wounded, the Needlework Guild and 
the Franco-American Commission, making garments for the refugee children of Belgium and 
France. They made altar supplies for the Catholic army chaplains, and made knitted sets 
and comfort kits for the soldiers at Camps Sheridan and Sherman. 

Mrs. Samuel L. Black was chairman of a committee of Red Cross workers who in Octo- 
ber set out to provide as a Christmas present for every soldier a comfort kit of useful articles. 
Three thousand khaki bags were made by the women, rilled and forwarded to the camps at 
the cost of $2 each. 

The Columbus Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, participated zealously in 
the war relief work of the national organization. Its program included the raising of its quota 
of the $15,000 for the Hostess House at Chillicothe and an additional amount for the devas- 
tated French village of Tilloloy on the Aisne, as well as knitted garments and other supplies for 
the men of the navy and army. Mrs. Herbert Backus was president at the time of America's 
entrance into the war. The officers elected in 1918 were: Mrs. E. M. Hatton regent, Mrs. 
Frank Winders vice regent, Mrs. William Cureton, jr., recording secretary, Miss Florence Rals- 
ton corresponding secretary, Mrs. Earl M. Tilton treasurer, Mrs. Wm. C. Moore registrar, Mrs. 
Wm. M. Hindman chaplain, Mrs. Wm. G. Deshler, Mrs. C. F. Jaeger, Mrs. Herbert Brooks 
ind Mrs. E. A. Smith directors. The chapter conducts classes in the settlement houses. 

The Columbus branch of the Needlework Guild of America, organized in 1889 by Mrs. 
Walter Mahoney to make and distribute suitable garments to hospitals and homes of sickness, 
began its war relief work in 1915 by sending garments to the refugees of Belgium and 
northern France. After the entrance of America into the war, it continued this service, in 
addition to its regular work, and Mrs. Karl T. Webber president, was able to report that 
during the year ending April 1, 1918, shipments abroad had totaled 31,724 articles of hos- 
pital supply, all going to Lyons for distribution as needed. 

One of the devices of the women for raising money to can - }' on their humane work among 
the war sufferers was the establishment at the Howald store on High street of a melting 
pot, into which people were invited to throw their gold and silver jewelry and ornaments. 
A considerable amount was thus realized, the organizations helped being the American Fund 
for French Wounded, the Needlework Guild, Fatherless Children of France and the Women's 
War Relief Association. At Easter, 1918, the Fatherless Children of France organization 
sold about 10,000 cards at ten cents each for the same purpose and later renewed most of the 
subscriptions that had been made at the time of Marshal Joffre's visit. 

A committee of the Navy League was organized by Columbus women to knit sweaters, 
mufflers and wristlets for sailors, the first effort to be to provide for the men of the battleship 
Ohio. Mrs. Wm. G. Deshler was chairman, Mrs. Charles S. Hamilton and Mrs. Oscar 
Newman secretaries, Mrs. D. H. Sowers treasurer, Mrs. M. S. Hopkins, Mrs. Beman G. 
Dawes, Mrs. Frank Hickok and Mrs. Agnes Jordan, members of the executive committee. 

The Columbus Chapter of the Daughters of the British Empire, with about 50 mem- 
bers, met regularly at Trinitv parish house and produced a large number of articles for the 
comfort of the soldiers in field and hospital. The chapter was officered: Mrs. W. T. 
W ells regent, Mrs. Harold W. Clapp and Mrs. William P. Traeev vice regents, Miss Helen 
M. Forrest corresponding secretary, Mrs. George V. Sheridan recording secretary, Mrs. A. C. 
Botterell treasurer, Miss Katherine Lowe standard bearer. 

The Girls' Friendly Society of Trinitv Episcopal church, gave entertainments and 
otherwise raised funds to help in sending an ambulance to Frane-e. 

The Columbus unit of the women's committee of the Council of National Defense was 
organized in July, 1917, with Miss Caroline Breyfogle chairman. Mrs. J. A. Riebel and Mrs. 
Linus B. Kauffman vice chairmen, Mrs. Wm. P. Anawalt recording secretary, Mrs. Henry 
H. Spencer corresponding secretary, Mrs. John C. Snce treasurer, Mrs. M. J. Caples, Miss 
Anna Hiordan, Mrs. Joseph Basch, Mrs. W. O. Thompson and Mrs. J. A. Jeffrey executive 
committee. The early efforts of this organization were given to food conservation; lessons 
in canning were given at school centers and elsewhere, directed by Miss Faith Lanman, while 
the home economies department Ohio State University taught bread-making and gave can- 
ning demonstrations at various places. 

Later there was a reorganization of the work, Miss Faith Lanman being put at the 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 79 

head of the food department, Mrs. A. B. Nelles child welfare, Mrs. Frank Sanborn liberty 
loan and war savings stamps, Mrs. Linus B. Kauffman home and foreign relief, Miss Caroline 
Breyfogle educational propaganda. The women did valiant work in all these departments, 
preaching and teaching the conservation of food, directing a campaign for the medical inspec- 
tion of infants, helping to sell the government securities and in other ways contributing to 
the public welfare and national strength. 

Fruits and vegetables in large quantities were canned at the rooms on North High 
street. In December, 1917, there were on the shelves more than 1,500 cans of fruits and 
vegetables, besides jellies and jams. These were sold to housewives at about the same prices 
asked by the retail grocers, the jellies, jams and fruit going first as rapidly as they could be 
handed out. By poster-designing contests in the schools and by public meetings, education in 
the need of food conservation was carried on, as well as by the pledging of housewives in 
the homes. A survey at the end of the year showed that 20,000 conservation pledge cards 
had been signed and returned to the local office and that hotels and restaurants were com- 
plying with the request of the national administration for wheatless and meatless days. 
This was later increased to 37,000. 

In the effort to save wheat that more might be sent abroad, the substitution of other 
cereals was required, and there were regulations of millers, bakers and grocers calculated 
to force the substitution on consumers. Bakers' loaves were standardized and rules of sale 
adopted. The sale and consumption of sugar were restricted. Purchases were at times 
limited to one or two pounds and hoarding was made an offense. The inconveniences thus 
imposed were for the most part patriotically borne. The living cost ran high. December 
20, 1917, eggs were 60 cents a dozen, butter 56 cents a pound, lard 30 cents, potatoes $1.25 
to $1.50 a bushel, flour $12.75 a barrel, hogs $16.75 per cwt., sugar 10 cents a pound, 
oats 72 cents a bushel, corn $1.50 and wheat $2.15. 

Notwithstanding the fact that precautions had early been taken to protect the coal sup- 
ply for the state and city, there was much trouble, some suffering and a great deal of incon- 
venience, as well as high prices to consumers. In July, Hocking lump was selling for $5.25 
to $5.75 a ton and Pocahontas (West Virginia) at $6.50 to $7 — an advance of $2.50 over 
the prices of the previous year. Besides, th? supply was short and it remained so through- 
out the winter. Charges of profiteering by the producers and manipulation of the output 
by middlemen were freely made. There werj investigations and efforts by fuel administra- 
tors, state and national, to deal with the situation, but the results were small. The con- 
sumers, if they got the coal at all, continued to pay the price. For lack of coal, schools were 
closed for days at a time; factories, the city lighting plant and the street railway company were 
continually embarrassed and there were days when it could not be predicted whether or not they 
would be in operation the next. The winter was unusually cold and but for a plentiful sup- 
ply of natural gas, Columbus would have been in dire straits. Profiteering, higher cost of labor 
and materials, car shortage, conflict of state and national authority, bad management and 
intentional manipulation of the supply conspired to make a very bad situation; and that 
too, in spite of the fact that the coal production in 1917 was 38,000,000 tons, or 1,000,000 
greater than the year before. Had cars been available every district in the state, accord- 
ing to official report, would have produced from 25 to 30 per cent, more coal. 

On Thanksgiving Day, about 1.000 selects from Columbus and the central part of the 
State came to the city from Camp Sherman and were met at the station by a committee, 
headed by Lee M. Boda, Mayor Karb and members of the draft board. The troops, headed 
bv the civilian committee, marched down High street and past the reviewing stand on Broad 
street, in which there sat, besides the Mayor and the committee, members of the Ohio 
Supreme Court and several officers from the Barracks. Thousands of people filled the streets 
and enjoyed the spectacle of the stalwart boys in khaki. The troops then proceeded to Ohio 
State University, where they stacked rifles and messed on the campus. They then repaired 
to Ohio Field, where under direction of Major Eric Fisher Wood, they engaged in exhibi- 
tion drills, games, skirmishes and maneuvers, while a throng of 7,000 persons looked on, 
cheering and at times shuddering at the minv'e warfare. After the exhibition a fine Ken- 
tuckv-bred saddle horse was presented to Major Oeneral E. F. Glenn by Lem G. Neely, of 
St. Marys, Colonel John Y. Bassell making the presentation speech. Then came a football 
game between Ohio State University team and the team from Camp Sherman with a victorv 
for the former by a score of 28 to 0. As a result of the exhibition and game, about $20,000 



80 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

was netted and paid into the Camp Sherman Trust Fund. The magnitude of the sum was due 
largely to the public spirit of a number of Columbus men who paid large premiums for the box 
seats. 

A survey of the situation, Thanksgiving, 1917, showed that nearly 5,000 young men 
of Franklin county were engaged in war activities and that they were widely scattered. 
There were 1,100 at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, training for the new national army; 2,000 
former members of the Ohio National Guard i i the Federalized army at Camp Sheridan, 
Montgomery, Alabama; 700 members of the old Fourth regiment, in the Rainbow division 
then in France; several hundred selects at the Hattiesburg, Mississippi, camp; 60, who en- 
listed in the Engineering corps, and others in th ■ Hospital, Ambulance and Aviation branches, 
as well as some officers commissioned at Ft. Benjamin Harrison, first course, were also in 
France. Franklin county members of the Unit d States Marines were stationed at Santo Do- 
mingo, Haiti, Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Phili ipines. Naval recruits were on the warships in 
the righting zone and some of the ships doing coast guard duty. The naval hospital unit was 
at Hampton Roads; there were marines at Quantico, Va. ; boys in the naval aviation school 
at Pensacola, Florida, and in the land flying schools at Dayton, Ohio; Waco, Texas; Min- 
eola, N. Y. ; San Diego, California, and Ontario, Canada. It was a striking illustration of 
the wide adaptability of the young men of an ordinarily peaceful American community. 

The first course at the officers' training camp, Ft. Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, con- 
cluded August 10, yielded commissions to sixty-two Columbus men as follows: 

Captains — Edwin R. Sharp, jr., inf.; Harry L. Haight, inf.; Alva K. Overturf, inf.; 
George Armstrong, inf.; Frank A. Hunter, inf.; Webb I. Vorys, inf.; Hugh K. Martin, cav. ; 
Rutherford Fullerton, field art.; Prescott S. Bush, field artillery. 

First Lieutenants — Rutherford H. Piatt, jr., 2nd Bat.; Robin Stanlev Kerr, 1st Troop; 
Aberill B. Pfeiffer, 2nd Co.; Leo W. Bayles, 6th Co. ; Charles L. Heisler, 3rd Bat. ; Edwin 
S. Manson, A.-G dept. ; Ralph E. Wilder, 1st Co.; Frederick F. Stoneman, 4th Co.; Harold 
J. Meg, 6th Co.; Harry B. Craft, Ord. Dept. 

Second Lieutenants — Campbell Meeker, 2nd Co.; Ralph E. Woodruff, 2nd Co.; James 
H. Merryman, 2nd Co. ; Harold V. Sterling, 3rd Co. ; Newell D. Dobson, 4th Co. ; William 
L. Love, 6th Co.; Eben H. Jones, 1st Bat.; Floyd C. Jewell, 7th Co.; Lawrence G. Andrews, 
8th Co.; Charles W. White, 8th Co.; Wm. E. Jenkins, 8th Co.; Chandas R. Lantz, 8th Co.; 
Wilford H. Steward, 9th Co.; Wm. P. Yeager, 9th Co.; Morgan E. Williams, 1st Tr. ; 
Harold H. Brooks, 1st Bat.; Howard J. Whitchill, 2nd Bat.; Galen R. Weaver, 2nd Bat.; 
Wm. G. Ball, 3rd Bat.; Andrew A. Lamneck, Qm. Corps; Rannels W. Knauss, Qm. Corps; 
Mahew W. Shields, Qm. Corps; Hurst D. Campbell, Qm. Corps; Charles D. Brown, Reg. 
Army; John S. Peters, Reg. Army; Donald M. Slyh, Reg. Army; Melvin L. McCreary, 
Reg." Army; Otho P. Allen, 1st Co."; Wm. F. Castle, 2nd Co.; Harley E. Banks, 3rd Co.; 
Merle W. Coffman, 3rd Co.; Harold D. Bonar, 6th Co.; Glenn E. Rader, 6th Co.; Clifford 
H. Scrooges, 1st Bat.; Edward Waugb, 8th Cx ; Wm. W. Wheaton, 8th Co.; Harold D. Sites, 
8th Co.; Robert J. Thompson, 8th Co.; Ralph W. Laughlin, 9th Co.; Kenneth Hampton, 9th 
Co.; Leigh Koebel, 1st Troop; Edward E. Morris, 1st Tr. ; Joseph B. Williams, 1st Bat.; 
Henry H. Copeland, 2nd Bat.; Henry T. Minister, 3rd Bat.; Wm. R. Casparis, Qm. Corps; 
Maurice M. Smith, Qm. Corps; Herbert L. Richard, Qm. Corps; Andrew P. Martin, Qm. 
Corps; John E. Olmstead, Qm. Corps; Herbert S. Price, Qm. Corps; Roger W. Linworth, 
Reg. Army; S. S. Kennedy, Reg. Army; Husrh I. Waugh, Reg. Army. 

The second course at the officers' training camp at Ft. Benjamin Harrison which closed 
November 27, yielded commissions to Columbus men as follows: 

Captains — Stanley Brooks, Artillery: Ward O. Chaffee, art.; Chalmers Parker, inf.; 
Morgan G. Milne, inf.; Phili)) H. Elwood, art.; Albert W. Field, inf.; Floyd L. Simmons, 
inf.; Claire G. Landes, ord.; Donald R. Poston, inf.; Alvin B. Tallmadge, art. 

First Lieutenants — J. Edgar Butler, inf.; Donald Reed Conard, art.; George H. Cless, 
jr., inf.; Theodore S. Rhoades, inf.; Thomas S. Sharp, sig. corps; Frederick M. Butler, inf.; 
John M. Maclean, art.; H. W. Mitchell, inf.; Frank Lehman, inf.; Howard R. Charman, 
art.; Harry J. Derivan, art.; Vincent H. Doyle, art.; Howard C. Russell, inf.; Carl H. Trik, 
inf.; Frederick L. Purdy, art.; William F. Havens, art.; John Brindle, inf.; Beattv Stevens, 
inf.; Jerome F. Page, art.; Theodore T. Toole, aviation; Harold W. Guitner, inf.; Arthur 
W. Raymond, art.; Benjamin F. Pfefferle, inf.; Paul Perdue Ewing, art.; William J. Cole- 
grove, inf.; Ralph II. Dickinson, inf.; Webster W. Eaton, sig. corps; Walter L. Ewing, avia- 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 81 

tion; Charles R. Gress, inf.; Vernon D. Hunter, inf.; Stanley W. Lewis, art.; William H. 
Payne, inf.; Edward B. Erickson, inf.; E. H. Gauger, inf. 

Second Lieutenants — Paul R. Carroll, inf.; Ralph Young, inf.; John S. McCune, inf.; 
H. W. Daughters, art.; John B. Gager, art.; Win. O. Ziebold, art.; Emerson L. Taylor, 
aviation; Frank L. Kulcher, art.; Wallace W. Clark, inf.; Joseph M. Clifford, inf.; 
Harlev R. Elliott, inf. ; Homer S. Floyd, inf. ; Maurice B. Kessler, art. ; Chester H. Latham, 
inf.; Clinton O. Potts, aviation; Robert W. Stevenson, inf.; John A. Turkopp, inf.; Earle 
J. Walker, inf.; Samuel C. Wright, inf.; Marquis S. Zellers, aviation; P. G. Royce, inf.; 
Eugene F. Morrow, inf.; Robert S. Riley, inf.; Wm. P. Bancroft, art.; Edwin E. Spencer, 
art.; Rusk H. Whipps, art.; S. K. Johnson, (Rev.), art.; Harry Syfert, inf.; Paul W. Bull, 
inf.; John G. Fleming, art.; Raymond W. Foster, inf.; Charles S. Hill, inf.; Frank M. 
Joyce, inf.; John C. Lewis, inf.; John O'Neil, jr., art.; Harry J. Orthoefer, art.; John T. 
Seiders, inf.; Arthur Tressing, inf.; Bernard H. Weisz, art.; Pearce C. Wilders, inf.; 
Elbert F. Mosher, inf. ; Harry S. Duddleston, inf. 

At about the same time, at Camp Sheridan, D. M. Daugherty, Edgar L. Bull and John 
O. Thistle were commissioned first lieutenants and Glenn Eustace Rader, second lieutenant 
of infantry. There were numerous other commissions and promotions, but official informa- 
tion was not easily obtained. 

For the nation-wide thrift campaign launched by the federal government to secure war 
funds and to offer savings opportunity to the people, a State Executive Committee was or- 
ganized in Columbus, November 29, 1917. H. P. Wolfe, Columbus business man and a 
director of the Federal Reserve bank of this district, presided and was chosen chairman of 
the State organization; John Y. Bassell vice chairman, John A. Kelley, secretary, the executive 
committee being completed by the appointment of the following: Governor James M. Cox, 
Archbishop Henry Moeller, Cincinnati; J. R. Nutt, Cleveland; H. E. Talbott, Dayton; W. 
S. Rowe, B. H. Kroger and Theodore D. Watterstroem, Cincinnati; Warren S. Stone, 
William G. Lee, W. S. Carter, D. C. Wills and Morris Black, Cleveland; Wilbur K. Brown 
and Miss Nida R. P angle, Toledo; D. W. Durbin, Kenton; R. W. Archer, Barnesville; C. B. 
McCoy, Coshocton; P. C, Berg, Hillsboro; W. A. Blicke, Bucyrus ; Robert T. Scott, Cam- 
bridge; R. E. Hills, Delaware; Mrs. George Zimmerman, Fremont; W. P. Shearer, Zanesville ; 
Rev. Dr. Washington Gladden, James W. Faylkner, F. B. Pearson, Herbert Myers, Charlr-s 
H. Brown, Thomas J: Donnelly, Clark S. Wheeler, A. V. Donahey, Samuel A. Kinnear, H. 
Sage Valentine, Beman G. Dawes, Mrs. Maud Murray Miller, Columbus. Counties were sub- 
sequent!}' organized and, under the county organization, cities, villages, and communities. 

Ohio's quota was $106,000,000. To secure this amount, thrift stamps were put on sale 
in postoffices and banks, and mail carriers in city and country and others acted as authorized 
salesmen. Stamps were sold at 25 cents each, exchangeable in $5 lots for certificates bear- 
ing 4 per cent, interest. The quota for Columbus and Franklin county was $5,265,000, and 
E. A. Reed became chairman of the county campaign committee. By June 25, 1918 the sale 
here had amounted to $1,931,610.50. Then an intensive campaign was inaugurated, a fea- 
ture of which was to secure as many subscribers as possible in $1000 amounts, each such 
subscriber to have his name enrolled on what was called the Victory list. J. J. Stevenson 
was made campaign manager and twenty teams were organized, ten under the leadership 
of Fred W. Herbst and ten under that of Edward J. Goodman. Sunday evening, June 23, a 
great mass meeting; was held in Memorial Hall, witli short addresses by ministers representing 
Protestant, Catholic and Hebrew congregations. The hall was packed and many worshippers 
were turned away. It was a meeting at which creed and color were thrown into the melt- 
ing pot out of which came the one sentiment of church unity in support of the government 
in the war. On the following Tuesday the canvass by 200 men began, the special solicita- 
tion being for Victory subscriptions but nothing; being refused. As in other campaigns, 
there were daily meetings of the canvassers, with reports ; there was extensive newspaper, 
billboard and street car publicity, and various devices and stunts were adopted to extend 
and maintain the interest. At the close of the intensive campaign, the total of sales and 
pledges to buy before January 1, 1919, was $1,359,796.25. The half-way mark had been 
safely passed in the first six months. Through later efforts the full quota for the year 1918 
was sold, and to Franklin county one of the b-onze tablets signifying that measure of patriot- 
ism was awarded and erected in the Court House. The county's quota was $5,265,060; the 



82 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

sales $5,750,000. Chairman E. A. Reed received as a testimonial of service a gold honor 
medal, and others of the committee bronze medals. 

Dr. Charles S. Hamilton, in November, was commissioned a major in the United States 
army and assigned to supervise the organization of the medical advisory boards of Ohio for 
the new draft classifications. The State was divided into districts, each with its board of 
physicians to give counsel to the draft board physician in doubtful cases. 

Dr. Starling S. Wilcox and Dr. Edward C. Ludwig were commissioned captains ; Dr. 
Charles J. Roach, Dr. James H. Warren, Dr. Jeremiah E. Kerschner, Dr. William Neely 
Taylor and Dr. John Donovan Kessler, first lieutenants in the medical corps. Dr. Edward 
N. Cook, Dr. Walter A. Knodcrer and Dr. F. W. Fenzel were commissioned first lieuten- 
ants in the dental corps. 

Dr. Philip D. Wilson who, in 1916, had served in France as a member of the Harvard 
ambulance and hospital unit, again went abroad in the summer of 1917, for similar service 
in the American hospital in France, he having been commissioned a captain. 

Dr. O. H. Sellenings joined the staff of the children's bureau of the American Red Cross, 
with headquarters in Paris. A part of his work, begun in the fall of 1917, was a study of 
the milk supply problem with a view to securing adequate food for infants, as well as to 
teach French mothers better pre-natal hygiene and scientific feeding, and save the babies 
from tuberculosis. 

Instruction in French was offered to the recruits at the Barracks by members of Le 
Cercle Franeais, including Mrs. J. L. V. Bonney, Mrs. Harry B. Arnold, Mrs. Frame C. Brown 
and Madamoiselle Monier, of the Columbus School for Girls. The purpose was to familiar- 
ize the men with traveling phrases, the names of common foods, articles of furniture, cloth- 
ing, etc. 

When in December, 1917, questionnaires were sent to all the remaining registrants under 
the selective draft, with a view to their classification and determination of the order in which 
they should be called, a great task was throw i on the draft boards. A large number of at- 
torneys volunteered to help the registrants, and the court rooms at the Court House were used 
for many days for that purpose. Thither the registrants went, often with their dependents, 
answering the necessary questions and making oath to their statements. The questionnaires 
were then filed with the draft boards, and the men in accordance therewith were divided 
into five classes, those of Class 1 being those subject to earliest call. 

Men in this class began to prepare themselves for service. A vocational training course 
was offered at the Trades school, E. L. Heusch director, and 189 men took the first course of 
eight weeks ending the middle of April. The training proved popular and others took it 
as they could. A contingent of 480 left for Camp Sherman April 29; 535 went May 28, and 
others during the month until the number for May totaled 1,000. June 15, 68 men fit 
for special training as auto mechanics, blacksmiths, sheet metal workers and radio operators, 
were sent to the University of Cincinnati for that purpose. 

On June 5, 1918, there was under the general law, registration for all young men who 
had become 21 since the registration of the previous year. The number registered in Frank- 
lin county was 1,86 1. They were assigned to classes by the same process of number-draw- 
ing and questionnaires, being placed the bottom of their respective classes. Columbus 
attorneys again volunteered in large numbers to assist the registrants. 

About the middle of November, 1917, B. M. Selekman, of the Russell Sage Foundation, 
came to Columbus representing the War Department Commission on Training Camp Activi- 
ties. He organized a committee consisting of John G. Price, Dr. J. F. Hagerty, Fred Lazarus, 
jr., George W. Gillette, Rev. E. F. Chauncey, John W. Pontius, H. S. Warwick, Max Stern, 
Lee M. Boda, E. A. Reed, Stockton Raymond, Dr. E. F. Tittle, Miss Caroline Breyfogle, 
Mrs. J. L. V. Bonney, Mrs. W. W. Carlile and Mrs. W. F. Anawalt, with himself as execu- 
tive secretary. The committee provided entertainments and recreational activities for soldiers 
who came to Columbus, supplementing the work of the Y. M. C. A. in the camps. Concerts 
and minstrel entertainments were given and safeguards set around the morals of the soldiers 
and the community. 

The Columbus Khaki Club, with all its facilities free to soldiers, was opened in the old 
Mithoff home at Fifth and Broad streets, June 1, 1918, with Charles B. Comstock in charge. 
Rooms had been furnished by the Altrurian, Rotary and Kiwanis Clubs, and the Art 
League had loaned pictures for the walls. A reading room with books, magazines and 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 83 

papers had been prepared and shower baths had been installed. This hospitality was freely 
accepted bv the soldiers from the first and a useful purpose was served. 

Organization of the Columbus branch of the Patriotic League was begun in January, 
1918, the purpose being to enlist the young women of the city in a variety of work for win- 
ning the war by aiding the Red Cross, helping in the conservation of fuel and food and in other 
ways protecting and preserving the ideals of democracy at home. Mrs. J. L. V. Bonney was 
made chairman and appointed an executive committee consisting of Mrs. Charles W. Harper, 
Mrs. Wm. P. Anawalt, Mrs. T. B. Sellers, Mrs. R. H. Sweetser, Mrs. E. W. Campion, Mrs. J. 
C. Whitridge, Mrs. E. C. Caldwell, Mrs. A. T. Seymour, Mrs. Frank Kelton, Mrs. H. A. 
Arnold, Mrs. Frank Ray, Mrs. Martin J. Caples, Mrs. W. W. Carlile, Miss Jane Sullivant, 
Mrs. Nathan Gumble, Mrs. C. P. Hansberger and Mrs. James G. Gilmore. Mrs. Luke 
Cooperider was made executive secretary. Headquarters were established and a campaign 
for membership was prosecuted in factories, stores, schools, churches and elsewhere. Thous- 
ands of young women joined the league, organized their various groups, held rallies and 
generally engaged in the proposed activities. Miss Lillian Stocklin sprang quickly into prom- 
inence as director of music and later organized a girls' glee club. 

Registration of both men and women residents, the subjects of enemy countries, was 
required and put into effect without trouble, limitations being set upon their movements. For 
the co-operation of the police department Mayor Karb was thanked by United States Attor- 
ney General Gregory. Most of the sympathy with Germany disappeared after the declara- 
tion of war, but enough remained to cause some anxiety and to give rise to many rumors. 
District Attorney Stuart Bolin was assisted by a large volunteer committee of citizens to 
whom he turned over complaints for investigation and report. 

More than 6,000 copies of Pastor Russell's "The Finished Mystery" and 20,000 copies 
of the Kingdom News, organ of the International Bible Students' Association were seized 
here as dangerously pacifist and distribution was prohibited except to bona fide members. A 
map-maker in state employ, for distributing this sort of literature, was dismissed from his 
place as a result of his arrest. 

A fire in the American Chain Company's plant was officially believed to have been the 
result of a pro-German plot. One of the plotters was thought to have been at the time mur- 
dered by another. Two men were indicted by the Federal grand jury for attempting to 
destroy machinery at the Ralston Steel Car Company's plant, and several men were arrested 
for making derogatory remarks against the Liberty bonds. 

The study of German in the public schools was first restricted and later banished en- 
tirely. Unpatriotic actions and comments by teachers were so persistently reported that the 
Board of Education in May, 1918, adopted a resolution warning all employes that all 
reports of disloyal acts and utterances would be promptly investigated and that proof would be 
followed by speedy and positive discipline, regardless of all considerations of service. The 
banishing of German from the schools was made the occasion of the public burning of Ger- 
man textbooks. Wood piles were made at the street corners on East Broad street, and books 
brought to them were burned, April 19, 1918, while members of the Columbus Reserve 
Guards stood by to see that there was no interference. The Board of Education was more 
thrifty than individuals; it sold its German texts at 50 cents a hundred pounds, on con- 
dition that they be reduced to pulp. The proceeds totaled more than $400. 

The City Council also responded to the a-iti-German sentiment by changing the name 
of Schiller park to Washington park and of Germania park to Mohawk park, and by re- 
naming Schiller, Germania and Bismarck streets, Whittier, Steward and Lansing avenues 
respectively. The petitions for the changes were many and the protests few. The local 
branch of the Order of Druids, after sixty years of use of the German language in its ritual- 
istic work, substituted English, and some business organizations eliminated all Teutonic 
suggestion in their names. The First and Second German M. E. churches dropped the word 
"German" from their names, and the former substituted the word "Zion," erecting also a 
tablet with this inscription, "We Stand for God and Christ, Our Country and Flag, Humanity 
and Democracy." 



CHAPTER XII. 

SECOND YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 

Chamber of Commerce Leads in Civilian Activities — Home Reserve Guard — Food Produc- 
tion and Prices — Saving the Children — Patriotic Parade — Call for Nurses and Physi- 
cians — Americanization Day — Community Sings — Red Cross and Other Relief Work — 
Selective Service — Shifting of Labor to War Work — "Atonement" Liberty Drive — 
Students' Army Training Corps — "Gasless" Sundays — Epidemk of Influenza — 
Sounding of "Taps" — Getting Ready for the Wounded — Peace Reports, False and True 
— War Chest Report — Ovations to Returning Aviators and Troops — J'ictory Loan 
Campaign — Masonic Welcome and Memorial Service — Honoring Edward L. McCune — 
British Recruiting Mission. 

The activities of the Chamber of Commerce in the war period are not easily enumerated. 
Its machinery was used for practically every patriotic effort of the city. With Henry A. 
Williams as president and George W. Gillette as secretary, the Chamber co-operated with 
every movement for food production and conservation. It financed and supported by per- 
sonal service various lines of recruiting, aided in floating the Liberty loans, provided 
quarters, funds and organization machinery for the Red Cross membership and money cam- 
paigns as well as the War Chest. It directed the ceremonies on "Call to the Colors" day 
and various demonstrations in honor of the enlisted and selected men. It compiled for the 
Federal Government valuable information regarding the available community resources, 
assisted in the campaign for the selective draft, helped in the distribution of labor and the 
organization of tile Home Reserve Guard and generally was the nucleus and much of the 
substance of the numerous citizen activities. 

The organization of a Home Reserve Guard to insure the peace of the city at a time 
when so many men were absent was a matter of early concern. Mayor Karb called for the 
organization of such a body and the Chamber of Commerce supported his plea. There 
was some difficulty at the outset, but ultimately the Rifles, Knights of Columbus, the Elks, 
the Automobile Club, the Engineers' Club, Sons of Veterans, Knights of St. John and other 
organizations contributed companies, and a body of over 600 men was formed. Headquarters 
was established at the Seventh Avenue Armory, and the men were uniformed by patriotic 
subscription at a cost of $.'50,000. There were nine letter companies, with signal and medical 
corps. W. B. Hammil was the first colonel but in a subsequent reorganization, George L. 
Chennell was elected colonel; E. A. Selagi lieutenant colonel, C. W. Wallace, W. H. Fisher 
and W. W. Mowery majors. The companies drilled separately and as a regiment once a 
week. The regiment appeared on all patriotic occasions, camped at the Driving Park, the 
week of July 1, 1918, and performed much useful service whenever great crowds gathered. 
From its membership nearly 200 men went into the regular army service, one-half of whom 
became officers. At the close of the war H. C. Collingwood, who had served as a lieutenant 
of the Fifth Engineers' Training Regiment, was elected to the command and served till the 
Guard was honorably discharged by the Mayor in July, 1919. 

All forces were set at work early in 1918 to increase the production of foodstuffs. In 
February, a tractor school was held at the State Fair Grounds. It was attended by some 
1,300 farmers from different parts of the State, all eager to learn what they could about 
tractors, 20 of which were there for demonstration purposes. There were lectures by ex- 
perts and laboratory classes. Governor Cox was present and spoke, earnestly urging 
farmers to employ the tractor as a duty to the country and to the boys in the trenches. He 
promised that bankers would give credit at low rates of interest, that service stations where 
tractor parts could be obtained would be established and that the government would give 
preference' to farmers in the purchase of tractor fuel. The school lasted a week and served 
to introduce the new field power to manv. 

In April the State and County Food Administration fixed the prices of bread from bakers 
to retailers and from retailers to consumers a- follows: A 16-OUnce loaf 8.1 and 10 cents, a 
21-ounce loaf 12.1 and 15 cents, two of the latter to a consumer for 29 cents. The chief 
reason for the advance of half a tent a loaf was that the substitute flours cost more than 



SECOND YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 85 

wheat flour. While the regulation of business was strange, it was cheerfully accepted as 
necessary, and the Ohio Wholesale Grocers, at their meeting in April, praised the national 
and state food administrators and pledged their heart}' support. 

Emphasis was again laid on home gardening, and by the middle of March Director 
Grant P. Ward of the City Recreation Department, had assigned 300 lots. Under the 
direction of the Food Administration all lot-owners were to cultivate or let others cultivate the 
ground. The Godman Guild conducted community gardens for 350 families, besides plant- 
ing fourteen acres at Camp Johnson. Nine thousand Columbus school children joined the war 
garden army and their work was supervised by J. C. Hambleton with the assistance of fifty- 
two teachers. The Recreation Department supervised the cultivation of 5,783 lots, four- 
fifths of which were turned over by their owners for assignment to others. 

At the end of April, 1918, there was begun, with the indorsement of Governor Cox, a 
campaign to reduce infant mortality during the war. In a letter to Dr. A. W. Freeman, State 
Commissioner of Health, he approved the project already under way by the department, 
characterizing the children as the third line of defense. The child welfare committee of 
the Franklin County Women's Council of National Defense distributed cards on which were 
printed the normal height and weight of children of different ages, established stations for 
the weighing and measuring of all children under six years, and urged parents to bring their 
children for the test. The number of Franklin county babies thus tested was 4,744, and 
the warning thus sounded, it is believed, was effective in saving many lives. Women prom- 
inent in this campaign were Mrs. A. B. Nelles, Miss Jennie Tuttle and Mrs. Linus B. 
Kauffman, who at the end of May because of her efficient work, was promoted from vice 
chairman to chairman of the Women's Council, with headquarters in the Chamber of Com- 
merce building. She continued in this capacity to the end. 

On Sunday, June 9, 1918, a great patriotic parade was held in which 25,000 persons, 
men, women and children, marched, other thousands looking on from every point of vantage. 
The line of march was from Broad and Sixth to Town, to High, to Chestnut, countermarch 
to Broad and east to the starting point. There were six divisions: Mothers of soldiers, 
Red Cross, Junior Red Cross, Patriotic League, War Stamps and War Chest. With bands 
and banners, on symbolical floats, on foot and on horseback, in uniform and otherwise, the 
women workers wearing their flowing veils, the procession moved through the streets, mak- 
ing one of the most beautiful and inspiring spectacles Columbus has ever seen. To the city 
demonstrants were added delegations from nearly all the townships in the county, their 
banners adding- to the cheer and demonstrating the unity of the people behind the troops. 
Into a great flag, carried by war chest marchers, spectators threw $749.43. Boy Scouts 
pushed a great war savings ball behind a banner reading "Keep the Ball Rolling," and Ohio 
State University women carried the great service flag of that institution with its 2,640 stars. 
The streets were decorated with the allied colors and effectivelv patrolled by the police 
and the Home Guard. John J. Baird was parade marshal and his aide, General John C. 
Speaks. Motion pictures of the parade were taken with a view to sending to the boys in 
camp at the front visible evidence of the sentiment at home. In the State House yard, 
during and after the parade, there was speaking by returned soldiers, and others and the 
singing or religious and patriotic songs by thousands of school children. Two of the speak- 
ers were Corporal Thomas S. Cosgrove, of Toledo, and Corporal Charles E. Morris, of 
Younsrstown, both of whom had served for six months with Pershing in France. 

County Auditor Sage E. Valentine was the first chairman of the Franklin County Food 
Administration Committee which operated to secure a fair distribution of foodstuffs and to 
prevent hoarding. In July, 1918, on the resignation of Mr. Valentine, O. E. Harrison was 
chosen and the committee was reconstituted as follows : Mayor George J. Karb, Geor«e W. 
Gillette, Dr. Louis Kahn, D. C. Meehan. Frank L. Stein, Daniel H. Sowers, Edward 
Hymrod, Arthur Carlile, Dr. H. W. Whitaker, Phil S. Bradford, L. L. Pegg, Mrs. Linus 
B. Kauffman and Miss Faith Lanman. 

At the same time there was begun the semi-monthly publication of food prices deemed 
fair by the State Food Administration. The first of these, published July 2, set prices for the 
retailer as well as the consumer. For the latter, the price of wheat flour ranged fro $1.42 
to $1.62 for -J barrel; rye flour, 7 to 8 J cents a pound; corn meal 5} to 6 cents a pound; 
eggs 40 to 44 cents per dozen; butter 47 to 52 cents a pound; sugar 9 to 9\ cents a pound; 
beans 12:1 to 18 cents a pound; lard 28 to 31 cents a pound; bread, 1-pound loaf, S to 10 



8(5 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

cents; cream cheese, 29 to 34 cents a pound. Buyers were asked to report stores charging 
more. 

A fair price list, published in the following November fixed prices to the consumer as 
follows: Wheat flour, $1.57 to $1.65 for ^ barrel; rye flour 6 -J to 7 cents a pound; corn meal, 
5 to 6 cents a pound; fresh eggs 77 to 78 cents a dozen; sugar 11 cents a pound; beans 
12 J to 14 cents a pound; lard 35 to 36 cents a pound; bread, 1 -pound loaf, 8 to 10 cents; 
cream cheese 46 to 58 cents a pound. Creamery butter was selling on market at 72 to 75 
cents a pound; country butter 48 to 50 cents a pound; chickens, dressed, 30 to 35 cents 
a pound; ducks, dressed, 38 to 40 cents a pound; turkeys, dressed, 45 cents a pound, 
Bacon was 60 cents a pound, corned beef 40 cents, boiled ham 60 cents, lamb chops 60 
cents, pork chops 40 to 45 cents, porterhouse steak 60 cents, round steak 35 cents, sausage 
33 to 35 cents, oysters 80 to 90 cents a quart, potatoes 50 to 60 cents a peek, apples 50 
cents to $1 a peck, oranges 50 to 60 cents a dozen. The cost of living had soared, but for- 
tunately most persons had money to buy with. 

As a result of the visit of Comtesse Madeline de Bryas, who spoke in Memorial Hall, 
June 27, in the interest of her country, there was formed a Columbus branch of the Ameri- 
can Committee for Devastated France with the following directors: Mrs. F. O. Johnson, 
Miss Howard, Mrs. Wm. S. Miller, Mrs. E. M. Poston, Mrs. T. T. Frankenburg, Mrs. 
Max Goodman, Mrs. S. D. Hutchins, Mrs. Nathan Gumble, Mrs. Fred W. Atcherson, Mrs. 
A. I. Vorys, Mrs. J. G. Sayre, Mrs. E. J. Wilson, Mrs. Willard Holcomb, Miss Cornelia 
Lanman and Miss Helen Converse, Beman G. Dawes, John Garber, W. H. Alexander, P. B. 
Whitsit, Dr. H. C. Brown and Bishop Theodore I. Rees. A bazaar was opened in the 
Deshler Hotel building and other means were adopted for raising money and securing 
garments for the sufferers. 

Canteen service of the Red Cross established headquarters in the rooms of the Colum- 
bus Art School, East Broad street, with Mrs. John H. Roys and Mrs. Walter H. Martin 
in charge, the special work being to meet the troop trains at the Union Station and serve 
the men with refreshments. Owing to the location of Columbus on the through lines east 
and west, there were many such trains. The Junior Red Cross in July moved into the 
Campbell Chittenden home at Broad and Seventeenth streets, where classes in home nursing 
and first aid were continued and garments and other useful things were made. Here and 
there playgrounds were equipped for the care of children whose mothers wished to work 
at the Red Cross centers. 

Trained nurses of Columbus early began enlisting for hospital service in the army and 
navy at home and abroad. These numbered about 150 when in June, 1918, came the Red 
Cross call for more. Of the 25,000 asked from the whole country Columbus and Franklin 
county were asked for 150. A week's campaign, (Prof. J. S. Myers manager), in which 
the Red Cross Chapter, the hospitals and the physicians assisted, resulted in the enrollment 
of 203 graduate nurses. At the same time 126 young women enrolled for training in the 
various hospitals in the city and at the camp hospitals under the supervision of the surgeon 
general of the United States army. 

Later under the direction of Dr. C. F. Clark physicians were organized into a volunteer 
medical corps. Large meetings were held, mt only of local physicians, but of those in the 
surrounding counties, and hundreds offered their services, the purpose being two-fold — to 
care for the home situation and to relieve those physicians who were eligible for active 
service in the army hospitals. 

July 4, 1918, was observed as Americanization Day, the program being under the direc- 
tion of a Chamber of Commerce committee, M. J. Caples chairman. There was a parade in 
the morning of foreign-born residents — Italians, Greeks, Belgians, French, Danes, Poles, 
Assyrians. Armenians, Dutch, Hungarians, Finns, Japanese, Russians, Lithuanians, Swiss, 
Swedes, Rumanians, Norwegians, Austrians, Germans and Serbians — each group carrying its 
native flag as well as Old Glory and banners w'th inscriptions as to its nationality. The 
parade entered the State House grounds, where with a throng estimated at 10,000, of whom 
4,000 were foreign-born, there was a band concert, with singing and a mass repetition of the 
vow of allegiance, led by President Henry A. Williams of the Chamber of Commerce: "I 
pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, 
with liberty and justice to all." In the afternoon at Memorial Hall Ignace Jan Paderewski, 
distinguished Polish pianist, addressed a large audience chiefly of the foreign-born. He 



SECOND YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 87 

praised the loyalty of the latter and the unity of the nation and likened the Polish spirit 
to that of the Americans. "Keep your country open for the oppressed," lie said. "Let 
them live peacefully in your midst and die quietly in your blessed land. With this, patriotism 
will come, I assure you." 

In the summer a series of community sings was held, some in Franklin Park and Ohio 
Field. One of these fell on July 14, the anniversary of the fall of the Bastile, and there 
was a crowd of 10,000 at the park. The Barracks band and 550 soldiers from the Barracks; 
also the Republican Glee Club led by Karl Hoenig, a thousand girls from the Patriotic 
League and large representations from the Women's Music Club and the church choirs. 
Alfred Barrington, Robert W. Roberts and Mr. Hoenig led the mass singing of the "Mar- 
sellaise" and other patriotic songs. Another great crowd gathered at the Barracks to attend 
the French fete Monday evening, under the auspices of the organization for the Fatherless 
Children of France. In an imitation French garden there was a program of singing, dancing and 
instrumental music. Thirty girls' from the Patriotic League sang war songs, and there was 
dancing by pupils from the School for Girls, while overhead an aviator from the Dayton field 
circled. The fete netted several thousand dollars for the relief fund. 

At Ohio Field, July 21, a crowd of soldiers, aviation students and civilians, estimated 
at 17,000, sang for victory, Samuel R. Gaines and Willis G. Bowland being added to the 
list of directors. At the Barracks, in Memorial Hall, in the Masonic Temple and elsewhere 
these community sings were held weekly, the Rotarians, Knights of Columbus and the 
Columbus Choral Society, the Elks, the Woodmen of the World, the Democratic Glee Club 
and others aiding witli leaders and voices. The Fourth Liberty Loan drive was inaugurated 
September 29, with a great "sing" in the Coliseum at the State Fair Grounds and fifteen 
others in various parts of the county. 

Selects continued to be sent by the draft boards to the camps for training. July 16 
there was an elaborate farewell for 156 colored men, a meeting at Memorial Hall and a 
parade to the station. On the 23d the county's largest contingent, 1,026 men, marched to 
the station, with an escort of honor, and departed for Camp Sherman. With the exception 
of about 500 men, this exhausted the availables in Class 1 of the 1917 draft. For the in- 
struction of those who remained and the 1918 registrants, each of the draft boards appointed 
a committee of eight or ten citizens, and an additional training school was opened in the 
Y. M. C. A. building, with General John C. Speaks as director. 

The reorganized Franklin County Food Administration Committee was active and effi- 
cient. O. E. Harrison was chairman, Phil S. Bradford secretary, Archard Brandon counsel, 
D. H. Sowers chairman of the law enforcement committee and E. L. Pease compiler of the 
fair price list. Rules regarding the sales of foodstuffs, especially sugar, were made and their 
observance watched. Violators were assessed fines which were paid into the Red Cross 
treasury, but the willful violators were few, both dealers and consumers accepting the regu- 
lations in a spirit of patriotism. The July prices for lump coal ran from $5.80 for Hocking 
to $6.45 for West Virginia splint. 

The War Chest Committee met periodically and made appropriations from the fund 
according to the plan announced prior to the solicitation. It also sent to the company fund 
of each unit in which there were Franklin county boys an amount equal to $10 per capita 
to be used in securing those comforts the War Department could not furnish. The committee 
joined with similar committees elsewhere in the creation of a national bureau for procuring 
information on efficiency of administration, possible duplication of effort and wortliv appeals 
for assistance. 

The Federal Government's call for a student nurse reserve found Columbus eager to 
serve. A recruiting station was opened in the Deshler Hotel, with Mrs. C. C. Corner in 
charee and a publicity committee went to work with the result that in the allotted time the 
enrollment of 1 1 1 young women to train for the service, either in civilian or military schools, 
had been exceeded. The need for nurses continuing, this was supplemented in October and 
November by a house-to-house canvass of the county to make a record of all available 
persons. Mrs. C. C. Corner, who had been elected secretary of the social service bureau of 
the Chamber of Commerce, vice R. L. Bondy, called to military duty, was seeretarv of the 
committee, and the work was done largely through the organization of women that Mrs. 
Linns B. Kauffman had built up, with representatives in every ward and township of the 
county. 



88 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

In the summer the Knights of Columbus dedicated their recreation building at the Colum- 
bus Barracks, with short addresses by representatives of that Catholic order, the military 
and the Y. M. C. A. The Elks, the Columbus branch participating, erected a $10,000 com- 
munity house at Camp Sherman. Miss Jean Hamilton, representing the colored Y. W. C. 
A., began the organization of colored women and girls for war work, headquarters being es- 
tablished at 195 East Long street. Out of this it was hoped would grow a movement for 
a permanent Y. W. C. A. A school for staff workers in war community service was held 
at the Great Southern Hotel, in September, under the direction of Mrs. Eva W. White, of 
Boston, workers from other places being addressed by Mrs. J. L. V. Bonney, Mrs. T. B. 
Sellers, Mrs. W. P. Anawalt, Mrs. C. W. Harper and others of the successful Columbus 
organizers of young women. A third institute for the training of workers in the relief of 
soldiers' families was held in October at Ohio State University under the direction of Dr. 
J. E. Hagerty. 

Meanwhile the Red Cross workers continued unceasingly to turn out hospital supplies. 
At the annual meeting of the directors of the chapter in October, A. T. Seymour appeared 
as the successor of Mrs. M. J. Caples, removed from the city. The official staff then in- 
cluded: Mrs. W. T. Wells, chairman of the women's work; Mrs. C. L. Ireland, chairman of 
outside working units ; Mrs. Edgar B. Kinkead, chief of the bureau of information ; Mrs. 
F. N. Sinks assistant. In the civilian relief department Miss Ann Evans assumed charge 
of the workers, succeeding Mrs. Lois Olcott, who had served temporarily, vice Miss Covert, 
resigned on account of illness. Later, when Mrs. Ireland was called to Washington, Mrs. W. 
D. Hamilton took up her work here. E. L. McCune, chairman of the military relief com- 
mittee, in his report, highly complimented botli the women workers and the Junior Red 
Cross. Their work made it possible to ship i i the period from May 1, 1917, to September 
30, 1918, 754 cases containing 555,521 articles, besides many garments for the refugees in 
Belgium and articles for the convelescents at Camp Sherman. 

For the canteen workers a hut was built on the bridge inside the Union Station, and 
there night and day, refreshments were served by willing hands to the trainloads of soldiers 
passing through to camps or ports of embarkation and to those who were returning, shat- 
tered, to hospital or home. But, alas! these were not all; there were also silent heroes 
in their coffins, to whom no further service could be rendered. The lumber for the hut was 
donated and the hut was built without charge by the Builders' and Traders' Exchange, 
and the money for the refreshment supplies was paid out of the War Chest, the services of 
the workers completing a beautiful circle of grateful appreciation of the men called to mili- 
tary duty. 

In compliance with the call for men for fie army there was, August 21, the registration 
of about 500 young men who had reached the age of 21 since June 5, 1917. Preparations 
were at the same time begun for the new draft of men between the ages of 18 and 15. E. 
W. Swisher was appointed chairman of the Franklin county draft commission and he ap- 
pointed as a committee to assist: Richard Lloyd, John J. Joyce, Harry C. Arnold and 
George Van Loon, members of the board of elections, II. Sage Valentine, Walter A. Pfeifer, 
Arthur J. Thatcher, Wm. A. Ginder, Judge Homer Z. Bostwick and James A. Allen, with 
Joseph A. Klunk as secretary. The election booths in the various precincts and townships 
were manned by volunteers, as before, election officers and others, and on September 12. 
the registration was made, 37,938 men in the county, between the ages of 18 and 21 and 
31 and 15, willingly offering their services. As usual, Columbus and Franklin count}' ex- 
ceeded the estimate, and the per capita cost, 18 cents for eacli registered man, was officially 
reported the smallest for any large city in th" State. The questionnaire and classification 
process was in progress when it was interrupted by the outbreak of influenza and pneumonia 
at Camp Sherman and in Columbus. 

In the latter part of September there began an organized effort to transfer labor from 
non-essential tasks to those of war. The construction of the great storage warehouses of 
the Federal Government, east of the city, was lagging and there was other need of united 
effort to produce those things and do those things required for the winning of the war. A 
community war labor board was appointed consisting of Rev. Timotheus Lehmann, pastor of 
St. John's Evanyelic.il Protestant church, chairman; C. J. Tucker, secretary of the Columbus 
Federation of Labor, and A. H. Thomas, superintendent of the Buckeye Steel Castings Co. 
The board sent out questionnaires to all employers of labor, asking to what extent they were 



SECOND YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 



89 



engaged in war work, the number and kind of workers and the character of the business, 
with a view to an amicable agreement as to the release of man power. So far as possible it 
was asked that women be substituted for men as clerks, elevator operators, etc., and there 
was a request for the discontinuance of many non-essential occupations such as shoe-shin- 
ing and pop-corn-vending. There was a patriotic response. Absenteeism in Columbus plants 
doing war work was cut 50 per cent., men shifted from non-essential to essential tasks, em- 
ployers readjusted their business so as to give the needed release and much personal service 
was abandoned, the city sent to the warehouse site its force of men for street cleaning and 
refuse collection and misdemeanants who would otherwise have been sent to the workhouse 
were given the chance to do war work instead. For weeks the employment bureaus were busy 
placing the new labor to get the best results. 

To aid in eliminating non-war construction work Governor Cox appointed the following 
committee: C. L. Dickey, president of the Northern Savings Bank Co.; Frank L. Packard, 




in Broad Street, Looking East from Front Street 
(Memorial to Soldiers in Center) 



architect, and Edwin F. Wood, secretary of the Ohio State Savings Association. Operat- 
ing in harmony with boards in other counties, it promulgated rules limiting to $1000 new 
construction in rural districts, prohibiting it in cities and limiting alterations and repairs to 
a cost of $2,500. In thirty days building operations in Columbus and Ohio were reduced 
to a minimum, all passed upon and permitted. 

The Fourth Liberty Loan Drive was for the sale of $13,070,550 bonds in Franklin 
county. The committee was organized with P'red Lazarus, jr., chairman, and Edwin 
Buchanan as secretary. Teams were organized as before, with the following captains : F. 
W. Schumacher, James A. Maddox, Max Morehouse, H. B. Arnold, E. J. Goodman, D. N. 
Postlewaite, J. J. Stevenson, W. H. Martin, Eugene Gray, E. P. Tice, Walter A. Jones, F. 
O. Schoedinger, F. W. Braggins, Frank J. Macklin and Andrew Timberman. The news had 
come of the death of forty-two Franklin county boys on the field of battle, and the campaign 
was called the Atonement drive. A beautiful memorial of concrete was built in Broad street 
facing High street, on which was a tablet inscribed with the names of the fallen as follows: 



!)() 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Frank O'Connor 
Richard Nineheart 
C. L. Robinson 
Verner Douglas 
Kenneth R. Failing 
Roy Rorick Murphy 
John A. Strange 
Norman Sharits 
Herman C. Slater 
Fred W. Norton 
Frwin I. Danford 
Harry O. Watkins 
Owen V. Carr 
Howard C. Paschall 



Herbert F. Hathaway 

Clifton Bow 

Frnest L. McCoy 

James E. Fisher 

A. J. Ortman 

Carl Adolph Bohlman 

Fred Ebert 

John S. Deming 

Martin O'Callaghan 

Richard N. Gleich 

Henry W. Powell 

Lloyd F. Schott 

Earl C. Bates 

Robert E. Goodykoontz 



Perry W. Crabtree 
Arthur J. Kiefer 
James Roland Avery 
Carey R. Evans 
Raymond W. Pierce 
Hoppy Kelley Fraley 
Norman W. Hillock 
Harry V. Hammond 
Jerry A. Brown 
Charles Bloce 
G. Estle 
John Donnelly 
Lawton B. Evans, jr. 
Michael Higgins 



That these soldiers "shall not have died in vain," the people of the county were asked 
to make subscriptions to the loan. On Saturday, September 28, Lieutenant John Philip 
Sousa and his Great Lakes band of 300 pieces came to Columbus, thrilling all with their 
massive music, as they marched the streets. Abram I. Elkus, former United States Ambass- 
ador to Turkey, spoke in the evening at Memorial Hall, and the great band played. On 
Monday, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, at the invitation of the committee, came and spoke 
from a platform at the base of the memorial to a great crowd that gathered in Broad street 
and braved the rain to hear him. He spoke also to a thousand bond salesmen gathered 
at luncheon in the Masonic Temple. With the impetus of these exceptional demonstrations, 
the committee and teams took up the work Tuesday morning, and carried it to a successful 
conclusion in five days. At the Saturday night meeting of the solicitors at the Masonic 
Temple, it was announced amid great enthusiasm that the city and county had again gone 
"over the top," the total then being $16,929,450. Resolving that they would inaugurate the 
custom of lifting the hat whenever they passed the memorial to the dead soldiers, the 
solicitors adjourned. The subscribers numbered 55,113. 

The Federal Government school of military aeronautics at Ohio State University was 
closed August 31, the work that had been done in this and other institutions being concen- 
trated at fewer places. Announcement was made of the Government's purpose to establish 
at this and other institutions of learning a Students' Army Training Corps, under the regu- 
lations of which young men of 18 years could attend college and at the same time be prepared 
for military service. The corps was to be organized by voluntary induction under the 
selective service act, instead of by enlistment ; the student would thus become a soldier in the 
United States army, subject to military discipline and with the pay of a private, $30 a 
month, housing, subsistence and instruction to be furnished; he would receive military in- 
struction and be kept under observation and assigned to duty, when there was need, according 
to his qualifications. This proved an alluring offer. Registration at the University was 
heavy and on October 1, about 2,000 young men had made application for admission to the 
corps. As fast as their physical fitness could be determined the young men were admitted 
tile the barracks on the University grounds or to other buildings that were to be so used. As 
far as military requirements would allow, each member of the corps was permitted to pursue 
his chosen course of study. 

A Students' Army Training Corps was also established at Capital University and simi- 
larly conducted. The enrollment was 5 1. 

September brought another unique demonstration of the unity of the people for the win 
nine of tin- war. The Federal Fuel Administration requested that as a means of saving 
gasoline that more might be sent over seas to the army, .all pleasure riding and needless 
automobile driving lie abandoned on Sunday. There was general compliance, the streets of 
the city on Sunday, September 1, being almost as clear of automobiles as they were before 
such vehicles came into vogue. The few thai ventured out had to run the gantlet of the 
street urchins' cries of "Slacker!" The second Sunday was a repetition of the first, except 
that it was found necessary to permit essential service cars to be run, and such were propcrlv 
placarded on the windshield. For the five Sundays in September and the first two in Octo- 
ber the ban remained on Sunday riding and when it was lifted, there was official assurance 



SECOND YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 91 

that every one who had sacrificed his pleasure or convenience had added something to the 
certainty of victory. 

The epidemic of influenza which spread over the country in the autumn reached Camp 
Sherman in the latter half of September. It raged for more than a month causing nearly 
1,100 deaths. The sickness of sons or other relatives called many Columbus people to 
the Camp and to Chillicothe where accommodations already were inadequate. For the 
better accommodation of visitors, Columbus club women made an appeal for gifts of mat- 
tresses, bedding, towels and supplies of various kinds. Gifts poured in and on the 12th of 
October seven trucks filled with the offerings left the United Commercial Travelers' build- 
ing on Goodale street for the camp. The Red Cross also sent supplies and scores of women, 
nurses and nurses' assistants offered their services. From the Volunteer Medical Service 
Corps, Dr. C. F. Clark, chairman, was able to send a number of physicians for civilian 
service in Boston and elsewhere. The emergency call for face masks, pillow cases, towels, 
etc., was met by the Red Cross workers. 

And while this work of relief was going on the epidemic stole into Columbus and put 
everybody on the defensive. Following the lead of the State Department of Health, the 
Columbus authorities on October 13, when 516 cases and a score of deaths had been re- 
ported, ordered the closing of schools, colleges, Sunday schools, theaters and motion picture 
houses, prohibited public and private dances in halls and hotels and all loitering about saloons 
and pool rooms, requesting also the abandonment of all public assemblages and the closing 
of churches and lodges. Ohio State University, in compliance with the state orders, had 
closed on the preceding Friday. Observance of the municipal orders was general, the request 
being as effective as the prohibition, but it was not till October 30 that signs of an early 
mastery of the disease appeared. Then the number of reported cases was 3,186, while the 
deaths totaled 265, of which 49 occurred at the Columbus Barracks. The first lifting of 
the health board ban was on November 3, when churches were permitted to hold services, 
if they were short and good ventilation maintained. In many of the churches appeals for 
votes favorable to the prohibition amendment to the State Constitution were made, that being 
the first and only opportunity for such appeal, as public meetings had been prohibited dur- 
ing the period of the epidemic. The disease continued its ravages, however, as related else- 
where, and it was not until the summer of 1919 that normal conditions were reached. 

On Friday, September 6, at the suggestion of Governor Cox, addressed to every com- 
munity in Ohio, the daily sounding of taps from the west front of the State House was begun. 
Choice fell on the hour of 4 :30 p. m., that, making allowance for the difference in time, most 
nearly corresponding with the hour at which the call would daily be sounded in France. "To 
us here at home," said the Governor, "what more beautiful sentiment can be imagined than 
the consciusness that, as the cadences rise and fall, somewhere within the shadow of death 
and under the pall of battle, our beloved ones are thinking of us." The first sounding here 
was made an impressive ceremony. In the presence of 10,000 people prayer was offered by 
Rev. Irving Maurer, of the First Congregational church. Captain D. M. Hall, Commander 
of the Ohio G. A. R., introduced H. S. Warwick as master of ceremonies, who read the 
Governor's proclamation of taps and General Pershing's address at the tomb of Lafayette. 
Adjutant General Roy E. Layton read a telegram from Pershing, saying: "To know that 
taps will be sounded tonight from the State House and every court house in Ohio is a touch- 
ing thought and brings us very near in spirit to the people at home who are supporting us so 
splendidly." A male octette sang to the tune of taps these lines by C. S. Anderson: 

Lord of Hosts, 
Hear our prayer — 
Keep our sons over there 
In Thy care ; 
Bring them home, 
Victory-crowned, 
Lord of Hosts ! 

There was singing of Allied airs by the throng, led by Karl Hoenig, and the bugler 
sounded taps. Governor James M. Cox, former Governor James E. Campbell, Mayor George 
J. Karb and Colonel Tyree Rivers, commandant at Camp Sherman, sat on the platform 



92 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

during the ceremonies. Two companies of so'diers from the camp afterwards gave an exhi- 
bition drill in Broad street. The sounding of taps was maintained daily during the war. 

The American Protective League, in charge of Robert E. Pfeiffer, special assistant 
United States District Attorney, during the p riod of the war, was aided by about 150 volun- 
teer investigators. About 250 German men and 300 German women were under constant 
supervision by the league. They could not leave Columbus or go from one part of the city 
to another without a permit, and thus insidious propaganda and spying were reduced to a 
minimum. 

The task of supervising women's work at the Red Cross headquarters in January, 1919, 
fell to Mrs. E. B. Kinkead who, in one capacity or another, had been with the Red Cross 
since its organization for war work. The armistice put an end to the demand for surgical 
dressings, but there was a call for garments for the children of France, Belgium and Serbia, 
and the work of many women was continued in that particular for several months. Civil- 
ian relief, under the direction of Miss Elizabeth Long, who had succeeded Miss Evans, con- 
tinued until January, 1920, as did the canteen work at the Union Station. 

The February, 1919, report of the Columbus Committee American Fund for French 
Wounded showed that since May, 1915, it had sent abroad supplies valued at $28,506.21 
and money to the amount of $1-1,000, a total of $12,506.21. There were about 40 units in 
this organization and six departments with the following chairmen : Mrs. J. H. J. Upham, 
Mrs. Earle Clarke Derby, Mrs. E. J. Wilson, Mrs. Silvio Casparis, Mrs. B. L. Bowen and 
Mrs. A. W. Mackenzie. 

To President Wilson's query, October 17, "How soon can Ohio be ready to care for her 
wounded brave boys who need to be returned home for rehabilitation, where the}' may have 
the loving attention of parents and friends?" Governor Cox replied, "Ohio is ready now." 
The buildings of the State School for the Deaf were at once offered for this use, were found 
admirably adapted and were accepted. Plans for the transfer of the deaf pupils to other 
buildings in Columbus and elsewhere were made by Superintendent J. W. Jones, but were 
not executed, as the wounded were sent to Camp Sherman hospitals. Coincident with this, 
the Columbus Chapter of the Red Cross, with the backing of the War Chest Committee, 
began preparations for the rehabilitation of disabled soldiers and sailors and their employ- 
ment at money-earning tasks. A committee consisting of J. Russell Kilbourne, chairman, 
James E. Hagerty, Thomas J. Duffy, W. F. Maxwell, Theodore E. Glenn, George W. Gillette, 
A. H. Thomas, J. W. Jones, Mrs. Karl E. Burr and Miss Ann Evans was appointed to take 
charge of the work. 

The tensity of the popular feeling in Columbus was revealed by a tremendous outburst 
of enthusiasm, Thursday, November 7, when the false news came that the German commis- 
sioners had arrived at the headquarters of General Foch and had signed the Allied terms of 
armistice. The Columbus Citizen, in common with newspapers of other cities, served by the 
United Press, printed an extra soon after 11 o'clock a. m., announcing in flaming type the 
end of the war. In vain other newspapers having no such information, declared the report 
unconfirmed from Washington or elsewhere. Bells were rung and whistles were blown. 
After long effort and repression, the people would not have it otherwise. Shops, factories, 
stores and offices released their happy workers, and thousands joined in impromptu parades 
in Broad and High streets. With banners and bands and noise-making implements of all 
sorts, men, women and children marched. A great throng nearly rilled the yard west of the 
Capitol and clamored for speeches from the Governor and Mayor. Time passed and there 
was no confirmation, though the Citizen issued other editions carrying the same news. No 
other information was considered except in mockery. Red Cross workers from head- 
quarters and the canteen joined in the demonstration. A delirium of joy swept over the 
citv; women wept and kissed one another; men indulged in extravagant conduct. Far into 
the night High street was a seething mass of joyous humanity; there was ill humor with 
no one save those who refused to believe. It was not until the next day that these latter 
would be heard with patience. Then came the positive news that the armistice terms had not 
been signed and that the fighting was still in progress. It was a rude awakening, hut the 
people bore it well. They had voiced their long pent-lip desire for peace with victory, and 
they were content. 

On the following Monday, November 11, people were awakened by the blowing of 
whistles and ringing of bells. This time there was no mistake about it. The official an- 



SECOND YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 93 

nouncement had come that the armistice terms had, that morning', and not before, been signed 
by the German commissioners. At once the city gave itself over to a celebration similar 
to that of the Thursday preceding. All day long the people marched through the streets with 
banners and flags and bands and bells, or looked on from sidewalk and window, shouting their 
joy or indicating it by the noise they made with horns, the beating or rattling of pans, cans, 
etc. The kaiser was hanged at several places in effigy, while other figures of him were trans- 
ported in coffins. The streets were thronged with noisy, happy people until midnight. At 
Memorial Hall there was a great thanksgiving service, conducted by the pastors of the city 
and shared in by the members of their congregations. Having thus given a second expression 
of its joy at the promise of peace, the city on the following morning resumed its usual 
activities. 

The War Chest executive committee reported, November 1, that subscribers had paid in 
$1,843,196.28 and that it had appropriated for soldiers' and sailors' need, supply work, 
domestic and home relief and foreign relief, a total of $620,811.10 and held itself in readi- 
ness to contribute to the united war work campaign soon to be made, $427,000, the quota 
of the county, adding to it if the national quota was increased, as desired. It was then 
expected that there would be need to fill the chest again, but the signing of the armistice 
changed all that and at the end of the month the committee announced that collections would 
end with December, each subscriber being asked for only 75% of his full subscription for the 
year, and that to those who had paid in full a refund of 25% would be made. In April, however, 
it was decided to finance the Red Cross canteen work and civilian relief to January 1, 
1920, and return the remainder to the subscribers, and so it was done in July, 1918. Thus 
each subscriber to the chest paid 18% of his original subscription. The total subscribed was 
$3,374,526.97, and the shrinkage was but 7%. 

The spring of 1919 was marked by a series of ovations to the returning troops. The 
boys were weary of military service and many of them would have preferred to be discharged 
and go direct to their homes, but at the earnest request of city officials who represented the 
enthusiastic people, arrangements were made for some of the returning units to come. 

Captain Edward Rickenbacker, whose service in the air had made him the chief of 
American aces, reached Columbus February 17, 1919. Known here in other years as an 
automobile racer, he went to France in May, 1917, as chauffeur for General Pershing. After 
a few months in that capacity he entered an aviation school and was commissioned as first 
lieutenant and later captain of his squadron which rendered a remarkable fighting service. 
Riikenbacker himself received official credit for bringing down twenty-six German planes and 
was awarded the French Croix de Guerre, the French Legion of Honor medal and the Ameri- 
can Distinguished Service Cross. A parade and banquet marked his home-coming. He is 
the son of Mrs. Elizabeth Rickenbacker. 

Distinguished service in the air-fighting was rendered by five other Columbus men, two 
of whom were killed. Those who made the supreme sacrifice were Lieutenant Fred Norton, 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Frank W. Norton, and Lieutenant Vaughn McCormick, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. E. W. McCormick. Lieutenant Norton was credited with bringing down six German 
planes and was awarded the Croix de Guerre and the American Distinguished Service Cross. 
He was wounded in an air fight in July, 1918, and died three days later. Lieutenant 
McCormick had two German planes to his credit and had been recommended for promotion 
for bravery and efficiency, when he was killed in action in September, 1918. 

Two of the Columbus aviators were captured and held prisoners by the Germans until 
the armistice was signed. Thev are Lieutenant Walter Avery, son of Mr. and Mrs. F. E. 
Avery, and Lieutenant W. B. Wanamaker, son of Judge and Mrs. R. M. Wanamaker. 
T.ieut. Avery is credited with destroying three German planes, one of them that of Capt. 
Mendkopf, famous German ace. He suffered a broken jaw when his machine fell within the 
German lines in October, 1918. He was awarded the Croix de Guerre and the American Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross. Lieut. Wanamaker had brought down one enemy plane in the 
fighting at Chateau Thierry when he was forced down with a broken leg and nose. He had 
then been fighting one month. 

Lieut. Louis Simon, son of Mr. and Mrs. M. E. Simon, was officially credited with de- 
stroying four German planes. He received the American Distinguished Service Cross for 
heroism, September 16, 1918, and both French and American citation for exceptional' bravery 
in action. 



94 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

On April 5, 1919, the first troops returning from P'ranee reached Columbus — the 112th 
Sanitary Train, the 112th Signal Battalion and the 62nd Artillery Brigade. Many of these 
men were from Columbus. In the parade with them were one hundred wounded soldiers 
from the base hospital at Camp Sherman. They were escorted by the Chamber of Com- 
merce committee, the Columbus Reserve Guard and veterans of the Civil War and the 
Spanish-American War. High street from Naghten to Main and Broad street from High 
to Third were packed with cheering people, and Governor Cox spoke a welcome from the 
reviewing stand. The wounded were showered with flowers and cigarettes, and all had 
luncheon and personal greeting in the State House yard. 

This scene was repeated on the following day when the 116th Infantry, 112th Supply 
Train and the 112th Engineers arrived from France and marched over the same route. The 
148th Infantry had the same enthusiastic welcome on the 10th. A month later, Saturday, 
May 10, came the old Fourth Regiment, now the 166th Regiment, Rainbow Division, Col. B. 
W. Hough in command. The train was late but the enthusiasm was such that the great 
throngs in the street waited for hours to see their favorite regiment. Unexpectedly, in 
recognition of the deep popular feeling, the regiment was halted here over Sunday, the men 
whose homes were in the city were permitted to go to their homes ; the others were quartered 
in Memorial Hall for the night and on Sunday were guests in different homes, the invita- 
tions exceeding the number of soldiers. On Monday morning, the regiment proceeded to 
Camp Sherman for discharge. 

On May 31, the 324th Field Artillery, fresh from the Rhine, came marching in their 
heavy uniforms in a street temperature of 102 degrees. In the regiment there were ap- 
proximately 500 men from this city, and the welcome was, like the others, of the greatest 
enthusiasm. Refreshments were served in the State House grounds, and the regiment left 
in the afternoon for Camp Sherman. 

Col. Benson W. Hough commanded the 166th Regiment during its entire foreign service, 
during six months of which it was in battle contact with the enemy, participating in the 
engagements of Champagne, second Marne, St. Mihiel and Argonne-Meuse. The regiment 
also served for four months in the army of occupation on the Rhine. It lost 100 killed in 
action or died of wounds, and 3500 suffered wounds, many of minor character. Eight officers 
and twenty-nine men returned with the American D. S. C. ; six officers and twenty-four men 
with the French Croix de Guerre ; two with the Belgian War Cross, one with the Medal 
Militaire and one with the Legion of Honor medal. Chaplain George Carpentier, of Aquinas 
College, Columbus, known as the "Fighting Chaplain," was slightly wounded during service 
in the Argonne. He received the American D. S. C, the decoration being conferred at a 
dinner in his honor, Major B. R. Hedges, of the local recruiting station, acting for the gov- 
ernment. 

For the great Victory Loan campaign, in which Columbus and Franklin county were 
asked to subscribe for $10,297,750 of the bonds, elaborate preparations were made by the 
committee that served so effectively before. Fred Lazarus, jr., was chairman, and there 
were twelve divisions with a chairman for each, and a total membership of nearly 2,000 
solicitors, men and women, each of whom took the following pledge: 

Realizing that the victory of our arms is not yet paid for, and in consideration of the 
sacrifice of the soldiers and sailors of my country who have fought to protect me, my family 
and property, I solemnly pledge my whole-hearted service as a worker in the Victory Loan 
bond campaign, and expressly agree to give all the time necessary for the Victory Loan 
work assigned to me during the week of the campaign; to obey all instructions; to approach 
no prospects not assigned to me; to sell a maximum of bonds to every one of my prospects, 
to the end that our boys shall not have fought and died in vain, and that Franklin county 
may finish the job. 

The task was to sell the full quota of boids in the week of April 20, 1919. It was 
accomplished, and more, the total of sales amounting to $12,773,450; number of subscribers, 
35,909. Sunday afternoon there was a service, with community sing at Memorial Hall; 
Monday, a workers' breakfast at the Elks' Home and administering of the pledge in Broad 
street by a justice of the Supreme Court; Tuesday, luncheon at the Masonic Temple, Sena- 
tor Warren G. Harding, speaker; dedication of a new tablet on the Memorial arch, with a 
parade, General John C. Speaks, marshal, and an address by Admiral W. S. Sims, who 
also spoke with Senator Harding and Governor Cox at a subscription dinner at the Deshler 



SECOND YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR 



95 




Soldiers' Memorial Tablet. 



96 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Hotel in the evening; Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, workers* luncheons at Masonic 
Temple; Thursday, community sing, led by Karl Hoenig, at Memorial Hall; Saturday noon, 
concert by the Canadian War Veterans' Band at the State House, and at 6 p. m., final 
report and dinner at the Masonic Temple. Great enthusiasm followed the announcement that 
Franklin county had again gone over the top. 

The beautiful new tablet dedicated on this occasion was of solid bronze, and, as 
it was designed to replace the first tablet, bore the names of all Franklin count} - soldiers, 
sailors, marines and nurses wiio had died in the war — 292 in all. An eagle at the top bore 
the caption "Honor Roll" and beiow was the inscription: "In honor of the Franklin County 
Boys Who Have Sacrificed Their Lives upon the Altar of Democracy." The names were 
inscribed in four rows and at the bottom was this quotation from Lincoln: "That this nation, 
under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the 
people and for the people shall not perish from the earth." 

On May 20, 1919, Columbus Masons welcomed home members of the order who had 
fought overseas and held services in memory of the twenty-nine members of Franklin county 
lodges who had died in the service. There was a noon luncheon at the Temple for returned 
soldiers and sailors; a parade in which every Masonic lodge in the city was represented, 
General John C. Speaks, chief marshal. The memorial service was held in Memorial Hall, 
with John Lloyd Thomas, of New York, as the speaker. This was a fitting sequel to the 
incident of August 18 and 19, 1917, when at the time of the mobilization the Scioto Consistory 
conferred the Scottish Rite degree on 588 men who were volunteers at the camps in and 
about the city. "It is meet," was the explanation, "that Masons who will honor us by fight- 
ing for us be thus honored by us." In the number were men of all ranks in tie army and 
five men of the navy. 

The supreme service in connection with the local Red Cross chapter was everywhere 
conceded to have been rendered by Edward L. McCune, secretary and director of the work 
at headquarters. In recognition of his unremitting volunteer service which had continued 
daily for two years, he was made the guest of honor by his fellow-workers at a Deshler 
Hotel dinner, March 24, just prior to his retirement, lauded by several speakers and pre- 
sented with a gold watch. 

The Boy Scouts, 50 troops with a membership of 1,528, rendered a notable service dur- 
ing the war months. They sold bonds and war savings stamps totaling about $450,000, 
distributed thousands of pieces of literature, served as messengers for a dozen or more 
organizations, collected phonograph records and books to be sent to the soldiers and sailors, 
and helped in many parades. 

Alexander W. Mackenzie was chairman of the British and Canadian Recruiting Mission 
in Columbus from January to October, 1918, when the draft arrangement with the United 
States Government was concluded. Aided by Sergeant George Tear, of the Canadian army 
and a local committee, he succeeded in sending 199 men to different branches of the service. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

BACK TO PEACE, 1919. 

War-Time Finances of Columbus — Columbus Women in Nursing Service — Large Public 
Gifts and Money Campaigns for Social Service Work — The Coming of Prohibition — 
Methodist Centenary of Missions — More Population than Houses — High Food Prices 
and Strikes — Special Markets and Sale of Army Food — President Wilson a Visitor — 
Grand Army Encampment — Municipal Election — General Pershing's Visit. 

In every way Columbus and Franklin county had risen notably to the demands of the 
war. Not fewer than 15,000 young men had gone into the army, navy or marine service. 
The activities of those at home had been continuous and at times trying. The financial sup- 
port of the Government was greater than anybody would have dreamed possible and, after 
it was all over, even the best informed marveled at the showing. Up to August 1, 1919, 
the investments in bonds, war savings stamps and certificates of indebtedness had been as 
follows : 

First Liberty Loan $ 7,5 1 9,900 

Second Liberty Loan 12,553,500 

Third Libertv* Loan 7,780,300 

Fourtli Liberty Loan 16,909,450 

Victory Loan ' 12,773,450 

Certificates of Indebtedness 1 ,27 1,500 

War Savings Stamps, 1 9 1 8 5,750,000 

War Savings Stamps to Aug., 1919 780,000 

$65,341,100 

To this total of investments in government securities there must be added the sub- 
scription of $3,374,526.97 to the Community War Chest, of which $1,619,772,95 was used; 
>\ subscription of about $550,000 to the Young Men and Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tions; about $475,000 to the Red Cross before the War Chest was formed; $323,000 to the 
Knights of Columbus; $50,000 to the Big Sisters' Association; $42,000 to the Fund for 
French Wounded; $25,000 for the French War Orphans; $100,000 to the Salvation Army; 
$25,000 for the Jewish Relief Fund; $12,000 for the American Memorial Hospital at Rheims. 
There were funds for Italian and Armenian relief, a soldiers' tobacco fund, a soldiers' athletic 
fund, and many funds for the purchase of materials that went into the supplies for the 
soldiers, sailors and war sufferers. There were continuous appeals from national and inter- 
national bodies, to many of which there was response before the War Chest was organized. 
Churches and lodges were generous in their varied helpfulness. Income and profit taxes, 
paid into the United States Treasury aggregated approximately $20,000,000. The grand 
total paid out by Franklin county citizens on account of the war in two years is put by 
John G. Deslder, banker, at $88,465,649. But this computation, while it counts the full 
volume of War Chest subscriptions, necessarily omits a multitude of contributions of which 
there is no collected record. The total of investments and relief offerings will probably 
never be more accurately known. 

By the final report of Treasurer L. M. Boda, of the War Chest Committee, it was shown 
that $52,009.87 was still undistributed, and the committee closed its business by turning 
that amount over to the American Legion chapter as an endowment for future ex-soldier and 
sailor relief. 

There is pride in the war-time service of Columbus nurses. Promptly and cheerfully 
they responded to every call from the Allied armies by way of Washington, and to those 
engaged in private duty and public health work as well as to hospital superintendents and 
officers, was presented for individual solution the difficult problem whether duty lay in 
going to war or staying at home. Many went, but those who remained rendered service 
as necessary, if not as thrilling. 

Miss Augusta M. Condit, of the District Nursing Association, was Columbus' first nurse 



98 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

in war service. She went in the early days of the .struggle to Serbia, serving seven months 
in a Belgrade hospital, a part of the time while the city was under Austrian fire. When 
she returned she brought an inspiration that helped to make Columbus one of the most fruit- 
ful centers for the supply of nurses. In the several campaigns, as elsewhere described, for 
the enrollment of nurses, the total listed for the Red Cross nursing service was 401, of whom 
275 were in active service either in camps in this country or in hospitals abroad. A few went 
into the army service direct. Five Columbus nurses died while in the service of their 
country: Aurora E. Parry at Camp Taylor; Garnet O. Peck at the Great Lakes Naval 
Station; Nelle E. Lathrop in Cleveland; Elsie M. Davis at the Government shipyards, 
Philadelphia; Mary Holz, immediately after her return from foreign service in December, 
1918. The first four died in the preceding October during the influenza epidemic. The 
record of the service of Columbus nurses abroad is incomplete, but it is known that Louise 
A. Dildine, Red Cross, and Minna A. Meyers, Army Nurse Corps, have been cited for 
bravery under fire in France. The Ohio enrollment in the Red Cross nursing service 
November, 1918, was 1,901. 

One of the events of the spring of 1919 was the gift of $100,000 in Jeffrey Manu- 
facturing Company preferred stock, by Joseph A. Jeffrey to the city and county. The donor, 
in his deed of trust named the Mayor, the presiding Judge of the Common Pleas Court 
and the Probate Judge of the county as a board of control to administer the fund, re-invest 
the principal if desirable and spend the proceeds for charitable purposes or to beautify and 
improve any part of Columbus in their discretion. The stock and deed were presented 
to and accepted by Mayor Karb at a dinner in Mr. Jeffrey's honor at the Columbus Club. 

In April, the will of Mary J. Sessions, recently deceased, was probated, revealing an 
estate of about $1,500,000 and gifts of about .$100,000 each to the Young Men's Christian 
Association and the Young Women's Christian Association of Columbus. Berea College, 
Kentucky, and the American Missionary Society of the Congregational church received simi- 
lar bequests. 

A joint Y. M. and Y. W. campaign for home expenses and improvements resulted in 
subscriptions totaling $150,000. The Big Sisters' Association, that it might buy and equip 
the old Shepard Sanitarium as a home for the protection and care of girls, in a three-days 
campaign, passed the goal of $50,000. To establish its work in Columbus the Salvation 
Army asked for and in a week, largely in recognition of the organization's fine war work, 
received more than $100,000. A project to endow a number of beds in the American 
Memorial Hospital to be erected in Rheims, France, also laid claim to the generosity of many 
Columbus people and in July a total of $12,000 was reported by Alexander W. Mackenzie, 
treasurer. 

About the same time a campaign, under the auspices of the Central Philanthropic Coun- 
cil, in which Joseph Schonthal, Stockton Raymond, Rev. W. E. Burnett, Mrs. J. A. Riebel 
and Miss Lily Atkinson were leaders, resulted in the subscription of $12,000 for the estab- 
lishment of free dental clinics for children. Co-operation with the medical inspection de- 
partment of the public schools, the Children's Hospital, the Godman Guild, the South Side 
and West Side Settlement Houses, and Jewish Community House was established and the 
clinics were ready for operation in September, with a board of managers representing the 
so< ■irties that had been foremost in the solicitation of funds. 

A Catholic endeavor somewhat along new lines was inaugurated in Columbus early in 
1919. With the surplus funds left over at the close of the war the National Catholic War 
Council inaugurated a plan for starting in all the large cities Catholic Community Houses 
for social service work. Representatives of the National Catholic War Council came to 
Columbus early in the year, and two sites for houses were at once selected — one at Marble 
('ill', in the midst of a settlement of foreign quarry workers; and the other on Barthman 
avenue, near Parsons, on the South Side. The Marble Cliff building was remodeled and 
opened auspiciously in May; and the Barthman avenue building was ready for opening early 
in August. Botli grew rapidly in value and service. The Catholic Woman's League, organ- 
ized for this purpose, has charge of the community service work. Mrs. James .1. McNnlly 
is president of the League and Miss Mary Blakelev is secretary. A third house, combin- 
ing a home lor young women, strangers in the city, and a central community house, will 
be added to these endeavors, but at the present writing no site for this had been chosen. 

This boardinc hall for ffirls was the natural outcome of the first movement, though the 



BACK TO PEACE, 1919 99 

need for such a home lias been felt for some time. Stimulated by the help of the War 
Council it was finally decided to have a joint drive in connection with the Knights of 
Columbus, who also had plans for a recreational center for boys and young men. Tin- 
drive was carried on the last week in June, resulting in the sum of .$323,000, one-third of 
which was for the Knights of Columbus. Of this fine sum $75,000 was collected by the 
Catholic women through parish work and house to house canvass. The Marble Cliff house 
was the first community house under the auspices of the National Catholic War Council, 
and much of its success was due to the untiring work of Miss Mary Dury, temporary head 
secretary in Columbus. 

The Catholic Community League, through its board of sixteen members, had entire 
charge of the furtherance of the work started by the Catholic War Council, and planned 
and carried through the big drive to its successful conclusion. The Board is made up of 
prominent men and women of the city, under the chairmanship of Mrs. W. P. Anawalt. 
Miss Maud Flynn is secretary, and Mr. Bernard Smith the general treasurer of all funds. 

War-time regulations had put out of business all the saloons in the vicinity of the United 
States Barracks. State prohibition, effective in May, was the next blow to the traffic in 
intoxicating liquors, and the preparations on the part of those engaged in the business effected 
some remarkable changes. Flaming signs announced the immediate sale of liquor stocks and 
great quantities were sold and stored in the cellars of the individual purchasers ; many 
rooms that had long been used as saloons were vacated, while the proprietors of other 
saloons planned to continue the business with the sale of soft drinks. The result was at 
once seen in the decrease of public drunkenness ; in Police Court in July there were but 32 
such cases, whereas in July, 1918, there were 155. The Work House population correspond- 
ingly decreased. Breweries turned to the manufacture of soft drinks and were, some of 
them, busier than ever, employing more persons, instead of none at all, as some had ex- 
pected. National prohibition under constitutional amendment, now ratified by 48 of the states, 
loomed up effective in January, 1920. The "wet" interests were still full of fight and pre- 
pared referendums aimed at both state and Federal prohibition. The June tax collection 
showed a loss in saloon tax of $176,000, but a gain of more than $250,000 from other sources. 

The Methodist Centenary, celebrating one hundred years of missions by that denomina- 
tion, was a great feature of the summer of 1919, an exposition being held on the State Fair 
Grounds from June 20 to July 13. There were exhibits from all the foreign lands where 
missions are maintained, with demonstrations of the methods of work and the customs of the 
natives. The buildings were so equipped as to represent chapels, hospitals and the familiar 
features of native life. Native as well as missionary workers were there, and in every one 
of the large buildings there was a continuous demonstration of missionary work in India, 
China, Japan and other countries, as well as in the Americas. Every evening in the Coli- 
seum, a great spectacle, called "The Wayfarer," with hundreds in the cast and chorus, was 
given, generally to an audience that filled every one of the 6,500 seats and left many 
would-be attendants outside the doors. The spectacle portrayed a troubled world and the 
hope in a risen Christ and employed the most elaborate of scenic effects and the noblest 
that has been written around the theme of the salvation of the world. A massive and 
powerful pipe organ, put in for the occasion, aided the great chorus in the rendition of 
the music. The exposition was the greatest of the kind ever given anywhere and drew people 
by the thousands from every part of the country. A preliminary campaign for accommo- 
dations for visitors in private homes was entirely successful, and Columbus had the satisfac- 
tion of knowing at the close that no visitor had gone without food and shelter. Visiting- 
ministers occupied the local pulpits without regard to denomination, during the exposition, 
and the result was a powerful incentive to closer co-operation and greater missionary en- 
deavor. 

The end of the war found Columbus with a population for which there were not 
enough houses, the shortage being estimated at 3,000. Several thousand negroes had come 
in from the South seeking the jobs that were offered during the period of war-time manufac- 
ture. They had filled to overflowing the .sections already occupied by members of that race, 
and spread to others. There had also been a large influx of whites, drawn by the opportuni- 
ties of business. Rents in consequence advanced and the prices of property were increased. 
War-time regulation of building operations which had ceased with the signing of the armis- 
tice, was for a time followed by a disinclination to build on account of the high prices of 



100 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

labor and matt-rial. But not for long. A campaign to stimulate building was inaugurated, 
backed by the Chamber of Commerce and enlisting the efforts of the Mayor and others, and 
the effect was soon manifest. In July 359 permits were issued for new buildings and alter- 
ations, estimated to cost $658,710 — a substantial gain over the heaviest previous July record. 
The total for the seven months of the year was 2,021 permits for construction valued at 
$3,378,450. 

The close of the war did not end the high prices. A Federal Government bulletin 
issued after a survey of retail food prices in seventeen cities disclosed that Columbus prices 
were slightly below the average. The price of one pound each of sirloin steak, rib roast, 
pork chops, bacon, sliced ham, lard, chicken, butter, flour, potatoes, navy beans, sugar and 
coffee and one dozen eggs was $-1.92, compared with an average of $-1.95 for the seventeen 
cities. These prices were all maintained and some of them increased as the months passed. 
Canned goods kept abreast of other food staples in the steady course upward and fresh 
vegetables in midsummer of 1919 were selling at prices in most cases more than twice the prices 
that prevailed before the war. The cost of living was such that it could not have been borne 
had not wages been increased. Small-salary persons suffered most, and there were numerous 
organized demands by employes of the city and state for increases. 

On August 6-7, the 5,000 shopmen of the Pennsylvania, T. & O. C. and the N. & W. 
railroad shop went on strike to hasten action on their demand for higher wages, but re- 
turned to work on the 11th on the assurance by President Wilson that such action was neces- 
sary to secure the desired consideration. Other smaller strikes and many strike threats 
stirred the authorities to action. Governor Cox and Attorney General Price had already in- 
augurated a war on profiteers in foodstuff's, and at the end of July there was a meeting of 
county prosecutors from all over the State to plan for the indictment and trial of violators 
of the anti-trust and cold storage laws. Prosecutor Hugo Schlesinger found that the Colum- 
bus Packing Company owned 120,000 pounds of pork in the cold storage plant of the Fairmont 
Creamerv Company. As it was found to have be«".n stored more than six months it was seized 
by court process and ordered sold at the price that had been paid for it. Judge Robert 
Duncan in this action was sustained by the Court of Appeals, all the Judges sitting; also by 
the Ohio Supreme Court. The United States Supreme Court refused to review the ease, and 
the meat was sold at the Columbus markets. 

In the meantime Council had established on Main street and also on Mt. Vernon avenue. 
producer-to-consumer markets where farmers sold at prices lO^r below the prices on the 
regular markets. The Federal Government also planned to sell to the people the immense 
stores of army food in the warehouses east of the city. Mayor Karb, assisted by Post- 
master Kinnear, Director of Public Service Borden and others arranged for the purchase 
and sale at different places in the city of canned vegetables and meat. The first purchase 
amounted to about $50,000 at prices which the Government had paid for them. To cover 
the cost of handling, one cent was added to the price of each can and two cents to the price 
of a pound of bacon. Baked beans were offered at from 8 to 20 cents a can, according to 
size: corn at 15 cents, peas at H cents, tomatoes at from 14 cents to 17 cents, corned beef 
hash at 23 cents, one-pound can; roast beef, one-pound tin, 12 cents; bacon, one-pound 
slab 36 cents. The special markets were opened August 11, each buyer to pay cash and 
carry his purchase home. There was a rush of purchasers ; prices in the general market 
fell, and prices to the city by the War Department and bv the city to the buyers were corre- 
spondingly reduced. The markets were kept open until all the citv could secure, about 
$75,000 worth, had been sold. Foodstuffs were also bought from the Government warehouses 
at Chicago through the postoffice, being transmitted to the buyers by parcel post. A store 
for the sale of army supplies of various kinds was subsequently opened on North High 
street and, under the supervision of army officers, blankets, shoes and other articles were 
sold to eager buyers. 

On August 8, 1919, the linemen employed by the Street Railway, Light & Power Com- 
pany struck for an increase of wages from 51 to 75 cents an hour, time and a half for 
overtime and an eight-hour day. Trolley lines were broken in several places, and there was 
no one to repair them. Cars were detoured or were skidded under the break. Westerville 
was deprived of light and the usual water supply owing to lack of pumping power. When 
the company used two platform men to repair the lines in the worst places, a crisis was 
precipitated. Wednesday morning, September 3, the street car conductors and motormen 



BACK TO PEACE, 1919 101 

went suddenly on strike, demanding wage increases, shorter hours, a "closed shop," rein- 
statement of a discharged meter reader, discharge of the platform men who had worked on 
the broken wires and payment in full of the back pay awarded by the War Board at the time 
of the previous strike. 

Mayor Karb, President Frank L. Packard, of the Chamber of Commerce, and others, 
haying done all they could to avert the strike, now did all they could to end it. They urged 
that President Wilson was to be in Columbus for a speech the following day and Civil 
War veterans were about to arrive for the Encampment of the Grand Army. The negotia- 
tions continued for three days with not a car wheel turning and the people getting to and from 
their work as best they could. On the 6th at 2 o'clock p. m. the platform men returned to 
duty, having, together with the company, agreed to arbitrate the demands and to abide by 
the decision. The linemen, however, having partially relieved the Westerville situation, re- 
mained out until the 1 0th, when they too signed an arbitration agreement and returned to 
work. 

President Wilson, on his tour of the country to explain the terms of the treaty with 
Germany and of the League of Nations covenant, made Columbus his first stopping place. 
He and Mrs. Wilson and the others of their party reached the city at 1 1 o'clock, Thursdav 
morning, September i. Greeted as he entered the city from the east by circling airplanes and 
by a great throng at the Union Station, the President and his party were escorted to auto- 
mobiles. Headed by the Barracks band and a body of soldiers from the Barracks, the pro- 
cession moved to Memorial Hall where a capacity audience awaited him, other thousands 
filling the street outside. Former Governor James E. Campbell and Dr. W. O. Thompson, 
President of Ohio State University, rode in the automobile with President and Mrs. Wilson 
and went with them to the stage, the audience cheering and singing "Dixie." President 
Frank F. Packard, of the Chamber of Commerce, called the meeting to order and Dr. 
Thompson and Governor Campbell made a few preliminary remarks, the latter introducing 
the President, who spoke for forty-five minutes to an intensely interested and enthusiastic 
audience, leaving amid another ovation for his further journev into the West. 

Even before the President's visit the city was putting on its gala attire for the Fifty- 
third Grand Army Encampment, beginning Sunday, September 7. Street decorations, in- 
cluding four white pillars at each street intersection of High street from Spring street to 
Main street, bearing the American eagle and G. A. R. insignia, were prepared. In the 
State House yard elaborate preparations were made for the registration and assignment of 
visitors. There were no camps this time, as there were at the previous Columbus encamp- 
ment of 1888; the "boys in blue" were too old for that sort of entertainment, and they were 
now to be taken into the homes, hotels and boarding houses. It was a great task, but 
Columbus was equal to it and under the direction of a citizens' committee, of which former 
Governor James E. Campbell was chairman, all arrangements were perfected and well 
executed. 

Columbus churches of all faiths and denominations united Sunday afternoon at Memorial 
Hall in welcoming the veterans. There were eleven short addresses by as many clergvmen ; 
patriotic singing by the great audience, and the pledge of allegiance recited by all standing. 

All day Sunday and Monday and even later the stream of visitors flowed into Colum- 
bus by every train from practically every part of the country — members of the G. A. R., 
Woman's Relief Corps, Ladies of the G. A. R., Sons of Veterans, Sons of Veterans' Aux- 
iliary, Daughters of Veterans, Ex-Prisoners of War, Army Xurses of the Civil War, the 
Army and Navy Legion of Valor, and other organizations. Memorial Hall, the State House, 
Club Houses, State institutions, the hotels and the churches in the central part of the city 
afforded headquarters and meeting places, and as rapidly as possible all were assigned to 
places of entertainment. Sunday evening there was a community sing in Memorial Hall, 
with 1,500 people, led by Prof. Karl Hoenig and accompanied by the Barracks Band in the 
melodies of the Civil War. 

Commander-in-Chief Clarendon E. Adams, of Omaha, and the Executive Committee were 
quartered at the Deshler Hotel, where they began their business sessions Monday. Mondav 
evening, the 8th, there was a semi-official meeting and reception at Memorial Hall, open to 
the public, with addresses by Governor James M. Cox, Mayor George Karb, and Comman- 
der-in-Chief C. E. Adams. 

By authority of Council, the police on Tuesday began restricting travel on High street 



102 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

to automobiles bearing the visiting veterans. The call for automobiles for the comfort and 
convenience of the visitors had been insistent and the responses were many and generous ; 
a Grand Army badge or other Civil War insignia commanded every courtesy and attention. 
The program for Tuesday evening included: Grand Army campfire at Memorial Hall, 
campfire of the Union Ex-Prisoners of War, in the hall of the House of Representatives, 
reception and ball by the Sons of Veterans at the Elks' Club House and the opening session 
of the Army Nurses of the Civil War. At the G. A. R. Campfire Past Commander-in-Chief 
Samuel R. Van Sant presided, and there were addresses by Commander-in-Chief Adams, 
Mrs. Eliza Brown Daggett, President of the W. R. C, Mrs. Rose Houghton, President of 
the Ladies of the G. A. R., Past Commander-in-Chief James Tanner and Past Commander- 
in-Chief Washington Gardner. 

In the afternoon of the same day a tablet in honor of the Andrews' Raiders was unveiled 
in the State House rotunda. Joseph W. O'Neill, Chairman of the dedication committee, told 
the large crowd of the enterprise on which James J. Andrews and twenty-one others had set 
out April 12, 1862. Eight of the party were executed by the Confederates. Eleven of the 
survivors were present at the Columbus encampment of 1888, but only one, John Reed 
Porter, of North Vernon, Ind., was present at the dedication of the tablet. All the others 
are supposed to have died in the interval. Gladj'S Slavens, granddaughter of one of the 
men executed, unveiled the tablet, and Governor Cox, Commander-in-Chief Adams and 
Colonel W. L. Curry spoke in praise of the men who made the raid. 

The spectacular event of the encampment was the parade at 10 o'clock on the morning 
of the 10th. A reviewing stand had been erected along the north side of the State House 
square, and a short line of march had been adopted: Grant avenue from Broad to Main, 
to High, to Spring, countermarch to Broad, east on Broad to Third, past the reviewing stand. 
Chief of Staff George A. Hoslev, of Boston, was in charge, with General John C. Speaks as mar- 
shal. Led by a platoon of police, Chief Charles E. Carter, there came the veterans of the 
World War, soldiers, sailors, marines, Medical Corps of the army and navy, Spanish War vet- 
erans, Sons of Veterans, Commander-in-Chief and Staff, the G. A. R. State Departments in the 
order of their organization, naval veterans, veterans in automobiles. At the end of the line 
came the Ohio posts. Sidewalks and buildings along the entire line of march were alive 
with eager humanity. Bands played the martial airs of 1861-(55, marchers cheered and were 
cheered. There was applause for all, but most of all for the Civil War veterans whose com- 
ing was heralded by the music of the fife and drum. Just as the first of these passed Gay 
and High streets the rain began to fall and fell so heavily for a few minutes as to drive 
the spectators to cover and to interrupt the parade. However, all ultimately passed the 
reviewing stand except the cavalry under command of Colonel W. L. Curry, their horses 
having become unmanageable in the storm. The last detail of marching veterans passed the re- 
viewing stand at 12:30, and the last automobile carrying veterans at 1:18, the whole time 
consumed being three hours and eighteen minutes. The reviewing party consisting of Com- 
mander-in-Chief Adams, Governor Cox, Mayor Karb, Lieut. -Governor Brown, General Johnny 
Clem, Mrs. Elizabeth Brown Daggett and Mrs. Rose Houghton braved the storm until the 
last of the interrupted parade had passed. The number in the parade was estimated at 
:i0,000, of whom one-third were Civil War veterans. 

Commander-in-Chief Adams at the close of the parade said: "It was the greatest 
patriotic demonstration in the history of America. The patriotic pulse of the nation is 
beating loudest in Columbus today. Too much cannot be said in praise of Columbus. I 
am supremely happy and satisfied." 

Eighteen first aid stations along the line of march ministered to a number of the vet- 
erans who found the effort too great for their strength, sending a few to the hospitals for 
further treatment. Stretchers and motorcycle ambulances were everywhere available, and 
drinking water was carried to the men in line, while along much of the line chairs were provided 
for the aged women visitors. Everywhere there was an outburst of affection and a benediction 
of kindness. 

Wednesday evening was given over to receptions at the Deshler Hotel by the Woman's 
Relief Corps, Ladies of the G. A. R., Sons of Veterans Auxiliary and the Army Nurses of 
the Civil War, at which Commander-in-Chief Adams and staff were guests of honor, and 
a smoker to the Sons of Veterans given by Governor Dennison Camp No. 1, at the Elks' 
Club House. 



BACK TO PEACE, 1919 103 

The sentiment of the Grand Army as expressed in speeches and resolutions was bitterly 
hostile to everything and everybody un-American. A resolution adopted after long debate 
denounced the covenant of the League of Nations as formulated at Versailles. Another 
opposed any consolidation of soldiers' organizations that would submerge the G. A. R., 
though there was approval of co-operation for patriotic ends. The creed, "One country, one 
flag," was modified to read "One country, one flag, one language," Colonel James D. Bell, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., was elected Commander-in-Chief, and Atlantic City was chosen as the 
place for the next encampment. 

The Sons of Veterans adopted vigorous resolutions demanding a citizenship 100 per cent. 
American, urged the deportation of unregenerate aliens and declared that Congress should 
investigate the social unrest and apply the proper remedies. Henry D. Sisson, of Pitts- 
field, Mass., was elected Commander-in-Chief. 

The Woman's Relief Corps elected Mrs. Abbie Lynch, of Pittsburg, National President, 
and Mrs. Hattie E. Lear National Senior Vice President. The presidency of the other or- 
ganizations was bestowed as follows: Ladies of the G. A. R., Mrs. Lillian Clark Cary, 
Dubuque, la.; Daughters of Veterans, Mrs. Clara G. Yengling, of Cleveland; Sons of Vet- 
erans Auxiliary, Miss Mary L. Tredo, of Paterson, N. J.; National Daughters of the G. A. 
R., Mrs. Grace T. Armstrong, Detroit; Army Nurses of the Civil War, Mrs. Alice Bradv, of 
Columbia, Mo. 

The local expenses of the encampment, estimated at about $25,000, were met bv a fund 
raised by popular subscription. Former Gov. James E. Campbell, chairman of the Citizens' 
Committee, estimated the number persons in attendance at the encampment at 90,000 

The election November 4, 1919, presented to the voters of Columbus (women this 
time included, under the amendment to the city charter) a multiplicity of propositions. 
The offices to be filled were those of Mayor, Municipal Court Clerk, two Judges of the Munic- 
ipal Court, four members of the Council and four members of the Board of Education. 
There were proposals for additional city and county tax levies; bond issues for a Riverside 
park, water works extension, completion of the grade crossing elimination, a Greenlawn 
avenue bridge, and an addition to the County Tuberculosis Hospital. The "wets" had also 
caused to be submitted four propositions to interfere with prohibition. 

Women were permitted to vote for Mayor, Municipal Court C'.erk and members of the 
Council and Board of Education. They asked for the election of but one woman — Mrs. 
William McPherson, candidate for the Board of Education — but organized efficiently to 
make their influence felt in the mayoralty contest. Two organizations prominent in the 
campaign were the Franklin County League of Women Voters, Mrs. Orson D. Dryer chair- 
man, and the Women's Political Committee, Mrs. J. G. Battelle president. Emphasizing the 
vice issue, they were severely critical of the Karb administration and demanded a change. 
The registration for the election, men and women, totaled 72,000; about 65,000 votes were 
cast, approximately 1(5,000 by women. 

The count of the preferential ballots, all choices included, showed that James J. 
Thomas had received 31,188 votes, George J. Karb 26,288, Fred P. Zimpfer 19,260, John 
J. Dun 6,533. Other successful candidates wre: William M. Jones, Clerk of the Municipal 
Court; Frank E. Ruth and Edward F. Berrv. Judges of the Municipal Court; Milton W. 
Westlake, Joseph C. Nailor, W. L. Millikin and Charles E. Justus, members of the Council : 
Fred D. Connolley, William H. Conklin, Frank I.. Holvcross and Lucretia (Mrs. Wm.) 
McPherson, members of the Board of Education. 

The city and county voted "dry" on all propositions except that they went with the re- 
mainder of the State against the act of the General Assembly for enforcing prohibition. 
The tax levy proposals were approved, as were all the propositions for the issue of bonds 
except that for a Riverside park, the majority for that being not the required two-thirds. 
Every official elected, with the exception of two conncilmen, was rated a Republican, and 
there was consequent Republican elation at party control of all branches of the city govern- 
ment. 

Mayor-elect Thomas reiterated his promises of an efficient and economical government, 
but warned the people against expecting too much in the way of immediate tax or debt 
reduction. He was inaugurated January 1, 1920, and in his address advocated many policies 
for a progressive city — the relief of traffic congestion north and south, the parking of the 
Scioto, the creation of a city planning commission, increased recreation facilities, closer CO- 



104 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

operation between city departments, no further issue of bonds except for permanent im- 
provements, the postponement of street paving, except for the great thoroughfares, and a 
civil service supervision that will eliminate all inefficient employes. 

The Mayor's first appointments were: John P. MeCune to be Director of Public Safety, 
and William H. Duffy to be Director of Public Service. The inaugural ceremonies in the 
packed Council chamber were in charge of a committee, M. A. Pixley chairman, on which 
there were two women — Mrs. J. G. Battelle and Miss Georgia Hopley. 

General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force in France 
during the World War, visited Columbus by invitation, December 17, 1919. He arrived at 
3 p. m., and was met at the station by a committee headed by Mayor George J. Karb, 
former Governor James E. Campbell and President Frank L. Packard of the Chamber of 
Commerce. The automobiles carrying the guest and the reception committee and escorted by 
the Barracks Band and four companies of troops from the Barracks proceeded down High 
street, cheered by throngs of people and greeted by a battery of guns in the State House 
vard. General Pershing held a public reception in the rotunda of the State House and 
afterwards addressed the General Assembly in the hall of the House of Representatives. 
After a reception for the legislators, General Pershing was escorted to the Hotel Deshler 
where at 6 o'clock he was the guest of honor at a dinner attended by 500 citizens and 
legislators. Governor Cox and Mayor Karb spoke in welcome and praise and the General 
felicitously responded. General E. F. Glenn, General Charles G. Treat and the officers of 
General Pershing's staff were other guests. At the close of the dinner, General Pershing 
went to Memorial Hall, by invitation, and spoke to a gathering of negroes in appreciation 
of the part of the negro soldiers in the war. Leaving the city en route to Toledo, he was 
escorted as far as Springfield by a committee from the latter city, headed by General J. 
Warren Keifer. 

In the early part of January, 1920, a drive under the direction of a committee, headed 
by Rabbi Joseph S. Kornfeld, for the city's quota of .$85,000 for a national fund for 
Jewish relief in file war-torn countries, resulted in a subscription of -$1 15,000. 

The census of 1920, taken under the direction of John Pfeifer, revealed a population of 
237,031. Of these, 199,159 were American-born, and 176,319 were born in Ohio. Males 
numbered 119,436, females 177,595. There were 220,315 whites, 16,637 negroes and 79 of 
other races. Of the foreign-born, 7413 were from Germany, 2,363 from Ireland, 2,114 
from Italy, 1,995 from Russia, 1,471 from England, 1,267 from Hungary, 1,068 from Austria, 
867 from Canada, 697 from Wales, 412 from Switzerland, 400 from Greece, 358 from Scot- 
land, 195 from France, 171 from Turkey and 624 from other countries. The total number of 
families was 55,694, children of school age 57,926, males of voting age 79,525. The increase 
in the number of foreign-born whites during the decade was 4,965, increase in negro popula- 
tion 3,898. The illiterates over ten years numbered 5,788. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

FORMS OF GOVERNMENT. 

Director Appointed by the General Assembly in 1812 — Torvn Incorporated in 1816 — Mayors 
and Councilmen of the Borough — Columbus Created a City in. 1834 — City Watch of 
1849 — City Reorganization of 1852 — First City Hall in the Central Market House — 
Municipal Code of 18G9 — First Board of Police Commissioners — Board of Public JVorks 
Regime of 1890 — Partisanship Runs High — Municipal Code of 1902 — Corrupt Offi- 
cials — The Federal Plan of 1908 — Marshall Efforts at Reform — Home Rule Demand 
Met by the Constitution of 1912 — Columbus Charter Commission — Present Charter 
Adopted in 1914 — Principal City Officers Since 1834 — Suburban Villages. 

The act of February 11, 1812, locating and naming the capital of the State, set up no 
particular form of government. The legislature appointed a director who assumed charge 
and the business under the contract with the proprietors of the land proceeded. But to meet 
the needs of a growing community the Fegislature on February 10, 1816, passed an act 
incorporating the town of Columbus. After describing the boundaries of the town, the act 
made it lawful for the qualified electors, resident six months, to meet at the Columbus Inn 
on the first Monday of May and elect by ballot "nine suitable persons, being citizens, free- 
holders or housekeepers and inhabitants of said town, to serve as Mayor, Recorder and 
Common Councilmen" ; the persons so elected to choose out of their own body by ballot a 
Mayor, Recorder and Treasurer and to determine their terms as common councilmen — three 
for three years, three for two years and three for one year — three new members of the 
bodv to be elected each year in May. The Council, Mayor, Recorder and Treasurer were 
made a body corporate and politic, with power to receive, possess and convey real and per- 
sonal estate for the use of the town ; to appoint an Assessor, Town Marshal, a Clerk of 
the Market, a Town Surveyor and such other subordinate officers as they may deem neces- 
sary ; to give such fees to officers and impose such fines for refusal to accept office as may 
seem to them proper and reasonable ; to levy and collect taxes, to erect and repair public 
buildings ; to make, amend or repeal ordinances and to fine and imprison persons who offend 
against laws and ordinances, "provided always that no person shall be imprisoned under the 
provisions of this section more than 24> hours at any one time." 

The Mayor was vested with the powers of a justice of the peace and the Marshal with 
those of a constable. The Marshal was also required to collect taxes and empowered to sell 
property for delinquent taxes, the original owner being given one year in which to recover. 
The Marshal was directed to pay all tax money received to the Treasurer, and both Marshal 
and Treasurer were required to give bond satisfactory to the common council. The Re- 
corder was required to keep a true record of all laws and ordinances passed and of all 
the proceedings of the Mayor and Common Council, which should always be open to the in- 
spection of any elector who, if he felt aggrieved by any judgment of the Mayor, could 
appeal to the Court of Common Pleas. 

The Mayor, Recorder, Treasurer or Common Council, or any three of them were made 
judges of the annual election, and were directed to make a fair record of, and publicly 
declare, the result on the same day, as well as to give personal notice to those who were 
elected. A vacancy in the office of Mayor, Recorder or Treasurer was to be supplied from 
the Common Council, and a vacancy in the Common Council was to be supplied by the re- 
maining eight from the electors of the town. In case of misconduct in office by Mayor, Re- 
corder, Treasurer or Councilman or subordinate officer, the others were given power to 
remove by a two-thirds vote. In the absence or inability of the Mayor, the Recorder was 
authorized to act in his stead. This act was signed by Matthias Corwin, Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, and Peter Hitchcock, Speaker of the Senate. 

The first borough election was held at the Columbus Inn May 6, 1816. Those elected 
were: Jarvis Pike, John Cutler, Henry Brown, Robert Armstrong, Michael Patton, Jere- 
miah Armstrong, Caleb Houston, Robert W. McCoy and John Kerr. These Councilmen met 
at the same place May 13, and elected Jarvis Pike Mayor, R. W. McCoy Recorder and 



106 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Robert! Armstrong Treasurer. They also appointed these officers: Assessor, Daniel Lig- 
gett; Marshal, Samuel King; Clerk, of the Market, William Long. 

At the end of the first year, the Council found that it owed #126.78 J, with $165,614, 
in the treasury. The Treasurer had personally advanced #20 to pay the Marshal a quarter's 
salary; there were stationery bills amounting to $16.31]; $88.50 was due the councilmen 
for fees, and there were many small bills outstanding. The councilmen relinquished their 
fees for the benefit of the corporation," and the indebtedness was thus reduced to $172.67]. 

In the 18 years of the borough organization, from 1816 to 1831, the following, in addi- 
tion to those already named served as councilmen; James B. Gardiner, Christian Heyl, 
Wm. McElvain, James Kooken, Townsend Nichols, Ralph Osborn, P. H. Olmsted, John 
Jeffords, Eli C. King, Lincoln Goodale, Charles Lofland, W. T. Martin, John Greenwood, 
John Laughry, James Robinson, John W. Smith, Wm. Long, Joel Buttles, Nathaniel 
McLean, Joseph Ridgway, George Jeffries, John Warner, Robert Brotherton, Jonathan 
Neereamer, Robert Riorden, Samuel Parsons, John Patterson and Moses R. Spurgion. 

The Mayors during that period were: Jarvis Pike, 1816-17; John Kerr, 1818-19; Eli 
C. King, 1820-21-22; John Laughry, 1823; Wm. T. Martin, 1824-25-26; James Robinson, 
1«27; Wm. Long, 1828-29-30-31-32; P. H. Olmsted, 1833. 

The Recorders were: R. W. McCoy, 1816-17; James B. Gardiner, 1818; Ralph Osborn, 
1819; John Kerr, 1820-21-22; Wm. T. Martin, 1823; Wm. Long, 1824-25-26-27; Lincoln 
Goodale, 1828-29-30; Nathaniel McLean, 1831; Ralph Osborn, 1832; John Patterson, 1833. 

The Treasurers were: Robert Armstrong, 1816-17; Christian Heyl, 1818 to and includ- 
ing 1827; R. W. McCoy, 1828 to and including 1833. 

The appointive officers in the order of their service, were: Marshal, Samuel King (two 
years); James P'isher, Wm. Richardson, Samuel Shannon (four years), Benjamin Sells (two 
years), Samuel Shannon (again two years), John Kelly, Benjamin Sells (again two years), 
J. G. Godman, John Kelly, Benjamin Sells, George B. Harvey; surveyor, John Kerr (four 
years), Jeremiah McLene, John Kerr (again two years), Jeremiah McLene (again eight 
years), Joseph Ridgway, jr., Byron Kilbourne (two years) ; Clerk of the Market, Wm. Long 
(two years), Wm. Richardson (two years), Samuel Shannon (seven years), John Kelly, Ben- 
jamin Sells, (two years), Julius G. Godman, John Kelly, Bejamin Sells, George B. Harvey. 

The first change in the form of government for Columbus came with the enactment of a 
new charter by the General Assembly, March 3, 1834. After describing the boundaries, 
the act created Columbus a city and its inhabitants a body corporate and politic, with all the 
usual powers. It divided the city into three wards — the first consisting of all territory north 
of the center of State street, the second of all between the center of State and the center 
of Rich street, and the third all south of the center of Rich street. It provided that the 
Mayor should be elected on the second Monday in April, biennially, for the term of two 
years, making it his duty to enforce all ordinances, to punish official negligence, to sign 
commissions and issue licenses and permits granted by the city council, and giving him the 
authority and jurisdiction of a justice of the peace. It provided that the qualified electors 
of each ward should at the April election choose four freeholders or householders resident 
therein as members of the council, one for one, one for two, one for three and one for four 
years, to be determined by lot, and that at each subsequent annual election, one councilman 
should be elected in each ward for a four-year term. 

It was made the duty of the Council to elect from their own body a President, a Re- 
corder and a Treasurer, each for one year, and appoint Assessors, Tax-Collectors, a City 
Surveyor, Clerk of the Market, street commissioners, health officers and all other officers 
necessary for the good government of the city. The Council was given custody and control of 
all city property, with power to purchase, hold and sell for the benefit of the city, but it 
was prohibited from selling any public landing, dock or wharf used by those engaged in trade 
and navigation, also from issuing money and engaging in banking. It was directed to 
make ordinances for the peace and safety of citizens. It was given power to establish a 
board of health, to create a police and a fire department, to prohibit the erection of fire-traps 
and cause their removal, to regulate taverns and all places where spirituous liquors are sold, 
theatrical and other exhibitions and auctions, to require the abatement of all nuisances, to 
keep open and repair streets and regulate traffic, to establish new streets and alleys, to levy 
and collect taxes on real and personal property, to erect a city prison and provide for its; 
government. 



FORMS OF GOVERNMENT 107 

It was required that all moneys raised by tax, license, penalty, fine or forfeiture should 
be paid into the city treasury and should no! be drawn therefrom except on order of the 
City Council; that the City Treasurer should give bond to the satisfaction of Council; that 
the Recorder should keep a true record of all ordinances and proceedings and perform 
such other duties as required by ordinance; tint the Council should elect annually a City 
Marshal and fix his fees, giving him power t » appoint deputies and making it his duty to 
execute and return all writs directed to hiii by the Mayor, to suppress riots and dis- 
turbances and to make arrests for violations of law. 

The Mayor was required to issue proclamation of elections and to receive the returns 
except those of the election for Mayor which were to be sent to the President of Council; 
and the returns of all elections the Recorder was required to tabulate and enter in a book pro- 
vided for the purpose. Every white male inhabitant having qualifications as an elector for 
members of the General Assembly, if a resident for one year, was made a qualified city 
elector. Judges of the election in each ward were appointed by Council from their own 
number, never, however, candidates for re-election, and Council was given authority to make 
by ordinance other election arrangements as deemed necessary. 

The General Assembly, in granting this charter, reserved the right to amend it at will. 
It was signed by John H. Keith, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and David T. 
Disney, Speaker of the Senate. 

The first election under the new charter was held April 14, 1834. John Brooks was 
elected Mayor, and councilmen were elected as follows: First ward, Joseph Ridgway, R. 
W. McCoy, Henry Brown and Otis Crosby; second ward, Jonathan Neereamer, Noah H. 
Swayne, Francis Stewart and Wm. Long; third ward, John Patterson, Christian Heyl, Wm. 
Miner and Wm. T. Martin. This council elected Robert McCoy President, Wm. T. Martin 
Recorder, Wm. Long Treasurer, J. A. Lapham Surveyor, Abram Stotts Marshal and Clerk of 
the Market. 

On February 18, 18-1G, the Council, exercising the power given to it under the charter, 
divided the city into five wards — all the territory north of Gay street being the first, all 
between Gay and State the second, all betwc ;n State and Rich the third, all between Rich 
and Mound the fourth and all south of Mould the fifth — and fixed the number of council- 
men in each ward at three. In 1840 the office of City Clerk was created by Council and ten 
years later that of City Recorder was abolished. 

In 1819 the Council created the "city watch" and assumed the duty of appointing annu- 
ally in May and November as many watchm n as were deemed necessary for the ensuing- 
six months, these watchmen to be cr officio police officers for the enforcement of the laws 
and ordinances. They were to assemble at the city watchhouse every night, precisely one 
hour after sunset, for evening roll call. They were to serve during the night as the Mar- 
shal directed and to meet again for morning roll call; the absentees were to be noted and 
reported to Council, and two absences without satisfactory excuse was to mean dismissal. 
Thus Council sought to meet the complaints of ruffianism, breaches of the peace, obstruction 
of the streets and sidewalks, the accumulation of garbage and the openness of vice. The 
government, it will be observed, was by Council which passed ordinances, elected officers to 
enforce them and sought to punish official neglect. The Mayor was little more than a justice 
of the peace. 

The next significant change in the city government was in 1852 when, under the then 
new constitution of the State, the General Assembly passed a general act for the organiza- 
tion of cities and incorporated villages. Bv this act the Mayor became the chief executive 
officer of the city, charged with the duty of enforcing the laws and ordinances and super- 
vising the conduct of all officers. In cities like Columbus the Mayor remained police judge 
and was elected at the polls for two years, as were the Marshal, Civil Engineer, Fire Engi- 
neer, Auditor, Solicitor and Superintendent of Markets. The councilmen were elected, two 
from each ward for two years, their terms to expire alternately. Thus the Council lost much 
of its executive power and became more directly responsible to the people. In the appli- 
cation of this law to Columbus, each ward had four councilmen in 1853, three in 185-1' and 
two in 1855. The personnel of the large cou u-il in 1853 is interesting. In it were Wm. 
Dennison, jr., afterwards Governor; J. Wm, Baldwin, afterwards Circuit Court Judge; John 
Miller, John Noble, Luther Donaldson, Robert W. McCoy, Theodore Comstock, Lewis 
Hoster, Jacob Reinhard, all variously prominent in the city's history; M. P. Hewlett, 



108 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Benjamin Blake, Robert Cutler, U wight Stone, Wm. Domigan, Robert Hume, Augustus S. 
Decker, Wm. Miner, John Butler, James H. Stauring and John Rader. 

In the meantime (1851) rooms for the Council and city officials had been fitted up in the 
second story of the new market house on Fourth street. A room 92 feet long, 27 feet wide 
and 1!) feet high was appropriately furnished as a City Hall. The Council held its meetings 
in the southern part of this chamber, and there were offices adjoining for the Mayor, Mar- 
shal, Clerk and Surveyor. Cells for the confinement of prisoners were on the same floor, 
though the County Jail was still used for all but temporary purposes. It was not till 1855 
that the first station house was erected at a cost of $2,800. It was a two-story brick and 
was located across the alley from the market house; on the first floor were the cells in two 
rows, while the second floor contained a hall for the use of the police. The force consisted 
of twelve men for night duty and three for day; they were paid from .$150 to $500 a year. 
In 1858 ten regular and 20 special policemen were elected by Council and Henry M. 
Wakeman was appointed captain. In 1860, John Uncles was chosen captain, with the fol- 
lowing members of the force: H. M. Wakeman, Israel Lyon, O. T. Huff, Albert Hazleton. 
Solomon Justice, Albert Fox, Charles Gain, W. B. Huffman and Nicholas Ketzel. B. 
McCabe was captain of police in 18(51 and reappointed in 1862. 

An act of the General Assembly, April 29, 1862, provided for election at the polls of 
a City Marshal for one year and a City Sol'citor for two years, also for appointment by 
Council of a City Clerk for two years. In 1867 the General Assembly passed an act 
extending to Columbus the provisions of the metropolitan police system, and John Field, 
Harvey P. Bancroft, Nelson Rush, John J. Janney and James G. Bull became Police Com- 
missioners by appointment of the Governor. An injunction on behalf of Columbus was 
secured and, on May 21, was made permanent and later, the act insofar as it applied to 
Columbus was repealed. 

In 1869 the General Assembly passed a municipal code for the State, giving the Mayor, 
in Columbus and other cities of its class, the judicial powers of a justice and the police powers 
of a sheriff, but leaving the organization and control of the police in the hands of the Council. 
The elective officers were Mayor, Clerk, Treasurer, City Solicitor, City Commissioner and 
Marshal. The last named was declared to be the "chief ministerial officer of the corpora- 
tion" and was given power to appoint one or more deputies. When a petition bearing nearly 
6,000 signatures was presented to Mayor Meeker, asking him to close the saloons on Sunday 
he pointed out the fact that under the law of 1869 he had no more power than the petitioners 
and that they should address themselves to Council and the committee on police. 

A Board of Police Commissioners appeared for the first time in April, 1873, when 
Francis Collins, Joseph Falkenbach, Theodore Comstock and Luther Donaldson were ap- 
pointed by Governor Noyes as a bi-partisan body, in accordance with an act of the General 
Assembly. The Mayor was ex-officio a member of the commission. The following year the 
General Assembly passed an act making the police commissioners elective and fixing their 
terms at four years each. But still there was dissatisfaction with the results. In 1882 an un- 
successful effort was made to exclude the Mayor from the board and in 1883, as the Council was 
still dividing police authority with the board, the General Assembly passed an act giving con- 
trol of the force, including appointments, discipline, etc., to the board. 

In the succeeding years the men who served as Police Commissioners, aside from the 
Mayor, who was always an ex officio member, were as follows: 1875, D. W. Brooks, Louis 
Zettler, Thomas Bergin and F. W. Merrick; 1876, the same with George Butler in place of 
Merrick: 1877, the same, with E. J. Blount in place of Bergin; 1878, the same, with John 
V. Rickenbacher in place of Zettler; 1879, Van S. Seltzer, H. F. Amos, B. McCabe and 
M. Hums; 1880, Alonzo B. Coit, Henry Pausch, Burns and McCabe; 1881, the same; 1882, 
the same, with Thomas J. Dundon in place of Burns; 1883, the same; 1881, the same with 
D. II. Hover in place of Pausch; 1885, Jacob Albright, P. H. Bruck, McCabe and Royce; 
1886, the same; 1H87. George Burke, Jacob Albright, F. W. Merrick and Dennis Kelly; 
1888, B. McCabe, Charles I.. Young, Kelly and Albright; 1889, George J. Karb, Young, 
Kelly and McCain'; 1 S90, the same with Wm. D. Dickson in place of Young; 1891. Kelly, 
McCabe and Dixon; 1892, John A. Pfeifer, Kelly and Dickson. 

In 1885, Allen O. Myers, while a member of the General Assembly, fathered a bill 
reorganizing the government of Columbus which became a law but was declared uneonstitu- 



FORMS OF GOVERNMENT 



109 



tional before it became operative. The purpose of the bill was to redistrict the city in 
the interest of the Democrats and to create an administrative board of three members. 

In 1890 the General Assembly passed an act, introduced by A. D. Heffner, creating 
for Columbus a Board of Public Works of four members, appointed in the first instance by 
the Mayor, but thereafter to be elected, each for a term of four years. To this board were 
given all the usual functions of an administrative commission except the control of the 
police. It was given authority to appoint a Civil Engineer, a Sealer of Weights and Meas- 
ures and such superintendents, market master and clerks as it deemed necessary. To it 
was committed the inauguration of all public improvements, the purchase of material and the 
supervision of the work. The first board, appointed by Mayor Bruck, consisted of E. L. 
Hinman, William Wall, James M. Loren and Joseph A. Schwartz. Mr. Loren was the 
first president. He was elected by the people to the board in 1891 and, on the reorganiza- 
tion of the board Mr. Hinman became president. When Mr. Loren retired William M. 
Mutchmore took his place; and in 1892 Schwartz was defeated for re-election by Jerry P. 
Bliss, the board thus becoming for the first time bi-partisan. 




City Hall. 



Partisan spirit ran high. The Republicans, pleased witli the equal division of the Board 
of Public Works, charged that in the two years when the division stood three Democrats 
to one Republican, the appointive offices had been filled with Democrats. A reorganization 
bill was introduced in the Republican General Assembly in April, 1892, but it failed of 
passage at the last moment by one vote. At the next session, however, a similar bill was 
passed, creating the administrative departments of public improvements, public safety, law 
and accounts, and at the head of each a director. Mr. Bliss, of the old board of public 
works, became Director of Public Improvements, in charge of the water works, engineering, 
streets, public grounds and buildings; Mr. Wall became Director of Accounts; Mr. Mutch- 
more became Director of Public Safetv, in charge of the police, fire-fighting force, public 
health and the construction and inspection of buildings ; while Gilbert H. Bargar was ap- 
pointed Director of Law. Wm. H. Williams was for a short time Director of Accounts, 
succeeding Mr. Wall and in 1895 was appointed Director of Safety and continued in that 
position till 1899, the beginning of Mayor Swartz's term. Under Mayor Cotton H. Allen, 
Martin A. Gemuender was Director of Public Improvements, Edward Denmead Director of 
Accounts and Gilbert H. Bargar Director of Law. Under Mavor Samuel L. Black in 1897- 



110 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

98, Selwyn X. Owen was Director of Law, Felix Jacobs Director of Public Improvements 
and Edward Denmead Director of Accounts. With tbe election of Samuel Swartz as 
Mayor in 1899, the administrative offices all fell into the hands of Republicans. Ira H. Crum 
was Director of Law and Linus B. Kauffman was Director of Public Improvements, each 
for the full term. J. W. Dusenbury, first Director of Public Safety, was removed by 
Council July 20, 1899, on charges of negligence, extravagance and defiance of Council. 
Oliver M. Evans and Dr. W. U. Cole divided the remainder of the term. Lawrence H. Cott, 
the first Director of Accounts, resigned and was succeeded by A. C. Armstrong. With the 
election of John M. Hinkle Mayor, the pendulum swung to the other extreme and all the 
administrative heads were Democrats: C. C. Philbrick Director of Safety, Luke G. Byrne 
Director of Law r , Fred J. Immel Director of Public Improvements; W. C. Cussins, Director 
of Accounts. 

In all of these administrations there was much good public service, but the partisan fire- 
works were too frequent. These explosions laid heavy claim on the public attention and there 
was discontent, not only in Columbus but in other cities of the State. The General Assembly 
had proved a willing agency for the reorganization of cities chiefly to accomplish partisan 
ends, sometimes to correct recognized local abuses. In this way it had created fourteen 
different grades and classes of cities that it might distinguish them in the legislation it 
enacted, and finally it was realized that a vicious system of special legislation had sprung up 
and that home rule was well nigh destroyed. Recognizing these facts, Governor Bushnell 
appointed, under the authority of the General Assembly of 1898, a commission to draft a 
municipal code. Judge D. F. Pugh, of Columbus, and Edward Kibler, of Newark, were 
the appointees. They prepared a code which was introduced as a bill in the General Assem- 
bly of 1900 and defeated; it failed also in 1902. In June of the latter year the Supreme 
Court of the State created a crisis by declaring unconstitutional the existing system of clas- 
sifying and legislating for cities. Governor Nash called the General Assembly to meet in 
extraordinary session August 25 and in the meantime, with the assistance of Nicholas Long- 
worth, of Cincinnati, and Wade H. Ellis, of Columbus, undertook the preparation of a munici- 
pal code to be submitted to the legislators when they met. The bill was offered as a part of 
the Governor's message and was the basis of the code which passed October 22, 1902. By 
this act the Mayor was made the real head of the local government, appointing all the chief 
officers not elected by the people, including Tax Commissioners, Sinking Fund Trustees, 
members of the Board of Health, Library Trustees, etc., and was empowered to suspend for 
misconduct or incapacity any officer or head of department, pending charges which he was 
authorized to file with the Council; he was authorized to appoint, subject to civil service 
regulations, all policemen and firemen, to fill vacancies in office till the next regular election, 
and was clothed with the veto power. He was directed to prepare an annual budget on esti- 
mates which the heads of departments were required to submit to him. The elective officers 
were, besides the Mayor, the President of the Citv Council, the Treasurer and Solicitor for 
two years each and the Auditor for three years ; also a department of public service to consist 
of three or five men as determined by Council. A department of public safety of two or four 
as determined by Council was to be appointed bv the Mayor. Council was to have not 
feTcr than seven members, three of whom were to be elected at large. 

Under the provisions of this act, the Council divided the citv into 12 wards, created 
a Board of Public Safety of two members and a Board of Public Service of three members. 
In 190.3, by election, Robert H. Jeffrey became Mayor. Svlvester C. Noble Auditor. C. H. 
Smith Treasurer, James M. Butler Solicitor, and Henry Bold. Fred J. Immel and H. O. Pond 
a Board of Public Service. A Board of Public Safety consisting of James W. Meek and 
Daniel H. Sowers was appointed by the Mayor. Later, Mr. Bold resigned and Charles B. 
Burr became the third member of the Board of Public Service. At the next election DeWitt 
C. Badger was elected Mayor, George S. Marshall solicitor and Fred Lied was elected to 
the Board of Public Service with Burr and Immel. William S. Connors was appointed to 
serve on the Hoard of Public Safety with Meek. On March 19, 1907, Mayor Badger pre- 
ferred charges in Council against Burr, Immel and Lied, constituting the Board of Public 
Service, alleging misfeasance and malfeasance in office. The Council at once suspended them 
for 1.") davs and after a hearing, removed them from office. Burr fled from the citv and 
never made reply to the charges. Immel and Lied were criminally prosecuted, found guilty 
and sent to the Penitentiary. Mayor Badger appointed George D. Jones. John F. Andrix 



FORMS OF GOVERNMENT 111 

and James W. Meek to the Board of Public Service to serve until the first Monday in Janu- 
ary, 1908, and appointed Frank MeCafferty to the Board of Public Safety vice Meek trans- 
ferred to the other board. 

This upheaval led to a Republican victory at the next election. Charles A. Bond 
being chosen Mayor, George S. Marshall Solicitor, Charles H. Smith Treasurer, S. C. Noble 
Auditor, and D. J. Fisher, Fred Weadon and Charles A. Pearce Board of Public Service. 
Foster G. Burdell was appointed to serve with Connors on the Board of Public Safety. 

With this administration the boards disappeared and under the provisions of an act 
passed by the General Assembly the so-called federal plan of government was put to trial. 
This act (April 29, 1908) made the Mayor the chief conservator of the peace, fixed his term 
at two years and gave him power to appoint and remove the Director of Public Safety and 
Director of Public Service and the heads of the sub-departments under both; the directors 
to attend Council meetings when requested and to answer questions. The Mayor and his 
two directors were constituted a board of control to pass on all contracts involving the expen- 
diture of more than $500, and the Mayor was to make to Council such recommendations as 
might seem to him wise. A classified and unclassified group of city employes were defined, 
and a civil service commission with authority over the former was created — a body of three 
appointed by the President of the Board of Education, the President of the Sinking Fund 
Commission and the President of the Council. 

In 1909 George S. Marshall was elected Mayor, Edgar L. Weinland Solicitor and H. 
Clayton Cain Auditor. The Mayor appointed E. L. MeCune Director of Public Safety and 
Harry S. Holton Director of Public Service and set out on a vigorous program of reforms. 
In his message to Council in March, 1911, Mayor Marshall, as evidence that the city was 
committed to municipal ownership of public utilities, cited the water works, the electric light 
plant, the asphalt repair plant and the systems of sewage and garbage disposal and street 
cleaning. He pointed to the street railways, commercial heating and lighting and the natural 
gas service, recommending municipal ownership of all with the possible exception of the last 
named, as the gas supply seemed uncertain. He urged juster and higher taxing of interur- 
ban railways, and enthusiastically supported a civic betterment program, including public 
play-grounds, baths, drinking fountains, comfort stations and municipal lodging houses, super- 
vision of theatres, dance halls, housing conditions, etc. He reported that the Sunday and 
midnight closing and anti-gambling laws had been enforced; that the social evil had been 
treated with a view to its ultimate extinction, that the Seventh street "red light" district had 
been closed, houses of prostitution removed from the vicinity of schools, wine rooms closed 
and men and women of questionable character driven from the streets. He estimated that 
the houses of prostitution were 65 fewer than before and that 500 scarlet women had left the 
city. He reported cleaner streets and alleys, supported city charities, urged the building of 
a contagion hospital, a new City Hall, and a new City Prison, aimed to make the workhouse 
a human repair shop instead of merely a place of punishment, inaugurated the plan of sell- 
ing from the city electric light plant current for day power, urged that overhead wires be put 
underground, street encroachments and hanging signs be abolished and smoke abated. 

No administration could undertake so much without treading on many corns. The pro- 
gram was nothing short of revolutionary, and to the outcry from those who were hurt was 
added the criticism of many who disapproved the Mayor's attitude in the street railway strike 
of 1910. To these causes as well as to the personal popularity of George J. Karb was due 
the election of the latter in 1912, called from a retirement of 16 years. With him were 
elected Stuart R. Bolin as Solicitor and Fred Neff as Treasurer. He appointed Samuel A. 
Kinnear Director of Public Service and Colonel B. L. Bargar Director of Public Safety. 
In 1911 Mayor Karb was re-elected, Henry S. Scarlett Solicitor and Fred Neff Treasurer, 
H. Clayton Cain was Auditor and Kinnear and Bargar were continued at the head of the 
Service and Safety departments. 

Meanwhile throughout the State the cry for city home rule had been renewed and the 
Ohio constitution of 1912 met it by providing that any municipality might frame, adopt 
and amend its own charter and setting fortli how it could be done. At a primary election, 
the people of Columbus decided in favor of a commission to frame a charter and elected as 
such commission: Martin A. Gemuender, George W. Gillette. Emmett Hysell, Felix A. Jacobs, 
Jose'ih S. Kornfeld, Theodore Leonard, E. D. I.amnman, Clayton A. McCleary, L. Benton 
Tussing, Albert Zettler and Edgar E. Weinland. Mr. Gemuender was president and Charles 



112 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

William Wallace was secretary. The commission sat for many weeks in the auditorium of 
the Public Library building, listened to the arguments of citizens and experts, discussed the 
various features of city government and on May 5, 191 1, submitted to the electors the docu- 
ment they had prepared. 

The vote was light, but the charter was adopted. Among its features were: Home rule 
in the sense of escape from rule by the General Assembly ; the removal of party emblems 
from the ballots ; the creation of a Council of seven members, elected at large, instead of 
from different wards, for a term of four years ; reduction from nine to five in the number 
of offices to be filled at any election ; preferential voting for Mayor, City Attorney and 
Auditor ; adoption of the initiative, referendum and recall ; the lengthening of the term of all 
elective officers from two to four years; maintenance and improvement of the merit system 
of appointments and promotions; establishment of a division of public welfare and permission 
to Council to elect a public defender; establishment of a board of purchase; safeguards in 
the granting of franchises ; continuing the Mayor's power of veto, but permitting Council 
to pass ordinances over his veto by the original vote; fixing clearly the responsibility for 
legislative and executive acts. The Mayor's salary was fixed at $5,000. He was made the 
chief conservator of the peace and directed to supervise the administration, enforce ordi- 
nances, recommend measures to Council and to appoint a Director of Public Safety, a 
Director of Public Service and any other officers whose positions may be created by Coun- 
cil. The salary of councilmen was fixed at $1,000. 

On his re-election in 1916, Mayor Karb appointed George A. Borden Director of 
Public Service and Michael J. Barry Director of Public Safety. W. H. Ginder was elected 
Auditor and Elmer E. Jenkins was appointed Treasurer by the Council. When Barry died in 
August, 1918, Arthur J. Thatcher, who had long been secretary to the Mayor, was appointed 
to the vacancy. 

The Mayors since Columbus became a city in 1831 have been: John Brooks, 183-1; John 
Bailhache (by appointment in place of Brooks resigned) 1835; Warren Jenkins, 1836-37; 
P. H. Olmsted, 1838-39; John G. Miller, 1810; Thomas Wood (by appointment in place of 
Miller resigned), 1811; A. I. McDowell, 1812 ; S. E. Wright, 1843-44; Alex. Patton, 18-15 ; 
A. S. Decker, 1846; Alex. Patton, 1847-49; Lorenzo English, 1850-60; Wray Thomas, 1861- 
64; James G. Bull, 1865-68; George W. Meeker, 1869-70; James G. Bull, 1871-74; John H. 
Heitman, 1875-78; G. G. Collins, 1879-80; George S. Peters, 1881-82; Charles C. Walcutt, 
1883-86; Philip H. Bruck, 1887-90; George J. Karb, 1891-94; Cotton H. Allen, 1895-96; 
Samuel L. Black, 1897-98; Samuel J. Swartz, 1899-1900; John N. Hinkle, 1901-1902; 
Robert H. Jeffrey, 1903-05; DeWitt C. Badger, 1906-07; Charles A. Bond, 1908-09; George 

S. Marshall, 1910-11; George J. Karb, 1912-14-16-19; James J. Thomas, 1920 . 

R. W. McCoy, who in 1834 was elected President of the Council, had been a member of 
that body since the first election in 1816, and by re-elections was continued as president 
till 1853 when he resigned his seat. William Miner, in July of that year, was elected to 
the vacancy. Succeeding Presidents of Council have been: Theodore Comstock, 1854; Henry 
Wilson, 1855; Theodore Comstock, 1856; Luther Donaldson, 1859; Jacob Reinhard, 1863; 
Grafton Douty, 1865; Theodore Comstock, 1866. (This election was disputed and there was 
no meeting of Council from the middle of April to July 26, when Mr. Comstock resigned 
and Luther Donaldson was elected); Jacob R-inhard, 1867; William Xaghten, 1868 and 
1869; Luther Donaldson, 1870 and 1871; Theodore Comstock, 1872; John G. Mitchell, 1873; 
Isaac S. Beekey, 187-1; John G. Mitchell, 1875; Isaac B. Potts, 1876; Henry Pausch, 1877-8; 
Charles Breyfogle, 1879; Wm, B. McClung, 1880-81; R. C. Hoffman, 1882; Win. Felton, 
1883; Henry C. Taylor, 1884; Walter B. Pag- 1885; Richard Reynolds, 1886; Frank E. 
Hayden, 1887; J. E. Robinson, 1888; Dennis J. Clahane, 1889; Daniel S. Wilder, 1890; 
CO. Hunter, 1891; J. II. Culbertson, 1 89 >. ; A. E. Evans, 1893 ; Carl X. Bancroft, 1894 ; 
T. A. Simons, 1895; Wm. T. Rowles, 1896; Mark Ellerman, 1897; W. C. Wallace, 1898; 
A. E. Evans, 1899; James J. Thomas, 1900-01; S. O. Giffin, 1902; George D. Jones, 1903- 
01-05; George W. Rightmire, 1906-07-08-09; David T. Logan, 1910-1 1-12-13; Fred J. Heer, 

1911-15; A. E. Griffin, 1916-17; Milton W. Wcstlakc. 1918 ; Joseph C. Xailor, 1919 . 

Win. T. Martin was continued as Recorder till 1839, when he was succeeded by Wm. 
Miner. Miner was succeeded by Joseph Ridgway, jr., in 1 8 13, and he served till 1850 when 
the office was abolished, the most of its duties having been transferred to that of City Clerk 
which was created in 18 10, with B. F. Martin as first incumbent. Succeeding City Clerks 



FORMS OF GOVERNMENT 



113 



were: Joseph Dowdall, 1857-60; J. J. Funston, 1861-6:3; Joseph Dowdall, 1861-65; Levi 
E. Wilson, 1866-73; Frank Wilson, 1871-78; Henry E. Bryan, 1879-90; John M. Doane, 
1890-98; John T. Barr, 1898-1915; James J. Thomas, 1915-19; Opha Moore, 1920 . 

The successive City Treasurers were: Wm. Long, 1834-35; Jonathan Neereamer, 1836- 
37; John Greenwood, 1838-11; William Armstrong, 1812-61; T. P. Martin, 1862 (office 
abolished April 29, that year, and duties transferred to County Treasurer ; office re-created 
in 1903); Wm. C. Cussins, 1903-05; Charles H. Smith, 1906-10; Fred C. Neff, 1911-11; 
Elmer E. Jenkins, 1915 

The Surveyors under the charter of 1831 were: C. R. Prezriminsky, J. A. Lapham, 
Nathaniel Medberry, John Field (each one year), Uriah Lathrop (three years), N. B. Kelley 
(three years), Uriah Lathrop (1811 to 1856 inclusive), Philip D. Fisher (title changed to 
City Engineer, 1857-65), W. W. Pollard, 1866; H. W. Jaeger, 1867-68; B. F. Bowen, 1869- 
71; John Graham, 1872-73; Josiah Kinnear, 1871-77; T. N. Gulick, 1879; John Graham, 
1880-87; Reuben R. Marble, 1888-89; Josiah Kinnear, 1890-97; Julian Griggs, 1898-1906; 
Henry Maetzel, 1907 . 

The Marshals (since 1873 superintendents of police) were in order of service: Abram 
Stotts, 1831-35; George B. Harvey, 1836 to 1812 inclusive; George Riordan, 1813; George 
B. Harvey, 1811-16; John Whitzell, 1817-50; John H. Turney, 1851; James Stephens, 1852- 
53; H. M. Wakeman, 1851-56; John Cofforth, 1857-60; Samuel Thompson, 1861-61; Adam 
Stephens, 1865; Patrick Murphy, 1866-68; Charles Engleke, 1869-73; Alexis Keeler, 1873- 
71; Charles Engleke, 1871-79; J. W. Lingo, 1879; S. A. Rhoads, 1880, vice Lingo removed; 
Lingo, December, 1880. vice Rhoads removed; Rhoads, May, 1881, vice Lingo removed; 
Samuel Thompson, October, 1881, vice Rhoads removed, Thompson serving until 1885; 
John W. Lingo, 1885-87; John E. Murphy, 1887-93; Edward Pagels, 1893-95; Patrick Kel- 
ley, 1895-99; J. Macey Walcutt, part of 1899; Wm. P. Tyler, August, 1899-1903; Patrick 
Kelley, 1903-01; John A. Russell, 1901 (died a few days * after his selection); John F. 
O'Connor, 1901-10; Charles E. Carter, 1910-1920; H. E. French, 1920. 

The Sinking Fund Commission, consisting of four trustees appointed by the Mayor, 
became a part of the governmental machinery in 1883. It has had an honorable record 
from the first and has performed a most useful service in saving money for the taxpayers 
and maintaining the credit of the city. Its members have been in the order of their service: 
John M. Pugh, Isaac Eberly, Luther Donaldson, Joseph H. Outhwaite, Henry C. Noble, 
Benjamin F. Martin, W. J. Gilmore, C. Wesley Hess, Robert S. Smith, Benjamin Woodbury. 
Adolf Theobald, Albert D. Heffner, C. D. Firestone, William F. Burdell, Emil Kiesewetter, 
P. W. Huntington, Frederick W. Prentiss, Howard C. Park, George W. Bright, David E. 
Williams, Joshua D. Price, C. Christian Born, Fred Lazarus, William F. Hoffman, John 
L. Vance, jr., George J. Schoedinger, Simon Lazarus, Foster Copeland, George A. Archer, 
Joseph C. Campbell, Howard C. Park, Frank L. Stein, and Lee M. Boda. The last four 
are now serving. The Secretaries of the commission have been: David E. Williams, Martin 
A. Gemuender and Willis G. Bowland, the last named now serving. 

A statement by Secretary Bowland in March, 1918, showed: Assessment bonds (street 
improvement and sewer) $6,035,800; water works bonds, $3,716,000; other general city 
bonds, $13,125,150; total bonded debt, $22,907,250. Bonds and cash in the sinking fund 
applicable to debt payment, $8,013,908; net debt, $11,863,312. Value of real and personal 
property was assessed for taxation, 1918, $311,725,200. 



Suburban Villages. 
Columbus is surrounded by a number of incorporated 



illages as follows: 



Village Inc. 

Grandview Heights 1903 

Marble Cliff 1908 

Bexley 1 908 

Linden Heights 1911 

East Linden 1912 

Upper Arlington 1918 

Hanford 1910 

East Columbus 1916 



Area 
square 



Pop. 



First Mayor 



mile 1200 W. H. Page 



210 acres 200 

2000 acres 2000 

2 square miles 1800 



Butler Sheldon 

Frank Holtzman 

L. H. Mann 



square mil 



500 J. B. Denune 



James T- Miller 

Walter Schleppi 

\ square mile 1300 George Krumm 



300 acres 500 

.', square mile 300 



114 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Grandview Heights has two churches, a grade school and a high school. Its mayors 
have been in order: Wm. Herbert Page, James L. Carmen and C. K. Seibert. Present 
officers: J. E. Ryder mayor, W. H. Whissen clerk, L. G. Latham treasurer. 

Marble Cliff forms a part of Grandview Heights village school district. On the line 
between the two villages is the community church, the first of its kind in this section, Rev. 
O. C. Weist pastor, while Aladdin Country Club is within the vilage limits. Present officers : 
C. W. Bellows mayor, John H. Nau clerk, Wm. E. Rex treasurer, F. H. Auld, S. P. Bush, 
H. M. Bellows, Frank P. Hall, Wm. K. Lanman and Carl R. Lindenberg eouncilmen. 

Capital University is situated in Bexlev, which has also a grade school and is about 
to build a $200,000 high school. All the principal streets of Bexlev arc paved and sewered. 
Its mayors have been: Frank Holtzman, F. D. Chamberlain, J. T. Sheppard. Present 
officers: Dr. A. C. Wolfe may<or, S. W. Roderick clerk, O. P. Dunlap, T. K. Hatfield, E. 

E. Legg, L. Loy, R. J. Wheaton, and Frank Bonnett eouncilmen; S. R. Southard, G. R. 
Wanamaker, John Henney, H. 1). Harris and Carl Busch members of school board; George 
Frey, E. D. Barnett, H. T. Fishaw and M. S. Connors trustees of public affairs. 

Linden Heights has a public school, four churches and three lodges. The mayors 
have been: Dr. L. H. Mann, T. M. Fluhart, D. A. Shade, J. T. Killen. Present officers: 
J. H. F. Browning mayor, George H. Butler clerk, S. M. Wells treasurer, Frank Mooney, 

F. T. Rudy, A. C. Cornwell, C. M. Valentine, W. E. Stevens and Thomas Reese council- 
men; C. A. Miller, marshal. 

East Linden is in the Columbus school district and has two schools and five churches. 
J. B. Denune has been mayor from the date of the village organization and so continues. 
The other officers are: A. W. Selby clerk, Charles Shaffer treasurer, George Hess, Charles 
Radebaugh, P. P. Denune, L. A. Russel, A. A. Hoffman and Rozelle McNabb eouncilmen; 
A. E. Green marshal and health officer. 

Upper Arlington is a highly organized community, due largely to the fact that every 
resident is a home owner. The first officers were: James T. Miller mayor, Edward D. 
Howard clerk, Warren A. Armstrong- treasurer, Paul G. Spence, E. J. Crane, John J. Mor- 
gan, J. Edwin Haris, F. P. Rogers and W. G. Kern eouncilmen. On March 29, 1919, by 
unanimous vote the village adopted a charter by which its full government is vested in a 
commission of five members as follows : Cyrus Woodbury mayor, Wm. A. Gieves vice mayor, 
E. J. Crane, Lemuel D. Lilly and John J. Morgan. Edward D. Howard is clerk, treasurer 
and solicitor. Social and recreational activities are in charge of committees appointed by the 
village commission. The school building is a social center and is used by both children and 
adults, and there are summer playgrounds with a salaried instructor, and community basket 
picnics in Miller Park. A survey in 1918 disclosed a majority sentiment for a community 
church, but no organization has yet been effected. 

East Columbus lias three churches — Church of Christ, Methodist and Roman Catholic, 
and has approved a project for an indenpendent school. The present officers of the corpora- 
tion are: George A. Ross mayor, M. P. Devore clerk, Frank Stelzer, jr., treasurer, Joseph 
Gerstner marshal, George Cassidy, F. B. Jonees, Benj. Strausser, Herman Ehrenbach and 
Harvey Chrysler, eouncilmen; J. F. Daniels. Martin Stelzer. Benj. Mitchell, Norman Plank 
and George Mohler, board of education. 

Hanford is smaller in area than it was when organized, a portion having been taken into 
the city, and the residents depend upon the latter for church and school facilities. Present 
officers: Walter Teters mayor, Robert S. Lowerv clerk, Frank Reber treasurer, W. M 
McCathran marshal, W. M. Ludwig, George McKibben, Wm. Harris, W. A. Starkey and 
George H. Shazer, eouncilmen ; W. M. Thomp's >n health officer and road commissioner. 



CHAPTER XV. 

PUBLIC UTILITIES. I. 

Borough Streets and First Improvements — Nicholson Wooden Block — Improvements Under 
the State Law with Brick, Stone Block and Asphalt — First Water Works and the Pres- 
ent Improved Supply — Volunteer Fire Companies — Growth of the Department — Serv- 
ers and Sewage Disposal. 

The streets which were marked out at the time of the founding of Columbus were for 
a long time ill eared for. In 1816 obstruction of the thoroughfares by lumber, firewood, 
stable refuse or otherwise was forbidden under penalty of a fine at the discretion of the 
Mayor. In May, 1818, John Kerr and Caleb Huston were authorized to gravel the center 
of High street, 75 feet wide, from the center of the capitol square to the south side of Town 
street, the gravel to be one foot thick in the center of the street and six inches on each side. 
By ordinance of June 26, 1820, the marshal was directed to remove all stumps and fallen logs 
from Broad street, west of Fourth. The same year, Henry Brown was allowed $24 for 
erecting two bridges on Fourth street; a graveled sidewalk was ordered, on Friend street 
from High to Front and thence on Scioto street to the Penitentiary, and a good bridge was 
ordered constructed on Rich street across Front. In 1827 the gutters on High street to 
Mound were ordered paved at the expense of the lot-owners. In 1832, the sidewalks on 
Broad from High to the river and on Front between Broad and Friend were ordered paved. 
The appointment of a street commissioner was provided for in 1835, and an ordinance for 
the protection of the capitol square was passed in 1836. On 1837 members of Council from 
the various wards were authorized to contract for and superintend whatever public improve- 
ments were found necessary. Council approved plans and furnished each councilman with 
the necessary funds. This authority seems to have been abused, for in 1840 Council forbade 
any member to spend more money than was specifically authorized. Scioto street was "ex- 
tended, laid out and established" in 1815; it was to be 70 feet wide and its northern 
extremity was to be the center of the present Penitentiary. In September of the same 
year there was complaint that a gutter at Fourth and Town streets was so constructed as 
not to drain "the flats in the eastern part of the city." In 18 18 an ordinance directed that 
the streets, lanes and alleys be cleared of fences and other obstructions. 

In 1852 Broad street from High street to the Insane Asylum at Lexington avenue was a 
mud road almost impassable in rainy weather. A resident, writing to the Journal, February 28, 
that year, says his vehicle stuck fast in the mud about Washington avenue. Farmers coming 
into town with produce had similar experiences. As a measure of economy in street improve- 
ment, the city purchased in that year 17 acres of gravel-bearing land on the north side of 
the Harrisburg road, west of the Scioto. In April, 1851, the city, according to a report, 
had about 10 miles of graveled street, 15,200 feet of paved gutters and graveled walks on the 
streets and 28,000 feet of paved gutters and graveled walks in the alleys; besides there was a 
plank road from Broad street to the railroad depot. Five plank roads led into the city from 
the north and five graveled turnpikes from the south. 

In 1857 the names of streets were posted at a cost of $528.87, and Broad street was made 
the dividing line north and south, and High street the dividing line east and west. In the 
same vear, the first trees were planted in Broad street under the direction of a committee 
consisting of Wm. G. Deshler, John Noble and Alfred Kelley. Two years later, the plan of a 
double line of trees on each side was adopted. The suggestion came from Wm. G. 
Deshler who had just returned from Havana where he admired the sylvan beauty of the 
streets. 

Tlie first escape from the old graveled roadway was in 1867, when Robert McClelland, 
of Chicago, entered into a contract with the city to pave Higli street with Nicholson wooden 
block from Naghten street to Friend. The job was completed October 15, 1867, at a cost 
of #82.955.99, or $10.88 a foot front. The next year the Nicholson pavement was extended 
to South Public Lane, and in 1869 a portion of Town street was similarly paved. In 1873 
B»-oad street was surfaced with gravel and broken stone at $3 per foot front. At that time 
the Nicholson block pavement on High street had been broken down and worn out, and it 



116 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

was resurfaced with what was called Parisen asphalt, and the completion of the job, Sep- 
tember 3, 1873, was celebrated with a promenade concert in front of the capitol. In 1875 
Town street was repaved with concrete in the center, the Nicholson block being allowed 
to remain at the sides. In 1877, Colonel N. B. Abbott laid an experimental piece of Trini- 
dad asphalt on State street from High to Third — the first use of the material in this city. 
High street was resurfaced in 1876 and the city engineer in his 1881 report estimated that 
the wooden and asphalt pavements and their repair had cost a quarter of a million dollars 
— enough to put down a granite block pavement which would have lasted 30 years. In 
1885 the paving of High street with Ligonier and Medina stone blocks and Georgia granite 
began, Colonel Abbott executing two-thirds of the contract. In 1876 North High street, 
from Naghten to the north corporation line, 3i miles, was paved by Colonel Abbott with a 
mixture of coal tar and Trinidad asphalt at a cost of $226,253, the city issuing its bonds 
as the work progressed. A dispute as to the levying of the assessments resulted in an appeal 
to the courts which found that the Penn act, under which the street had been constructed, was 
unconstitutional. Suits followed to enjoin the collection of some of the assessments and 
in some cases were successful. These assessments fell on the city at large, and the assess- 
ments for the others at the end of the litigation had increased through interest from $7.15 
to about $12 a foot front. 

Under a street improvement law of 1886, amended the following year, many streets and 
alleys were permanently improved at the expanse of the owners of property, the city issuing 
bonds on its own credit and collecting in installments with interest from the property-owners. 
In 1886 the cost of street improvements was about $65,000; in 1887, $186,000; in 1888, 
nearly $454,000 and so on up to nearly $1,000,000 in 1892. There was a revel in street im- 
provements, the main purpose sometimes being the sale of land which had been platted and 
added to the city. 

In 1915 High street was repaved with asphalt and stone block gutters and the cost 
by ordinance of Council, March 27, 1917, was assessed on the abutting property owners. 
Asphalt had returned to high favor as material and methods had been improved. Broad and 
other streets had been successfully paved with it and there had been ample proof of its durabil- 
ity under the new traffic that had come with the introduction of the automobiles. A munici- 
pally owned asphalt repair plant had also been used for some years to prolong the life of these 
pavements. Counting interest and depreciation, it was estimated that the repair in 1916 cost: 
For asphaltic concrete, 91 cents a square yard, sheet asphalt, $1,22, which "while consider- 
ably less than it would cost to make these repairs by contract, would be materially reduced 
if the plant were running at its full capacity and for a full season." 

In 1917 there were 312.38 miles of street that had been improved since 1886. Of this, 
71.4 miles were some form of asphalt, 196.7 miles, miscellaneous brick and block, 36 miles 
granite and stone and the remainder was macadam, tarviated concrete, etc. Brick was for 
a considerable period in high favor as a street paving material, due largely to the ease 
of manufacture here and at points nearby, but its popularity soon began to decline, while 
that of asphalt began to increase and since 1916 has been increasingly greater. 

High street north of the Union Station has long been too narrow for the traffic it had 
to carry. In 1914 a plan was adopted for widening it from Spruce street to the north corpora- 
tion line. By this plan 10 feet was to be added on the east side between Spruce street 
and Buttles avenue, and 10 feet to be added on each side between Buttles avenue and Fifth 
avenue. The property owners were to donate the extra 10 feet and the city was to pay the 
cost of moving the buildings and repaying the street and sidewalk. This work is now in 
progress, and it is estimated that the cost to the city will approximate half a million dollars. 
When it is completed High street will be for the greater part of its length 76 feet wide. 

j Water Supply. 

Springs and wells supplied the earlier city witli an ample supply of drinking water, but 
the burning of the Neil House in 1860 and of the Asylum for the Insane in 1868 gave im- 
pressive warnini>- that something more was necessary to a growing city. Besides the water 
of the wells was becoming contaminated, with the growth of population. For ten years the 
matter was discussed officially and in the press Finally, February 15, 1870, an ordinance was 
passed by the Council providing that a "supply of water shall be provided for the city by 
the construction of water works upon the system known as the Holly waterworks, in accord- 



PUBLIC UTILITIES. I. 



11" 



ance with the contract entered into by the city and the Holly Manufacturing Co., as ap- 
proved by the City Council on the 7th day of February, 1870, which contract is hereby 
ratified and confirmed." The ordinance also located the water works on eight acres of land 
at the mouth of the Olentangy, purchased from W. A. Neil for $8,000, and created a board 
of three water works trustees, one of whom should be elected annually for a term of three 
years, salary $100 a year. N. B. Kelley was appointed architect and superintendent, con- 
tracts were made for the trenching and piping and the necessary building. The laying of 
pipe began September 12. A huge well was sunk in the basin of the river and on Novem- 
ber 12 it was announced that the gauge in the water works showed a supply of 2,000,000 
gallons a day. In February, 1871, a schedule of rates for domestic consumption was an- 
nounced; on March 6 the first water was turned into the pipes. Five miles of pipe had 
then been laid ; about 70 miles more was laid in the ensuing season. The amount expended 
on the works up to November, 1871, was $149,700. In 1873 filtering galleries were excavated 
from the well, and the pumping equipment was increased from time to time until the plant, 
as it existed in 1885, with pumping machinery, well, 7,000 feet of filtering gallery and an 
extended system of service pipe, represented an expenditure of $1,700,000. Still there was 
apprehension as to the supply for the growing city and accordingly in 1889 a second 
pumping station was established in the valley of Alum Creek on a seven-acre tract bought 




of Wm. B. Hayden for $1,000. A well was sunk, a building erected and two large Holly 
engines were installed, the purpose being to supply the entire eastern section of the city with 
water from this plant. The forecast as to the supply of water from this source was justi- 
fied. In 1898 the pumps were driving 6,000,000 gallons daily into the pipes, while the 
pumps at the West Side station were producing 9,000,000 gallons daily. But the growth 
of the city was rapid and as early as 1893 the service was again a source of anxiety, and 
numerous official recommendations were made to Council for its improvement. 

In the summer of 1893 Wm. D. Brickell, proprietor of the Dispatch, on his own account, 
employed Rudolph Hering, an experienced engineer of New York, to make a brief examina- 
tion of the local water resources. The city engineer heartily co-operated, and Mr. Hering's re- 
port was not only accorded the highest respect, but became the real basis for water supply im- 
provement. He reported that a storage reservoir in one of the river valleys would be neces- 
sary ; that the Scioto would give the largest quantity of water and had less surface pollution 
than any other stream, but that, in any event, purification of such supply would be re- 
quired. Two years later, another engineer, Allen Hazen, recommended a storage reservoir 
in one of the four streams near the city. In 1896, definite plans were formulated for a 
storage dam in the valley of the Scioto, and after numerous soundings and measurements, a 
site near Wyandot Grove, midway between the Jones and Fishinger mill dams, was selected. 



118 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

lor temporary purposes these two dams were bought for $10,000. But together they fur- 
nished but four days' pumping supply and in the unusually dry summer of 1897, there was 
further resort to low temporary dams of sandbags, brush and earth which stored at night 
water that was turned in the conduit the following day. The situation had now become acute, 
the Board of Trade and other bodies of citizens discussed the project, and out of it all came 
a demand, whatever the necessary cost, for an abundant supply of pure water which should 
be sold to consumers at the lowest possible rates. Suggestions of a private company were 
thrust aside, and it was decided that the city should construct and own the system. The con- 
sulting engineers had recommended a 52-foot dam, but the people of the West Side were 
afraid of so large a body of water and, after much discussion, it was decided to have a .'50-foot 
dam, with an estimated capacity of 1,627,000,000 gallons and a surface area of 363.3 acres. 
Bonds in .$175,000 were authorized at the election in the spring of 1898; the necessary land 
(138 acres) was bought a little at a time, some by court procedure, at a cost of approxi- 
mately $80,000; bids for the construction of the dam were invited, and Samuel M. Gray was 
employed as an expert engineer. The construction of the Scioto river dam was begun in 
1901-. It is a curved concrete structure, 1,006 feet long, the overflow section 500 feet long, 
and its height is 30 feet above the former water level of the river. It creates a reservoir 
5.8 miles long, with a surface area of 363 acres, a mean depth of 14.5 feet and a capacity 
of 1,627,000,000 gallons. The drainage area above the dam is 1,032 square miles. The cost of 
the dam was $390,000; of 472 acres of land, $150,000 and of roads, bridges, etc., $160,000. 
The water flows from the dam to filtration basins, where it is separated from mud and 
bacteria and softened by chemical process, and from thence to the pumping station and the 
service pipes. The work on the water purification plant was begun in 1905 and on the pump- 
ing station in 1906. Filtered water was first delivered to the city in August, 1908, and 
one month later the operation for softening was begun. The effects of the new service were 
at once noticeable. The number of deaths from typhoid fever dropped from 170 in 1908 to 
31 in 1909; cisterns began to be abandoned, the water being soft enough for most household 
purposes, and the incrustation of boilers was checked. The cost of the dam, pumping station, 
purification works and mains was $2,040,000. 

In 1919 a bond issue of $3,000,000 was authorized for a further extension of the water 
supply system. An engineering force was organized, C. B. Hoover resident engineer and 
John H. Gregory consulting engineer, and work was begun in the summer of 1920. 

Until 1890 the water works department was managed by a board of three trustees. Wm. 
B. Hayden served continuously on the board until 1885. E. B. Armstrong served until 
the same year, with the exception of one term when Daniel H. Royce served. Richard 
Xevins served continuously till 1883, when Isaac B. Potts took his place and served a term. 
Other members of the board were. C. T. Pfaff, Robert Curtis, John Kilroy, L. W. Sher- 
wood, R. B. Collier and Peter Monroe. The superintendents have been: Frank Doherty 
till 1884, W. Royce till 1887, A. H. McAlpine till 1895, Jerry O'Shaughnessy now serving 
The secretaries have been E. B. Armstrong. J. R. Armstrong, S. P. Axtell, Dudley A. Filler. 
The plant is now a division of the public service department and is managed by the director 
of the department and the superintendent of the division. 

According to a recent report, the amount of water pumped and delivered to the city 
shows a daily average of 19,000,000 gallons. There is 350 miles of water main, with 
36,000 active taps, and 96% of the consumption is metered. The annual receipts are ap- 
proximately $550,000 and the cost of operation about $400,000. The earnings are applied 
to extensions and the payment of interest on a bonded indebtedness of $3,671,000. 

Fire Department. 

The first fire of consequence in Columbus occurred in the spring of 1822. Eight buildings 
were consumed — a dwelling and seven small shops. It was probably this fire which led 
the Council to provide oti February 21. 1822, by enrollment in the Mayor's office for "one 
hook and ax company consisting of 15 men, one ladder company consisting of 12 men and 
one company consisting of 12 men, as a guard to property." The ordinance empowered the 
Mayor to draft men for these companies, if necessary, and made it the duty of all men from 
15 to 50 years to serve as bucket men; called for the appointment of one supreme director 
at all fires and required the marshal, on the first alarm of fire, to ring the bell or cause it to 
be rung. An inspection of the borough for fire dangers four times a year was required, and 



PUBLIC UTILITIES. I. 



119 



the Mayor was directed to procure at public expense "two long ladders, four axes, four short 
ladders and two hooks" and required each owner or occupant of a dwelling, store or shop to 
furnish as many "water buckets of good jacked leather, each to contain 10 quarts," as the 
committee of safety should direct. In 1825 the existence of 217 of these fire-buckets was 
reported, and in the following year their possessors were made responsible for their care and 
keeping them in condition under penalty of a fine. The General Assembly was asked to 
make an appropriation for an engine, and it seems that the State bought one. It was a force 
pump worked by moving levers up and down, and was called "The Tub." In 1831 Council 
provided a reward of $5 for the first man to reach the engine house after an alarm of fire, 
and $3 for the second. The house that sheltered "The Tub" was on the capitol square east 
of the State House. 

In 1835 the city bought two of the primitive engines, erected an engine house at the cost 
of $1,000 and provided for five fire cisterns, each to cost $130 and having a capacity of 6,000 
gallons, at the intersections of High street with Broad, State, Town, Rich and Friend (Main) 
streets. An ordinance created a company of fire wardens, another of fire guards, a hook and 
ladder company, an engine and hose company and a protection society, each of these com- 




Old Gay Street Enr/ine House, which stoc 
Building' and was the first to ho 



an the site of Ruggery 
a paid crew. 



panies to be composed of volunteer members, exempt from military duty and holding their 
places at the pleasure of Council. Membership was for a time attractive, but the service lost 
its novelty and within two years after their organization there was talk of disbanding them. 
They were continued, and various efforts were made to stimulate interest. The force was 
divided into two brigades, the engines of one being located on the State House square and 
those of the other near the corner of High and Mound. Rewards were offered to the com- 
pany which should first arrive at the scene of a fire, and a sharp rivalry was thus created, 
as also at the time of the election of chief engineer. John Miller, Alexander McCoy, William 
McCoy, William Westwater, G. M. Swan and John Weaver were among those who at various 
times occupied this post, and there is the testimony of the newspapers of the time that they 
commanded as efficient a force of volunteer firemen as ever operated. 

In 1842 two new engines — one named the "Franklin' and the other the "Scioto" — were 
bought and other cisterns were dug at the intersections of Third with State, Town and 
Friend, at the intersections of Front with Broad, State and Rich, at High and Gay and Mound 
and High. On August 11, 1851, the city bought three lots as engine house sites. One was 
on Third street near Town; another on Gav street east of High and the third on State street 



120 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

between High and Front; and in the following year there was talk of an alarm bell which 
would save the firemen much effort by locating the fire for them. An ordinance in 1853 for- 
bidding the firemen to run their engines on the sidewalks gave them great offense, and several 
of the companies disbanded. The same year, Council fixed the salary of the chief engineer 
at $100. The engine house on Gay street was completed in 1851 and the one on Third street 
in 1855. Council bought a steam fire engine and put it in the Third street house at a cost 
of .$6,000. This gave still further offense, and two other companies disbanded and their hand 
machines were found to be disabled. The need to reorganize the fire department was 
apparent and Council acted to that end, but it, too, got into a foolish contention over the 
election of a chief engineer, and it was only on the 170th ballot that Charles M. Ridgway 
was chosen. However, it was not certain whether the chief engineer or the fire committee 
of the Council was in control, and a newspaper of the time remarked: "The Columbus 
Fire Department is composed of two unequal parts — the ornamental and the useful. The 
ornamental but by no manner of means useful part is called the committee of the Council 
on fire department. The useful, but not all ornamental, is composed of one chief engineer, 
one operator, five men, five horses, three wheels and a great squirt." In this crisis James 
YVestwater organized a hand engine company March 15, 1856, and asked for the Franklin en- 
gine and the Niagara hose wagon. This company did good service at a fire on the west bank 
of the Scioto, the same year, but the steam engine was unable to reach the fire because its 
chimney was too high to pass through the bridge. 

And so the story runs on through the years, the city gradually, but reluctantly, drift- 
ing to a paid department basis. Charles Ridgway resigned as chief engineer in 1856 and 
Mr. Trowbridge was elected, the Council committee having established its supremacy. The 
burning of the Neil House in 1860 showed the inadequacy of the department. Two rotary 
steam fire engines were purchased, and the department was put under the authority of the 
chief engineer, John Miller being appointed to that place at a salary of $600. One of 
the new engines was put in the Gay street house and the other in the Third street house, the 
first steam engine being sold. A third steamer was purchased a little later. John Miller 
resigned as chief engineer and was succeeded by Isaac H. Marrow, in November, 1863, who 
organized a system of fire alarms by church bells, the number of the stroke denoting the 
district in which the fire was located. The fire alarm telegraph was installed in 1868 at a 
cost of $1,500. Wm. S. Huffman became chief engineer in August, 1868, vice Marrow 
resigned. The equipment of the department in the following April consisted of one chief 
engineer, one superintendent of fire alarm telegraph, three steamer engines, three foremen, 
three engine-drivers, three horsemen, two truckmen, four steamers, four carriages, one hook 
and ladder apparatus, ten horses and a supply of hose, 5-1 wells and 72 cisterns. On 
April 12, 1869, Henry Heinmiller became chief engineer and served for 11 years, during 
which time the Flowers engine house and the Soutli High street engine house were opened 
and the equipment of the department was increased,, the fire insurance companies adding at 
their own expense a chemical engine and salvage wagon combined, provided the city would 
properly house and man it. On September 6, 1880, D. D. Tresenrider was appointed chief 
engineer. He was suspended from office March 2, 1882, by the Mayor, on charges preferred 
bv former employes; the Council refused to acquiesce, and the case was settled by a Supreme 
Court decision in favor of Tresenrider the following month. In 1886, Charles Bryson was 
nominated by the Mayor as chief engineer, but the Council refused to confirm. Bryson 
undertook to act anyway, and the Supreme Court, again appealed to, deciding adversely to 
Bryson, the Mayor appointed Joseph Grovenberrv, who resigned soon after on account of 
an injury, when the Mayor appointed W. P. Callahan. Council rejected the nomination and 
reinstated Tresenrider who was suspended by the Mayor. The ease was taken before 
Judge Bingham, of the Common Pleas Court, who enjoined the Mayor, Callahan and all 
others from interference witli the department, and Tresenrider ao-ain took charge Decem- 
ber 1, after a struggle extending over six months. Henrv Heinmiller again became chief 
engineer, succeeding Tresenrider in 1890, and in the following April reported that the 
department then possessed, fully manned, six steam fire engine companies, seven hose com- 
panies, two hook and ladder companies, one engine supply wagon ane one telegraph wagon, 
with the following apparatus in reserve: Two second-class steam fire engines, three chemical 
engines and one four-wheeled hose carriage. 

Chief Heinmiller was succeeded bv Charles G. I.auer, under whose administration. 



PUBLIC UTILITIES. I. 121 

begun in a wrangle, the department grew and served acceptably for years until a 
department without Lauer seemed almost an impossibility. At his death, Chief Lauer was 
succeeded by Jenkins Daniels, who is serving with the fidelity of an old fireman. The per- 
sonnel of the fire fighting force now runs to nearly 300 men. There are seventeen engine 
houses and most of the apparatus has been motorized so that a run can be made at 50 miles 
an hour. Besides fighting fire, the department does much by inspection to prevent fire. A 
recent report showed the annual expenses to be $335,711.09. 

Sercers and Seicage Disposal. 

Prior to 1849 there was nothing but surface drainage in Columbus. In that year the 
State and city jointly constructed a brick sewer in Broad street from the old Asylum for the 
Insane at Broad and Lexington to the Scioto river. In 1852 Spring street was sewered from 
Third to Front, and in the following year there was considerable demand for sewers, chiefly 
to drain the stagnant pools in what is now the east-central part of the city. In 1851, 12,500 
feet of underground sewer was in operation. Peters' Run sewer was begun in 1867 and was 
originally intended to furnish drainage for the greater part of the city through its connection 
with the lateral sewers. According to the city engineer's report in 1872 there were main 
sewers in Fourth street, South Public lane (Livingston), Centre alley, Oak street, Cherry 
alley, Broad street, Mound street and West street, which had cost $101,617. Peters' Run 
sewer was connected with the Fourth street and Oak street sewers and conducted the sewage 
to an intercepting lateral in Front street which, it was planned, should disgorge into the 
Scioto below the city. But legal difficulties compelled the emptying of the lateral into 
Peters' Run, thus creating a nuisance in the southern part of the city. At the same time the 
discharge of other sewers into the river above the dam made a cesspool of the stream. In 
1873-74, the Peters' Run sewer was carried across the canal to the river by a conduit — a 
proceeding which did not correct, but simply changed the location of the nuisance. 

Up to this time there had been no systematic construction of sewers. A sewer was 
put in where it seemed to be needed to carry sewage to the river, that being the ultimate 
place for the deposit of all the filth of the city. There was much sickness which was attri- 
buted to defective sewerage and the unsanitary practice of pouring all the foulness into a 
stream which, because it was dammed for canal purposes, was no longer a stream. The 
north-east trunk sewer was projected in 1879, and the Franklin Park sewer followed, both 
emptying into Alum creek, the idea being to divide the nuisance by using two streams in- 
stead of one. The Southeast and Northwest trunk sewers were built, with discharge into 
the Scioto, and the streams became more polluted as the city grew. The General Assembly 
was asked in 1885 to permit the use of the abandoned canal as a trunk sewer, but refused: 
the canal, it felt, might sometime be needed. As it also refused to allow the destruction 
of the dam, through which the water was pouring, at times leaving the polluted bed of the 
river almost dry, a new dam was constructed in the thought that it would maintain the water 
at a sufficient stage to cover the mouths of the sewers. That proved no relief and the dam 
was finally blown up. 

In 1887, under the incentive of the Citizens' Sanitary Association, the Council passed 
a resolution authorizing the city engineer to secure the services of a sanitary ens>ineerino- 
expert to devise a complete system of sewerage. An intercepting sewer on the east side 
of the river connecting with all the sewers leading to the river and carrying the sewage to 
a point below the city was proposed. On March 23, 1888, the General Assembly authorized 
the issue of $500,000 bonds by the city to build that sewer, and one January 21, 1889, the 
contract was awarded to L. C. Newsom at his bid, $460,838.61. 

Until 1897, the sewers on the West Side had been constructed without system and with 
the same general idea of emptying everything into the river. In that year a system of 
separate storm and sanitary sewers was devised, all being later extended to the main sewage 
pumping station, where its sewage unites with the sewage from other parts of the city. 

With the completion in 1892, of the East Side intercepting sewer, the dry flow from 
the numerous main sewers until then outletting along the east banks of the Olentangy and 
Scioto rivers and draining the greater part of the city, was diverted to a single outfall into 
the Scioto at a point two and a half miles south of the State House. The nuisance arising 
from a foul stream in the heart of the city was thereby abated ; but the condition of the river 



122 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

itself was not bettered, and the situation, with the rapid growth of the population, soon 
became again acute, and a permanent solution of the problem became imperative. 

Preliminary steps toward the construction of a sewage disposal system were taken in 
the investigation of local conditions by Engineers Alvord and Griggs in 1898 and by 
Engineers Griggs and Hering in 1901. In 1901-05 an experimental purification plant was 
operated under direction of Rudolph Hering and George W. Fuller, consulting engineers, 
the results there obtained determining the process to be adopted for the sewage disposal 
system. Construction was immediately begun with John H. Gregory as engineer in charge, 
and in November, 1908, the improved sewage works were completed and put into regular 
service. A single purification plant to which sewage from all parts of the city is conducted 
for treatment was provided. An P^ast Side sewage pumping station at Main street and Alum 
creek was provided to lift the dry flow sewage from the Alum creek district over the ridge 
into the East Side intercepting sewer district. The intercepting sewer was extended across 
the Scioto, and the West Side sanitary and storm sewer systems were extended to the same 
point, whence the combined sewage of the city was relayed by the main sewage pumping station 
to the purification works below the city. The work required two and a half miles of levee 
construction and the building of two miles of railroad track and a railroad bridge across the 
Scioto, the purchase of 358 acres of land at a cost of $78,980, and a total outlay of 
$1,351,020. 

The East Side intercepting sewer has its origin north of Dodridgc street near the 
Olentangy river ; it roughly follows the Olentangy to its mouth and then the Scioto to a 
point 3,000 feet south of Green Lawn avenue, where it crosses under the river and dis- 
charges into the suction wells of the main sewage pumping station. The treatment of 
sewage consists of sedimentation and clarification in large open concrete tanks, aeration 
and oxidation in sprinkling filters and final sedimentation and clarification in open shallow 
concrete basins, preceding the discharge of the treated liquor into the river. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

PUBLIC UTILITIES. II. 

Artificial Gas for Illumination — Advent of Electricity — Private Companies — Municipal Plant 
— Columbus the "Arch City" — Cluster Street Lamps — Natural Gas for Heat and Light 
— The Levees — Grade Crossing Elimination — Public Parks — Telephones — Cemeteries 
— Garbage and Refuse Disposal — The Markets — Street Cleaning — Lei'ees. 

The use of artificial gas for illumination indoors and on the streets began to be talked 
about as early as 18-tf. Prior to that, illumination had been by candles and sperm oil 
lamps, and there was no real escape from that primitive method until 1850. In that year, 
Lockwood & Co., operating under a charter that had been granted to the Columbus Gas and 
Coke Co., and under an ordinance granting the exclusive use of the streets for 16 years, 
erected buildings on West Long street and began the laying of pipe. On November 16, 
1850, Council decided to light High street, the market house and engine houses with gas. 
Gas was turned into the pipes December 7, 1S50, and a number of private consumers began 
using it. On the 12th Council invited proposals for furnishing 31 street lamps and posts, 
it having been provided in the original ordinance that the company should furnish the gas 
at not to exceed $20 per lamp per year. In 1854, the city had 111 lamps in use on the 
streets. Private consumers paid at the rate of $3 a thousand feet. About seven miles of 
pipe had then been laid in the streets, and 9,500,000 cubic feet of gas had been produced 
and consumed in a year. In May, 1878, the price of gas was reduced to .$2 per 1000 cubic 
feet and in 1883 to .$1.25 and 1892 to $1. 

Electricity had come into the field as a competitor, and gas as an illuminant was out of 
favor. In March, 1881, a company was incorporated to introduce the Brush system of 
electric lighting in Columbus. June 20 following, the Council authorized an experimental 
contract with the company, but it was never carried into effect. On February 9, 1882, the 
Edison system of electric lighting was demonstrated in the office of the Ohio State Journal, 
and on May 14, 1887, the Columbus Electric Light Co. was incorporated bv Will C. Turner, 
W. D. Bri'ckell, C. H. Lindenberg, J. W. Collins, W. S. Ide and Luke G. Byrne. The com- 
pany organized by electing Mr. Lindenberg president, J. F. Martin vice president, Will C. 
Turner secretary and E. Kiesewetter treasurer. The company erected a plant at Third 
and Gay streets in 1887-88 and began furnishing power and incandescent lighting, an ordi- 
nance having granted the privilege of laying pipes, mains, conductors, etc., for the transmis- 
sion of current. 

On February 18, 1881, the Columbus Electric Light and Power Co., incorporated in 
1883 with a plant at the west end of the Broad street bridge, was authorized by Council 
to erect and maintain its poles and wires in the streets and alleys. Wm. Monypeny was presi- 
dent, A. D. Rodgers vice president and J. G. McGuier secretary and manager. The city 
entered into a five-year contract with this company to light the streets and 800 lamps were 
put up, the charge being $7.5 a lamp per year. It also sold light and power for commercial 
use. 

Both of these properties were subsequently bought by Emerson McMillin and W. D. 
Briekell who, in turn, sold them to the present Columbus Railway, Light and Power Co., 
which owns and operates the street ears and sells current to private consumers for light and 
heat. 

The street lighting problem became acute in 1896, and there was talk of a municipal 
electric lighting plant. Besides the opposition of the existing private companies, there was 
official and general reluctance to enter on the project. Mayor Cotton H. Allen, in a com- 
munication to Council, opposed it, but there was sufficient public opinion favorable to it to 
induce Council to appropriate $68,000 to install an experimental plant in the West Side 
water works pumping station. Mayor Samuel L. Black in his message to Council in 1897, 
announced that the plant should be in operation in 90 days. Provision was first made for 
500 arc lights and the streets in the northeastern part of the city were first supplied, the 
other streets being lighted on contract with the Columbus Electric Light and Power Co. 



124- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Council made no appropriation for operating the plant in 1900, and Director of Public Im- 
provements Linus B. Kauffman closed the plant in July, reporting that the cost of operating 
for the first half of the year had been $11,016.39, or at the rate of $68.38 per lamp per annum, 
not counting deterioration. 

On April 30, 1901, Council passed an ordinance authorizing the establishment of an 
electric light plant for the city. The ordinance recited that in 1896, the people had voted 
a bond issue of $300,000 for electric light works and that of that amount $68,000 had been 
spent in the experimental plant, and directed the director of public improvements to provide 
the plant, buying ground if necessary, using the machinery already bought and supplement- 
ing it as needed. Another issue of $110,000 bonds was authorized. In October, 1901, opera- 
tion of the light plant was resumed, and it was officially reported that the cost per lamp per 
annum had been reduced to $ 16. The first superintendent of the plant was L. B. Lyman ; then 
John Morris and after him Perry Okey. There were other appropriations up to the $300,000 
authorized issue of bonds, and the complete plant, with William Willcox as superintendent, 
was put in operation in December, 1903. Street lamps to the number of 1,600 had 
then been installed, ffm. Reid succeeded Willcox in 1905 and was himself succeeded by 
Herman Gamper in 1908. Mr. Camper instituted many economies and in 1910 was operat- 




Municijiiil Light Plant. 



ing 2,600 street arc lamps at an annual average cost of $12.17. Called to a better paying 
position, he was succeeded by H. E. Eichhorn. In May, 1912, the people voted the issue 
of $265,000 bonds for the extension of the plant, but it was not till February, 1916, that it 
resolved upon the extension. Then it re-employed Mr. Gamper as expert engineer, ap- 
proved the plans he prepared and appropriated the money. In November, it fixed the rate 
for residence and commercial lighting at six cents per k. w. h., with discounts for large use, 
and four cents per k. w. h., witli graduated lower rates for large consumption. 

A recent report shows: Bonded indebtedness, $891,500; value of plant and equipment, 
$590,057.61; operating revenues, $186,999.19; operating expenses, $111,171.97; total genera- 
tion, 9,710,000 k. w. h. ; commercial sales, 3,077,039 k. w. li. 

lor several years Columbus was to some extent known as the "Arch City" because of 
the lighting of High street and some other streets by a system of arches, each witli a number 
of small lamps, extending over the street. The arches were first used with gas in 1888 as a part 
of the street decoration on the occasion of the Ohio Centennial and Grand Army Encamp- 
ment. They were then turned over to the city, equipped with electric lamps and maintained 
partly at the expense of the merchants. In 1911 they were superseded on High street and 
other streets by posts, each with a cluster of five lamps. 



PUBLIC UTILITIES. II. 125 

Natural Gas. 

The discover}' of natural gas in promising quantity in the vicinity of Columbus — 
Fairfield and Licking counties — led to the organization in January, 1886, of the Columbus 
Natural Gas Co., to which a franchise was voted by the Council, April 11, 1887. This was 
followed, December 17, 1888, by an ordinance fixing a schedule of prices for 10 years. 
Meanwhile the Columbus Natural Gas Co. had been prospecting and had acquired options 
on a large amount of territory between Newark and Lancaster and had sunk a well at Hadley 
Junction which was producing in large quantity. July 24, 1889, the Central Ohio Natural 
Gas and Fuel Co. was incorporated and to it were transferred all the franchises of the other 
company. John G. Deshler was president, H. D. Turney vice president, J. H. Hibbard sec- 
retary and George W. Sinks treasurer; C. D. Firestone, M. H. Neil, Walter W. Brown and 
G. C. Hoover, directors; J. O. Johnston, superintendent. The authorized capitalization was 
$3,000,000. 

The gas was piped to the city and through it and on December 31, 1889, was used for 
the first time in the Columbus Club and in the homes of John G. Deshler, George W. Sinks 
and H. D. Turney. It was offered to private consumers at 20 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, 
and was used by many for both fuel and light. On January 24, 1890, there was an explosion 
of natural gas in a double brick dwelling, 29 Noble street, which killed four persons and injured 
many others. It was found that the gas had leaked from the main in Wall street into the 
cellars of the dwelling and had exploded from a contact with a naked flame. January 14, 
1891, owing to low pressure and danger, the gas was turned off to the great inconvenience of 
all who had equipped their houses for its use, and there was much speculation as to what it 
all meant. The company had laid 25 miles of main from the wells to the city and put nearly 
100 miles of pipe in the city streets at a cost of over a million dollars. The consumers' dis- 
appointment was great, and there were charges that the company had shut off the gas to 
exact a higher rate. In February it was announced that more gas had been found though 
six other wells had been sunk without result. On March 30, 1891, the Council, acting on 
the petition of 83 % of the consumers of gas, passed an ordinance allowing the company 
to charge 25 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, for a period of 10 years, witli 20% reduction for 
prompt payment. On July 6, 1901, Council fixed the price of natural gas at 35 cents a 1,000 
feet, with a discount of five cents for prompt payment, and so it has remained. 

In 1899 a rival natural gas company entered the field. It offered gas at 15 cents per 
1 ,000 cubic feet and finally secured a franchise by which it agreed to pay into the city 
treasury 10^,' of all moneys received from the sale of gas at a rate of more than 15 cents 
per 1,000 cubic feet. This company, having laid its pipes and begun service, about 1903, 
went into the hands of a receiver. The stock was bought by the Ohio Fuel Supply Co., 
which maintained it as a separate organization. The price of gas was increased until it 
reached the maximum of 30 cents per 1,000 cubic feet. In 1904 suit was brought by the 
city against the Federal Gas Co. for the percentage which it had agreed to pay the city. This 
litigation, in which the city lias been represented by four different solicitors or directors of 
law — George S. Marshall, Edgar L. Weinland, Stuart R. Bolin and Harry L. Scarlett — has 
raised a number of questions, chief of which are the interpretation of the franchise clause 
and whether the city has a proprietary right in the streets and can legally make a bargain 
of the kind. The latter has been definitely decided in favor of the city, and the clause in 
the franchise has been interpreted to mean that the company was to pay to the city 10 r r of 
moneys received in excess of 15 cents per 1,000 cubic feet. In January, 1918, the Federal 
Gas Co. offered to pay the city $375,000 in settlement, but the offer was rejected. In the 
United States Supreme Court the city was sustained, and a settlement to July 1, 1916, was 
for $458,800. Settlement on account of sales since that date is at this writing still to be 
determined. 

In 1914 the Ohio Cities Gas Co. was formed, Beman G. Dawes president, F. S. Heath 
secretary-treasurer. It bought the stock of both of the local companies which maintain their 
identity as distributing agencies, the Ohio Fuel and Supply Co., a producing concern, deliv- 
ering the gas to them at the city limits. The president of the Columbus Gas and Fuel Co. 
is T. J. Jones, and the secretary-treasurer is G. C. Scott. The old offices at Front and Long 
streets were abandoned August 1, 1918, the company moving into new quarters in the Gasco 
building (1918) at the southeast corner of Chestnut and High streets. Natural gas is now 
supplied to Columbus through more than 55,000 taps. 



126 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

The Levees. 

The levees on the west side of the Scioto were begun by the State about 1833 to prevent 
overflow of the river above the canal dam. They extended from a point below Rich street 
to a point near Sandusky street. Levees above and below were built from time to time after 
that as a protection to farm lands. A deed to the city from Michael Sullivant in 1853 pro- 
vided for an extension by the city of a levee built by him. The right-of-way grant to the 
Columbus, Sandusky & Cincinnati Railroad Co. in 1870, along the Scioto provided that the 
proposed railway embankment should form a part of the levee. In 1889-90 the levee from 
Mound street to Rich street was built wider and higher; also from Frank street to the west 
end of Rickly's mill race. The levees thus constructed were found adequate till the flood 
of March, 1898. Then it was decided to raise the levee six feet above the high water mark 
of 1898 at a cost of $150,000. In 1899 the city rebuilt, raised or strengthened two and a 
half miles of levee, 4,200 feet of it being east of the river south of the Franklin furnace. 
In 1900, the T. & O. C. Railroad Co. changed its track, under agreement with the city, con- 
structing for the latter 2,500 feet of levee from Rickly's mill to Sandusky street, and the 
city built 3,650 feet more. The city's expenditures in the three years (1898-00) amounted 
to $139,034.50, and Engineer Julian Griggs estimated the cost of completing the levee at 
$39,290. The 1913 flood proved that levee-building was vain and protection must be other- 
wise sought. 

Grade Crossing Elimination. 

With the coming of railroads there began the inconvenience, delay and loss arising from 
the interruption of street traffic. High street, the main thoroughfare of the city north and 
south was crossed by the first railroad and later by others until a considerable section of the 
street was occupied by railway tracks over which there was not only the passage of passenger 
trains, but the switching of freight cars in the making up of trains for other points. This 
not only caused a serious interruption of traffic, but created a real menace to life and 
property. The matter early became a source of irritation which increased with the years. In 
1873, the Council declared that there must be a bridge over or a tunnel under the tracks, 
and in 1871, tunneling, having been decided upon, was begun. The tunnel was completed in 
the following year, and the street railway company was authorized to lay its tracks through. 
The tunnel cost $15,050 and for 20 years it continued to offer its opportunity of escape from 
delay and danger. But it was ill ventilated and little used except by the street cars. 

At the end of that time came the successful agitation for something better. The tunnel 
was torn away and, after much negotiation with the railroad companies and much bargaining 
with property-owners for damage or fancied damage to their abutting property, the present 
High street viaduct, with approaches from Naghten street and Maple street, was erected. 
Josiali Kinnear was the city engineer in charge, and the cost was approximately $369,000. 
Practically contemporaneous with this great improvement, the Union Depot Co. at an outlav 
of something less than three-quarters of a million dollars built the fine new Union Station, 
with train shed, concrete driveways and covered walk from train shed to viaduct. The 
front of the station along the viaduct, with its beautifully arched and pillared entrance, was 
designed by Burnham, of Chicago. The interior arrangements are excellent and elegant, and 
there is provision for the convenience and safety of passengers. The Union Station was 
completed in 1897. The first Fourth street (originally Buckeye street) viaduct was built in 
1890-93 at an approximate cost of $120,000. and the Front street viaduct was built in 1894 
at a cost of $69,000. Thus, there were three safe avenues of travel between the northern 
and southern sections of the city. In 1915, the present Fourth street viaduct, on the site 
of tlie one the construction of which had been begun in 1890, was built under the direction 
of City Engineer Henry Maetzel at a cost of $233,000. 

By this time the situation on the West Side had become acute. The flood of 1898 made 
it apparent that increased protection must be afforded, and flood protection and track eleva- 
tion were taken up together. Up to that time tlie law provided that the cost of track 
elevation should be borne equally by the railroad company and the city. The companies 
affected were reluctant, but in 1907 the people of the city voted to issue $1,000,000 of 
bonds to pay the city's share, and the companies finally agreed to the proposition. The 
work of eliminating the West Side grade crossings was begun by the city and tlie railroad 
companies jointly in the spring of 1909 and, in a report to Director of Public Service George 



PUBLIC UTILITIES. II. 127 

A. Borden, October 21, 1916, Henry Maetzel, chief engineer, announced the practical com- 
pletion of the work, except for the adjustment of a few damage claims, enumerated in detail 
the construction of 20 subways and two viaducts — Mound street and South High street — 
and gave the total cost to the city as $1,096,283.37. In all of the track elevation the city's 
share was 50% or less. The city's half of the cost of the Mound street viaduct was 
.$157,44,6.87. Of the cost of the South High street viaduct it paid one-fourth, or $124,897.66. 
The Parsons avenue viaduct was built by the Toledo & Ohio Central Railroad Co., under 
requirements of its franchise, without cost to the city. 

In the meantime the people had voted another bond issue of $700,000 to eliminate the 
remaining grade crossings on the east side of the river. This work was begun, and a 
number of the grade crossings north have been eliminated, those north and east of the 
State Fair Grounds and those along the Norfolk & Western track east remaining to be 
treated. "In grade crossing elimination,'' to quote City Engineer Maetzel, "Columbus has 
gone further and accomplished more than any other city of its size." 

In this work Franklin county has materially helped by constructing viaducts on Cleve- 
land avenue, St. Clair avenue, Taylor avenue and Joyce avenue at points which were at the 
time outside of the city limits, but have since been included. 

Paris. 

The park area in Columbus is about 280 acres, a little more than half of which is in 
Franklin park now lying on both sides of Alum creek. The other parks are : Goodale, in 
the north central part of the city, with 32.7 acres; Glenwood, West Side, 10.1; Livingston, 
southeast, 9.6 acres; Washington, south, 23.5 acres; Nelson, east, 22.1 acres; Lincoln, 13 
acres ; Iuka, Glen Echo, Hayden and Glen View, each with something less than four acres, 
and a number of smaller tracts in various streets and avenues in different parts of the city. 

It was July 14, 1851, that Dr. Lincoln Goodale offered to donate to the city as a public 
park and pleasure ground the tract of woodland that now bears his name. It was then 
described as "adjacent to the northern boundary of the city." Now it is not far removed 
from its geographical center. The offer was joyously accepted by the Council in a series 
of resolutions, and William Armstrong, John Miller and William Miner were appointed to 
serve with Dr. Goodale on a committee to take charge of the grounds and report suitable 
plans for the protection, improvement and ornamentation of the same. The park was en- 
closed with a fence and the underbrush growing among the trees was cut away. Little more 
seems to have been done in the few years that followed prior to the Civil War. In 1861, 
the park was temporarily used as a military rendezvous under the name of Camp Jackson. 
After the removal of the troops to Camp Chase, the park was cleaned, its sod restored and 
its park-like character resumed. In 1872, four years after the death of Dr. Goodale, drives 
were laid out and a lake was excavated; and in 1888 a bronze bust of the donor, executed 
by J. Q. A. Ward, the Ohio sculptor, was erected on a pedestal facing the south gate, at a 
cost of $5,000, one-half of which was paid by the city and the other half by the Goodale 
estate. 

In April, 1867, the city bought from David W. and William G. Deshler and Allen G. 
Thurman the tract of woodland up to that time known as Stewart's Grove, but christened 
at a public meeting on the following Fourth of July as City Park. The price paid was 
$15,000. In 1868 the park was laid out according to plans of R. T. Brookes ; an ornamental 
fountain was erected in 1871, and in 1873 a lake was excavated. In 1891 a bronze statue 
of the German poet, Schiller, was donated to the city by German-born residents. The foun- 
dation for the pedestal had been laid two years before, with a parade of the German 
societies, addresses by Governor J. B. Foraker, Mayor P. H. Bruck, Henry Olnhausen and 
Hermann Determan and music by the Mannerchor and the Fourteenth Regiment band. The 
dedication of the monument when completed, was attended by similar exercises. Henry 
Olnhausen was president of the day and there were addresses by Governor James E. 
Campbell, Mayor George J. Karb, Hermann Determan, Alfred E. Lee and Joseph Dauben. 
The Declaration of Independence was read by F. F. D. Albery, and the German singing 
societies sang. The bronze statue of Schiller, cast in Munich, weighed 2,640 pounds; its 
cost was $3,000. The height of base and statue was 25 feet, and the total cost was $6,500. 
Subsequently the name of the park was changed to Schiller and remained so until 1918 when, 



128 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

as a bit of the revulsion against all things German, the name was changed by action of Coun- 
cil to Washington park. 

Franklin park became such in 1881. In 1851 the Columbus Horticultural Society 
bought from Samuel Barr for $200 a ten-acre tract, "situated on the west bank of Alum 
creek, about two miles from High street on the Granville plank road." The society wanted 
it for a garden and the tract was sold on condition that a garden was maintained there for 
five years. After considerable money had been spent in improving the tract, the society 
found that the ground was too wet for the desired purpose and therefore sold it, April 1, 
1866, to Jane Bell who in turn sold it to the Franklin County Agricultural Society. In 
1868 suit was brought by the heirs of Samuel Barr for the proceeds of this sale because the 
condition of the original sale had not been complied with. The suit was settled in 1872, the 
society agreeing that the $3,000 and accrued interest should be held perpetually as a "Samuel 
Barr fund for horticultural purposes." At the time of its purchase of the Horticultural 
Society tract, the Franklin County Agricultural Society already owned about 15 acres con- 
tiguous. Subsequently it bought 30 acres from David Taylor, 20 acres from John M. Pugh 
and other small tracts. County and State fairs were held on the grounds until 1881 when 
the State Board of Agriculture bought the tract north of the city and established the fairs 
here permanently. Then by an act of the General Assembly, May 17, 1886, the old site 
was transferred to Franklin county as a public park for all the people of the county and 
the management was vested in a commission of five members, two members to be appointed 
by the county commissioners and two by the Mayor, who was to be the fifth member. Other 
pieces were bought and added to the park and in 1913 Robert F. Wolfe gave to the city 
as another addition about 11 acres on the east bank of Alum creek between Broad street 
and Fair avenue. 

Mr. Wolfe's gift was the largest that had up to that date been made to the city for park 
purposes and it opened up possibilities of park development that had hardly been dreamed 
of and have not yet been realized — a great tract of rolling wooded land, with a picturesque 
stream of considerable size running through it, with tine facilities for recreation, boating and 
bathing. The Council, in accepting the gift, adopted resolutions lauding the philanthropic 
act and declaring that "this magnificent gift to this community and its posterity fills one of 
our urgent needs and constitutes a distinct act of splendid civic interest and an import- 
ant event in the history of our beloved municipality." The resolutions were ordered engrossed 
and permanently placed on prominent display in the archives of the city. 

The tract now known as Livingston park was bought for a graveyard in 1839 and for 
many years was so used. Mathew King sold it to the city for $1,125. About 1885 it was 
transformed into a park. 

Glenwood park was private property till 1911 when it was bought by the Society for 
the Prevention and Cure of Tuberculosis as the site for an open air school. Protests bv 
people of that section led to its purchase by the city and conversion into a park, the follow- 
ing year. 

Nelson park was given to the city in 1911 by Anne Eliza, Mary F., Howard B. and 
Ada Ella W. Nelson, in memory of David Nelson. It lies along Alum creek just north of 
Broad street and west of Nelson road. 

Lincoln park lies in the southeastern part of the city at Markison avenue and Ann 
street. The tract was bought in 1915 at $1,000 an acre. 

The Keller tract at Sandusky street and Sullivant avenue was bought in 1915 for 
$15,500 and has since been used chiefly as circus grounds. 

The smaller parks named above and the street parks have been laid out or set aside bv 
persons making - additions to the city because of their natural beauty. 

Telephones. 

Experimentation with the telephone began in Columbus in 1879 and was attended with 
such success and promise that the Columbus Telephone Co. was organized and incorporated, 
its principal promoters being George H. Twiss, Charles W. Ross, D. W. Caldwell, W. D. 
Briekell and John Miller. The first experimentation had been from Mr. Twiss' rooms in 
the Sessions block, High and Long streets, but the business was soon removed to the building 
at the southeast corner of High and Gay streets. In 1887 the business was sold to the 
Central Union Telephone Co. and moved half a square south to the Roberts building. 



PUBLIC UTILITIES. II. 129 

Charles W. Ross and his brother Frank continuing in the local management. The ex- 
change was located there until 1908, when the company's own building at the corner of Third 
street and Lynn alley was occupied. In 1903, E. A. Reed became division superintendent 
and, under that and other titles, has since been in charge of the business in Columbus. 

The Columbus Citizens Telephone Co. was incorporated December 19, 1898, by E. R. 
Sharp, Frank A. Davis, W. A. Hardesty, Henry A. Lanman, J. B. Hanna and others repre- 
senting the Everett-Moore syndicate of Cleveland. On December 23, nine directors were 
elected, the Columbus representatives being H. A. Lanman, J. B. Hanna and E. R. Sharp. 
The first officers were: H. A. Lanman president, H. A. Everett vice president, and E. R. 
Sharp secretary and treasurer. Operation was begun in 1900 in rented rooms at the south- 
west corner of Long and Third streets. In 1901' the Everett-Moore syndicate sold its inter- 
ests and with the addition of local capital represented by John Joyce, Frank A. Davis, 
Frank L. Beam and Lorenzo D. Hagerty, the company set out to erect its own building 
on Third street and to install the automatic system. At that time John Joyce became vice 
president and Frank A. Davis became a member of the executive committee. The building 
was erected and the new system installed in the early part of 1905. About the same time 
the Franklin County Telephone Co. was organized as a subsidiary and established a system 
of local toll lines covering Franklin county and extending into Fairfield county. On July 
23, 1914, the Ohio State Telephone Co., resulting from a combination of 15 independent com- 
panies in different parts of the State, acquired the property of the Columbus Citizens 
Telephone Co., including a 50-year lease of the property of the Franklin County Telephone 
Co. Frank A. Davis is chairman of the board of directors, C. Y. McVey president, F. R. 
Huntington and F. L. Beam vice presidents, YV. L. Cary vice president and secretary, H. 
B. Taylor treasurer. The company has 25 exchanges in the county, with 23,680 sub- 
scribers. It operates 863 miles of pole line and 125 miles of underground cable, with a total 
of 51,496 miles of wire. 

The original franchise of this company required that it pay a percentage of its receipts 
into the city treasury, but there was an effort to escape that obligation, and the question 
of the power of the city to enforce it is now in the United States Supreme Court. 

Cemeteries. 

The first burying-ground for the settlers in P'ranklinton was on the west bank of the 
Scioto near the mouth of the Olentangy. Long since abandoned, the little tract, now hemmed 
in by railroad tracks, is retained by the city and now constitutes a part of its system of 
parks. The remains of some of the dead were removed to Green Lawn and other burial 
sites, but in the case of others there were no living relatives to render that kindly service. 

At the founding of Columbus a tract of land at and near the site of the present North 
Market House, then far out in the country, was donated by two of the land proprietors, 
James Johnston and John Kerr. Formal transfer, however, did not occur until 1821. Eight 
and a half acres adjoining was' added in 1830, a gift by Colonel Wm. Doherty, and an addi- 
tional strip, in which he reserved five grave lots for himself, was given by John Brickell. 
Robert W. McCoy, the first regularly appointed superintendent, under direction of the 
Council in 1831 built a fence around the tract and a road leading to it. Under this munici- 
pal ownership $5 was charged for a lot, and there was a reservation for free burials. This, 
which came to be known as the North Grave Yard, was used until the establishment of Green 
Lawn. Then the remains were removed, some by surviving relatives and some by the city. 
Part of the tract was given over to railroad purposes ; part went into the hands of Green 
Lawn Association by an exchange of lots, and the market house was built on a part. A son 
of John Kerr sought to establish his reversionary rights in the Kerr gift of land, then valued 
at $24,000, and finally sold them outright to J. M. Westwater for #3,000. 

In 1841 Council bought a tract of ll^j acres on the north side of Livingston avenue for 
cemetery purposes, but subsequently found it unsuited to the purpose. The tract was known 
as the East Grave Yard, but was not much used. It is now Livingston park. 

In 1848 it became evident that better cemetery accommodations must be provided, and a 
Cemetery Association was organized and incorporated, witli the following trustees: ffm. B. 
Hubbard president, Joseph Sullivant, Aaron F. Perry, Thomas Sparrow, A. P. Stone, Wm. B. 
Thrall, John W. Andrews and A. E. Glenn. The trustees invited offers of tracts and selected 
one of 40 acres, which they bought from Judge Gershom M. Peters at $40 an acre. This 



130 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

and 44 acres besides, bought from William Miner, all on the Harrisburg pike, became the 
nucleus of the beautiful acreage now known as Green Lawn. There was a real community 
interest in the project, people volunteered their services in clearing the ground, and others 
served dinner to the workers under the trees. On July 11, 1 8 19, the cemetery was formally 
dedicated as Green Lawn. There was a presentation address by Wm. B. Hubbard, a dedi- 
catory address by Dr. James Hoge ; the reading of an ode by Benjamin T. Cushing, 
prayer by Rev. H. L. Hitchcock, and chorus and congregational singing. Many improve- 
ments have since been made by the association and in the years that have ensued there has 
been constructed on the original and subsequently acquired tracts, a veritable city of the 
dead. 

The first Catholic burying-ground was a three and a quarter acre tract at the corner of Mt. 
Vernon and Washington avenues. It was bought early in the 1840's from Samuel Brush by 
Peter Urv, who in 1818 deeded it to Bishop Pureell of Cincinnati for $600, the amount he 
had paid for it. Like the other early cemeteries, this, too, was in time surrounded by the 
growing city and it was abandoned for burial. In I860 the first tract for Calvary Cemetery 
was acquired, additions were made in 1866 and 1869, and the burying-ground was in 1874 
formally consecrated with elaborate ceremonies in which Bishop Rosecrans was the leading 
figure. As in the case of Green Lawn, many improvements have since been made. Some 
years ago, as the available area of Calvary grew less, a tract of ground on South High street 
bevond the city limits was bought and opened as St. Joseph's Cemetery. 

Union Cemetery, maintained by an association at Dodridge street and the River road, 
has been for years a considerable burying-ground. 

(iarbage and Refuse Disposal. 

In 1906 Columbus took over the work of collecting and disposing of its refuse as a 
municipal enterprise. For a time, wagons bought from the men who had done the work 
under contract were used, and the garbage was buried on the English (now city) farm. In 
the meantime, a reduction plant on the Scioto adjoining the sewage disposal plant and 
buildings for the collection division at Short street and the Hocking Valley railroad were 
being constructed. These were completed in 1910 and put in operation. Rubbish and ashes 
collection was begun by the city in May, 1911, with an attempt to salvage things of value. 
The cost of this municipal equipment was reported in 1916 to be more than $150,000 but 
the net profits from the sale of grease and dry material recovered had in six years almost 
covered the cost of the plant, the average net profit for the six years, 1911 and 1916 in- 
elusive, being reported slightly more than $24,000 a year. 

The Markets. 

As narrated elsewhere, a public market was one of the first utilities provided. There 
was but one until the removal of the old North Graveyard provided a place in the 1880's 
for the North Market. A few years later the East Market at Mt. Vernon avenue and 
Nineteenth street was established and later the West Market, west of the river. These 
market properties are appraised at $250,000. Stalls and stands are rented by the city and 
business conducted under the supervision of a Market Master. The houses are heated, lighted 
and kept in a sanitary condition by the city, and a profit of approximately $15,000 over 
operating expenses is annually reported. It is estimated that more than $12,000,000 worth 
of meats and foodstuffs were sold at the four markets in 1918. 

Street ('leaning. 

A street cleaning department is also maintained at an average cost of $127,000 a year, 
provided for in the first instance by an issue of bonds and then assessed against the abutting; 
property. A recent annual report shows that 6,200 miles of street was so cleaned. Stables 
and shops arc maintained on Short street. 

The city has its own garage for the care and repair of city cars, maintained, at an 
annual expense of about $6,000. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

TRAVEL, TAVERN" AND HOTEL. 

The Scioto the First Avenue of Travel — Road-Budding an Early Interest — Mail and Stage 
Coach — Coming of the Canal — Buckeye Lake — Early Taverns and Tavern-Keepers — 
Coffee Houses and Political Party Headquarters — Modern Hotels and Apartment 
Houses. 

For many years after the first settlement, the Scioto river was the chief avenue for 
incoming merchandise and outgoing produce. New Orleans was the great mart for this region 
because of the comparative ease of reaching it by river. Early settlers who became dissat- 
isfied went west by floating down the river to the Ohio and thence west, either to the 
Wabash or the Mississippi, on which they traveled to their destination. Boats and "broad- 
horns" for produce were moored at the foot of Broad street in the river, which was deep and 
the water unpolluted. Lyne Starling was the first to build barges, load them with produce 
and float them from Eranklinton to New Orleans. That was in 1810-11. These barges 
went with the current ; they had an oar on either side for escape from dangerous places 
and one at the rear for steering, but there seems to have been no thought of using them 
for motive power. In 1809 the General Assembly declared the Scioto navigable as far north 
as the Indian boundary line and prohibited obstruction of the stream by mill dams, except 
under regulation. The river was crossed between Eranklinton and Columbus, either at a ford 
near Main street or by ferry. James Cutler maintained a canoe ferry for a time, and Jacob 
Armitage another. In 1815 by authority of law Lucas Sullivant built the first bridge across 
the river at Broad street. It was a toll bridge and continued to serve as such till 1832, 
when, falling to Joseph Sullivant as a part of his share of his father's estate, it was bought 
for $10,000, citizens contributing $8,000 and the county $2,000, with the understanding that 
it would be replaced by the federal government with a free bridge as a part of the National 
Road. In the early channel of the river there were three islands — a strip of land extending 
from Broad street south; another just above the mouth of the Olentangy and a third near the 
present Penitentiary, variously called Brickell's island, Willow island and Bloody island. 
The last name was given to it after a bloodle is duel had been fought there by two fellows 
who wanted to dance with the same girl. The girl had accepted one and told the other to settle 
it with the favored swain later. The taunting remark led to a challenge, and the parties 
with seconds repaired to the island where thsy exchanged shots with guns the seconds had 
carefully unloaded. Then, unhurt and with "honor" satisfied, they went home. 

Supplementing the river as a means of trade and transportation were the few crude 
roads that the countv had opened prior to the laying out of Columbus. There were four 
of these — from Franklinton to Lancaster, from Franklinton to Newark, from Eranklinton to 
Springfield and from Eranklinton to Worthington — none of them much more than a trail. 
The General Assembly saw the need. In 1814 it authorized the State Director to apply a 
portion of the taxes to improvement of the road from Columbus to Granville, and in the fol- 
lowing year, out of a federal grant of $16,000, appropriated $1,000 toward the improvement 
of the roads in Franklin county leading to Newark, Springfield and London. The great 
work, however, was left to individual enterprise. In 181(5, the Franklin Turnpike Road Co. 
was incorporated to build a road from Columbus to Newark. It was the first of an almost 
innumerable throng, its incorporators being Lucas Sullivant, James Johnston, John Kerr, 
Lemuel Rose, Timothy Spelman, David Moore, John J. Brice, William Taylor, Zachariah 
Davis, Wm. W. Gault, Stephen McDousal, Lyne Starling, Joseph Vance and Joseph Miller, 
This, like all the other companies, was authorized to establish tailgates and traffic on its 
investment. Sometimes there was financial success and sometimes there was failure. Always 
there was complaint of the roads and a restiveness under the toll payment. 

In 1823 the Granville road crossed the Scioto from Franklinton by ford at Gay and Spring 
and passed over Alum and Bi»- Walnut creeks by toll bridges erected by David Pugli. The 
road up the Olentangy to Worthington had be-n extended to Delaware. The Lancaster road 
passed through the cornfields and meadows so'ith of Franklinton and crossed the river at the 
old ford south. 



1.32 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



The Columbus and Sandusky turnpike was one of the greatest ventures of the time. 
It was built by a joint stock company incorporated January 31, 1826. The incorporators 
were John Kilbourne, Abram I. McDowell, Henry Brown, Wm. Neil, Orange Johnson, Orris 
Parrish and Robert Brotherton, of Franklin county, and 19 others who lived along the route. 
The capital stock was $100,000, with authority to increase it to $'200,000. Congress ap- 
propriated to Ohio half of a strip of land from one end to the other, reserving alternate 
sections to the United States and providing that no toll should ever be charged the mail 
stages, troops or property of the government. The amount of land thus conveyed to the 
State in trust was 31,840 acres. The estimated cost of the road was $81,640. In 1827 the 
company organized and elected nine directors. James Robinson was the first president and 
Orange Johnson was one of two commissioners to locate the road. In 1828 Joseph Ridgway 
became president. Bela Latham secretary and Orange Johnson superintendent. Mr. John- 
son remained the principal agent from first to last. The road was completed (106 miles) in 
the autumn of 1834 at a cost of $74,376. The road proved unsatisfactory and in 1843 the 
General Assembly repealed the company's charter and forbade further collection of tolls. 
The company asked the State for relief but never got it. The road was repaired by the 
State and declared a public highway in 1845. 

In the meantime and later, roads were constructed in all directions by incorporated com- 
panies at a cost of from $700 to $2,000 a mile, plank and corduroy roads being tried in an 
effort to get something that would serve better than the gravel. The crv for good roads 




il Street Bridge 



rang through the years. It was not enough to have roads; they must be good enough for 
comfortable travel all the year. The effort to meet the demand engaged the efforts of the 
best citizens. Among these were John Noble, Christian Heyl, Jeremiah Armstrong, Robert 
E. Neil, R. W. McCoy, Michael Sullivant, Jacob Grubb, Adam Brotherlin, Nathaniel 
Merion, Winsor Atchison, Wm. Trevitt, Wm. A. Piatt, John M. Pugh, D. W. Deshler, Adin 
G. Hibbs, and Levi Strader. There were others, but these names are enough to show that 
the most progressive men of the capital city were engaged in an effort to make it an easier 
place to reach, as well as a better place to live. 

In the period beginning in 1825, the National Road was projected through Ohio. On 
October 5, 1825, Jonathan Knight, engaged in locating the road from Zanesville west, 
reached Columbus. He was accompanied by a corps of engineers, one of whom was Joseph 
E. Johnston, afterwards a famous Confederate general. The route from Newark to Colum- 
bus was a subject of much controversy, but the Hebron route was finally chosen and in July, 
1830, proposals were received by the superintendent of the road, in Columbus, for grubbing, 
clearing and grading the road from Columbus to Big Darby. The location of the road 
through Columbus was also a matter of much contention, the North and South sides striv- 
ing for the benefits it was supposed the road would bring. Finally a compromise was reached 
by which the road was to enter the town from the east by Friend (Main) street, run north 
on High to Broad where it was to make its exit to the west, crossing the Scioto at the old 
bridge site. 



TRAVEL, TAVERN AND HOTEL 133 

The mail and stage coach waited on the roads. Therefore there was haste to have roads 
and discontent with poor ones, for the desire for communication with the outside world was 
keen from the ver} r first. As already related, the Franklin county postal service began in 
1805 in Franklinton, when Adam Hosaek took the first contract and was first postmaster, 
Andrew McElvain being the first mail-carrier. Hosaek's successors were: Henry Brown, in 
1811; James B. Gardiner in 1813, Jacob Kellar in 1815, Joseph McDowell in 1819, Wm. 
Lusk in 1820, Wm. Risley in 1831. A few years later the Franklinton office was discon- 
tinued. 

The first wheeled mail and passenger service through Columbus was provided by Philip 
Zinn in 1816; he carried mail once a week between Columbus and Chillicothe. This service 
soon became semi-weekly and in 1819 he began a coach service to Delaware. C. Barney 
ran a stage to Mt. Vernon in 1822, and C. W. Marsh maintained a line to Lower Sandusky 
in 1821. In 1823 Wm. Neil and Jarvis Pike bought out Philip Zinn and began a stage 
line service between Columbus and Chillicothe, Springfield, Cincinnati and Zanesville. In 
1826 Wm. Neil and A. I. McDowell announced that their line of stages would run from 
Cincinnati via Dayton and Columbus to Lower Sandusky in four days. Two years later Wm. 
Neil, Robert Neil and Jarvis Pike were associated in the mail coach business, and in 1829 
the Ohio Stage Co. made its appearance, carrying the President's message from Washington 
to Columbus in 34 hours and 45 minutes. In 1831 over 70 coaches arrived in Columbus 
every week, all with passengers and generally filled. In 1831 Robert Neil sold his interest 
in the stage business to Wm. Neil, and in 1831 the firm became Neil, Moore & Co. (Henry 
Moore of Wheeling.) In 1836 an opposition line sprang up and at times rival coaches came 
into town racing to their destination. Passengers often joined in the sport and made up 
purses for the driver who should win. George W. Manypenny was agent of the opposition 
line, the office of which was at Russell's Globe Inn, while the office of Neil, Moore & Co. 
was at the National Hotel. In 1839 the last named established a line of stages between 
Columbus and Cleveland, adding to the driver of each coach a guard to look after the 
baggage and passengers and to see that the horses were changed promptly at the relay 
stations. This precaution was due to the fact that robbery of the mail stages had begun. The 
lines of this company at one time had an aggregate length of 1,500 miles and extended not 
only to all the principal points in Ohio, but also into the neighboring states of Pennsylvania, 
New York, Indiana and Michigan ; and the repair shops in Columbus gave constant employ- 
ment to about 20 workmen. It was a great business transacted over bad roads, in all kinds 
of weather and amid the perils of robbery and flood. When the Ohio Stage Co. sold out its 
business in 1853, after the advent of the railways, it had 50 coaches and a large number of 
horses. Much of its equipment was bought and transferred to Iowa for service there. 

In 1819 D. Tallmadge established a daily line of stages between Columbus and Pomeroy 
by way of Lancaster, Logan and Athens. In 1850 W. B. and J. A. Hawkes engaged in the 
stage business in central Ohio, with mail contracts to numerous points out of Columbus, and 
ran its principal line to Portsmouth. 

The greatest mail robbery durina; the stage coach service was in 1850 when one Gen. 
Otho Hinton, an agent of the Ohio Stage Co., was arrested in Cleveland charged with the 
theft of $17,000. He was arraigned in Columbus and released on $10,000 bond, which he 
forfeited, going, it was believed, to the Pacific coast. 

While roads were still being projected and built by private corporations under authority 
of the General Assembly, the project for a series of canals was agitated. Governor Thomas 
Worthington recognized the virtue of internal waterways, but to Ethen Allen Brown, of 
Cincinnati, who began the agitation in 1816 and promoted the improvement with vigor after 
he became Governor in 1818, the greatest credit is universally given as "Father of the Ohio 
Canals." After much discussion in the General Assembly which in the earlier stages ended 
in disagreement as to methods and locations, the General Assembly, February 1, 1825, passed 
an act providing for the construction of the Ohio canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth, via 
Licking Summit, and of the Little Miami canal from Dayton to Cincinnati. This was a com- 
promise — the adoption of parts of three available routes, but of none in its entirety. The 
same act created a board of canal commissioners of seven and a board of canal fund com- 
missioners of three. The canal commissioners were Benjamin Tappan, Alfred Kelley, 
Thomas Worthington, Micajah T. Williams, John Johnson, Isaac Minor and Nathaniel 



134 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Beasley. The canal fund commissioners, who were to negotiate loans, make expenditures 
and keep accounts, were Ethan Allen Brown, Ebeneezer Buckingham and Allen Trimble. 

The beginning of the work was celebrated July I, 1825, at Licking Summit. Governor 
DeWitt C. Clinton, of New York, three of his staff and two New York capitalists who had 
loaned money for the enterprise were present by invitation. A great crowd was present and 
Governor Clinton, of New York, and Governor Morrow, of Ohio, threw the first shovelfuls 
of earth. The Clinton party went to Lancaster under escort, for the night, and came to 
Columbus on the 6th, being formally received on the 7th, with a civil and military escort 
consisting of General Warner and staff, Colonel P. H. Olmsted's squadron of Franklin 
Dragoons, Captain Hazel's company of light infantry, Captain Andrew McElvain's Rifle Corps 
and Captain O'Harra's Artillery. There was speaking in the densely packed State House and 
then a public dinner at the Robinson Tavern, sign of the Golden Bull. 

On April 30, 1827, work was begun on the lateral branch of the Ohio canal connecting 
Columbus with the main channel at Lockbourne. There was a civic and military procession 
from the State House to a designated spot on the east bank of the Scioto, where Joseph R. 
Swan delivered an address and General Jeremiah McLene, then Secretary of State, and 
Nathaniel McLean, then keeper of the Penitentiary, excavated the first earth which was 
wheeled away by Ralph Osborn and Henry Brown, amid shouts of the gathered people. The 
procession then reformed and moved to the brow of the hill where refreshments were served 
and toasts drank to Ohio, the canal, the canal commission and the citizens of Columbus. 

The contractors for the dam across the Scioto and the Columbus locks were William and 
Andrew McElvain and Benjamin and Peter Sells. The first mile of excavation was done 
by 45 prisoners in the Penitentiary, their punishment being commuted to work on the branch 
canal. In 1829 Nathaniel Medbury and John Field took charge of the work on the branch 
and pushed it rapidly to completion. Water was turned into it for the first time, Septem- 
ber 13, 1831, and on the 23rd of the same month, the firing of cannon announced the arrival 
of the first canal boat, the "Governor Brown," with a party of citizens from Circleville. The 
boat was visited by a party of Columbus citizens and greetings were exchanged in the well 
appointed craft, painted white, with green shutters and scarlet curtains. There was a cabin 
in the center and a stateroom at either end for women. 

The first collector of canal tolls here was Joseph Ridgway, jr., with an office in the Ridg- 
way wareliou.se at the foot of West Broad street, to which all boats ascended to discharge 
or receive freight. Others during the next 30 years were M. S. Hunter, David S. Doherty, 
Charles B. Flood, Samuel McElvain and Benjamin Tresenrider. 

The canals served a most important purpose in establishing communication between dif- 
ferent parts of the State, opening up trade and making travel more comfortable. They 
helped to build up communities and to develop the resources of the State. The growth of 
Columbus from 1,500 in 1827 to 25,000 in 1857 may in part be attributed to the canals, and 
so with every other community that was touched. As there was an increase in population. 
so also there was an increase in wealth — more rapid in the canal counties than the others. 
The railways quickly eclipsed the canals as common carriers, but tile presence of the canals 
long kept the railway charges in check. 

The canals are no more, but the people of Columbus and central Ohio have a pleasant 
reminder of them in the preservation of the Licking Summit Reservoir under the name of 
Buckeye Lake, now a body of water of irregular shape, measuring about six miles from tip 
to tip and an average widtli of three-quarters of a mile. The lake has been dedicated as a 
public park by the General Assembly and for years has been a popular resort. Many 
Columbus people have leased ground from the State and built cottages along its border. 
The lake is reached by interurban electric and steam roads. 

From Tavern to Hotel. 

As in Franklinton, so in Columbus, tavern-keeping was an early occupation. In 1813, 
Volncy Payne opened a tavern in a two-story brick building on the west side of High street. 
the second lot south of State. It was called "The Lion and the Eagle" till Robert Russell 
bought it in 18 18 and named it "The Globe." Russell, either personally or by proxy, con- 
ducted the tavern till 18 17, when the building was devoted to mercantile purposes and sub- 
sequently replaced by the Johnson building. 



TRAVEL, TAVERN AND HOTEL 



135 



David S. Broderick opened what was ealled "The Columbus Inn" in 1815 in a frame 
building; at the southeast corner of High and Town streets. It was later known as "The 
City House" and as Robinson's tavern and at different times had as landlord James B. 
Gardiner, (the facetious "Cokeley"), James Robinson, Samuel Barr, and Col. P. H. Olmsted. 
The first sessions of the borough Council were held in this tavern, hence probably its earlier 
names. Hotel-keeping- ceased there about 1850. In 1854 the building was torn down and 
I). W. Deshler erected a business block on the site. 

"The White Horse Tavern" was early established in a story-and-a-half frame on the 
east side of High street between Town and Rich, by Isaiah Voris. In 1829 David Brooks 
became its landlord and made it a popular stopping place for a dozen years, under the name 
of "The Eagle Hotel." 

"The Swan Tavern," which was a development of a bakery conducted by Christian 
Hevl, was located on the east side of High street between Rich and .Main. Later it was 




The First American House, Northwest Corner Hitjh and State Streets 



known as "The Franklin House." Colonel Andrew McElvain bought the hotel from Mr. 
Heyl in 18-41, selling in the following year to J. W. Dryden. For years after its abandon- 
ment as a hotel the building housed small and temporary business. 

"The Red Lion Hotel" of Jeremiah Armstrong stood on the west side of High street 
between Rich and Town, nearly opposite the "White Horse." It dates back to 1822 and 
continued to serve till 1850, when the front part of the building was made over into shops. 

In 1816 James B. Gardiner opened the "Ohio Tavern" on Main (then Friend), just west 
of High street. Jarvis Pike succeeded him in 1818, when he went to the "Columbus Inn." 
Then came James Lindsey who called it "The Swan" and later "The Sheaf of Wheat." In 
1822 Jarvis Pike opened "Pike's Tavern" on West Broad street. Others of the period were 
"McCollum's Tavern" (Black Bear) northwest corner of Front and Broad; "Tavern of the 
Golden Lamb" by Henry Brown (1825) High street opposite the state buildings; "The 
Golden Plough," west side of High street near Rich, by John D. Rose, later by General 



136 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Edgar Gale, when it was known as "Gale's Tavern"; the "Culbertson Tavern," by James 
Culbertson, west side of Front street, near State. 

Besides these taverns, there were numerous so-called coffeehouses, where coffee was the 
least of the beverages drank and where men gathered to gossip and often to gamble. The 
most famous of these was "The Eagle," which was originally, in 1826, designated as a 
bakehouse and grocery, a few rods north of State on the west side of High. Under John 
Young, who conducted it until 1839, this resort acquired a wide fame. Its subsequent pro- 
prietors were Basil A. Riddle, Culbertson & Vinal, who called it "The Commercial," and 
Samuel West, whose specialty was billiards. The building was torn down in 1876. Another 
coffeehouse, favored by Democrats, as "The Eagle" was by Whigs, was "The Tontine," which 
was situated on the south side of State street just west of High. Its principal proprietors 
were Samuel Pike, jr., and Francis Hall. At each of these places, party caucuses were held, 
political plans were laid and slates were made up. Drinking was the rule in those days 
and politics the business in which everybody engaged. According to the best testimony, few. 
indeed, were the men who were not to be found at some time at these convivial resorts. The 
first saloon, so-called, is said to have been opened by one Krauss, about 1832, on the west side 
of High street, three or four doors north of Main. But there were real temperance resorts, 
too, the Washington Temperance House having been opened in 1845 by Mr. Alsten and a 
temperance restaurant in 1816 by W. Tolliver. 

The present Neil House traces its lineage back to 1832 when Colonel John Noble 
opened in a building on that site the first place of public entertainment called a hotel. The 
lot and building were the property of William Neil and had previously been used for 
tavern purposes. Colonel Noble named it the National Hotel and announced that the 
stages of the Ohio Stage Co., whose office was attached, would stop there. The building 
was a two-story brick, and the office of the stage company adjoining was of one story. The 
announcement was that the hotel "will be furnished and attended to in a style equal to the 
highest expectations." And so, indeed, it was done and the foundation for the later popu- 
larity of the hotel well laid. In 1839, the construction of the original Neil House was begun 
by William Neil and completed at a cost of .$100,000, a great enterprise at that day. Colonel 
P. H. Olmsted at the same time succeeded Colonel Noble as proprietor. On the night of 
November 6, 1860, (election day), this original building was destroyed by fire. Mr. Neil 
at once proceeded to rebuild and in September, 1862, the new Neil House, 150 rooms, was 
opened with Walstein Failing in charge. Among the later managers of the Neil have been 
Erank McKinney, Samuel Pentland, W. S. Sater, and Ben H. Harmon. The last named has 
served since 1905. 

The American House building at the northwest corner of High and State streets, was 
erected by Robert W. McCoy in 1836. The site had been that of his dry goods store. The 
first proprietors of the American House, opened in November, 1836, were C. F. Dresbach 
and William Kelsey ; then Pike & Kelsey, the latter continuing in the management till 1870, 
when he was succeeded by Colonel A. J. Blount, who conducted it until 1879. After that 
the American House had a precarious existence, the front part of the building was made 
over into store rooms, the office retiring to ths State street side. 

The site of the Chamber of Commerce building on East Broad street was long occupied 
by a public house, sometimes known as the Buckeye House and at other times as the Broad- 
way Hotel. It was owned in 1810 by Colonel John Noble, and among its managers were 
Ira Grover and H. Hurd. As a hotel it was inconspicuous, and was variously occupied 
until the site was bought for its present use. 

At the northwest corner of Town and Higli streets, the United States Hotel flourished 
for a number of years beginning in 1846, when Colonel P. H. Olmsted was proprietor. The 
building continued to be used for hotel purposes under varied management until about 1880. 

The Virginia Hotel at the southeast corner of Gay and Third streets was built about 
1903 by the Hartman interests on the site that had for some years been occupied by the Eirst 
Christian church. Subsequently it passed into the hands of F. W. Schumacher. The Hotel 
Virginia Co., W. E. Biefeld president and A. C. Lloyd secretary and manager, now oper- 
ates it. 

The northwest corner of High and Spring streets has been the site of a hotel since 1889 
when a five-story business block was transformed by its owner, Henry T. Chittenden, into 
a hotel. The change, with the equipment, cost about .$320,000. Minn the hotel had been 



TRAVEL, TAVERN AND HOTEL 137 

operated about a year, it was destroyed by fire. The loss of that hotel and the burning 
of the Metropolitan Opera block a little later created a demand for both a hotel and an 
auditorium and theater. Mr. Chittenden decided to meet the demand, erected a new hotel 
on the site of the old, a theater called the Henrietta directly in the rear and an auditorium 
in the rear of that. Both hotel and theater were opened in 1892, while the work on the 
auditorium was delayed by litigation. On November 21, 1893, all three structures were 
destroyed by fire, with a loss approximating $1,000,000. Harvey Thompson, care-taker in 
the employ of Mr. Chittenden, lost his life. The hotel was rebuilt on a more elaborate scale 
and was opened to the public March 16, 1895, under the ownership and management of 
a company, A. P. Rusk secretary and treasurer. The manager of the original Chittenden was 
Joseph Shoup, who was succeeded by John Y. Bassell ; then came A. P. Rusk, W. S. Sater 
and Nicholas A. Court, the present manager, who has served since 1900. 

The Great Southern Hotel and Opera House at the southeast corner of High and Main 
streets was erected in 1894-96 by a company of which N. Schlee was president, Allen 
W. Thurman vice president, F. J. Reinhard treasurer and J. P. Bliss secretary. The other 
members of the board were Emil Kiesewetter, George J. Hoster and Ralph Lazarus. H. E. 
Kennedy was in charge of the construction. The cost of the two structures was approximately 
$1,500,000. The hotel has been operated by various firms and individuals, among them being 
William Foor and H. E. Kinney, Halloran & McNamee, Wm. H. Mosely & Co. The hotel 
building and opera house are now owned by the Rose Realty Co., and the hotel is operated 
by the New Southern Hotel Co., Simon Lazarus president, John A. O'Dwyer vice president, 
Frank A. Davis, jr., secretary, Fred Lazarus treasurer, Walter A. McDonald, manager. 

The Deshler Hotel, a 12-story building of the Pompeiian style of architecture, at the 
northwest corner of High and Broad streets, was built in 1915-16 by the Deshler estate. It 
stands in part on the lot bought by David W. Deshler when he came to Columbus in 1815. 
the remainder of the site having for years before been occupied by the old Deshler block 
on High street. The building was the realization of a purpose long entertained by William 
G. Deshler, the youngest of his sons, and John G. Deshler, a grandson. The work of con- 
struction covered 500 days, and the hotel was opened August 23, 1916, under lease to L. C. 
and A. L. Wallick. There was a week of festivities at the opening in which a New York 
party of 100 participated. A dinner and ball with music and dancing by professionals 
brought here for the purrjose, were followed by entertainments of various sorts. At one of 
the gatherings John G. Deshler and the Messrs. Wallick made brief addresses, formally 
opening the hotel to the public. 

The Hartman Hotel was opened in the fall of 1902 at the corner of Fourth and Main 
streets, in a five-storv building erected by Dr. Samuel B. Hartman for another purpose, 
but subsequently- remodeled for hotel purposes. Its managers have been John G. Dun, B. F. 
Welty, J. A. Hadley, R. E. Pellow and W. E. Kinney, now serving. The hotel is operated 
bv the Hartman Hotel Co., Earl S. Davis president, John Spitnagle vice president and Samuel 
Matthews secretary and treasurer. 

The Columbus Hotel, Long and Fifth streets, was built in 1911-12 by the Central Ohio 
Land Co. The officers and directors are: Daniel J. Ryan president, L. B. Tussing vice 
president, J. Edgar Butler secretarv, J. H. Butler manager and treasurer, A. C. Armstrong 
and A O. Gloek. It was opened August 20, 1912. 

The southeast corner of High and Naghten has been a hotel site for 50 years. There 
the National Hotel flourished in a three-story building in Civil War times and later. The 
six-story Davidson Hotel is now there. The Exchange Hotel, owned by William Powell, did 
business for years on a site about midway of the High street viaduct. The building dis- 
appeared when the viaduct was erected. The northwest corner of Goodale and High streets 
was the site of the Park Hotel which in 1905 became the Northern Hotel and in 1911 the 
Rai'way Y. M. C. A. 

Among the familv hotels are the Seneca, built in 1916-17, nine stories, southeast corner 
of Broad street and Grant avenue, by the Broadway Co., Cyrus Huling president and Frank 
Hulina: vice president and manager; the Lincoln, Broad street and Jefferson avenue, built 
bv H. H. Barbour in 1900; the Normandie, Long and Sixth streets, built by Wm. Monypenv 
in 1898. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

FEDERAL AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS. 

The Postoffices from 1805 to 1920 — Postmasters and Postoffice Sites — Automobile Service in 
the City and Betxceen Cities — Origin and Development of the U. S. Barracks — Federal 
Storage Depot — County Infirmary — Court House and Penal Institutions — City and 
School Libraries — Memorial Hall — Children's Home. 

The history of the postoffice in Columbus dates from 1805 when Adam Hosack, of Frank- 
linton took the first mail contract and became the first postmaster. The first mail carrier 
was Andrew McElvain, who was employed by Hosack to carry weekly mail from Franklinton 
to Markley's Mill on Darby creek, thence to Chillicothe. thence to Thompson's on Deer creek, 
and thence to Franklinton. The trip consumed three days. Telling of the service in after 
years, Mr. McElvain said that he was 13 years old at the time and twice had to swim Darby 
and Deer creeks with the small mailbag on his shoulders. Between Franklinton and Darby 
there was one house, and one between Chillicothe and Deer creek. There was then no regular 
carrier between Franklinton and Worthington but a clerk in one of the stores — Mr. Mat- 
thews, he thinks — carried the small mail to and fro. The Franklinton postoffice was main- 
tained till about 1835, and the other postmasters were: 1811, Henry Brown; 1812, Joseph 
Grate; 1813, James B. Gardiner; 1815, Jacob Kellar; 1819, Joseph McDowell; 1820, Win. 
I.usk; 1831, W. Risley. 

The postoffice in Columbus was established in 1813 through the instrumentality of 
James Kilbourne, founder of Worthington, then a member of Congress. In recommending the 
establishment of the postoffice here, Mr. Kilbourne nominated Matthew Matthews as a suita- 
ble person for postmaster. Mr. Matthews, who was a clerk in the branch store of the Worth- 
ington Manufacturing Co., was appointed and, without opening an office, distributed from 
his desk the mail that was brought from Franklinton and Worthington. He resigned in 1814 
and was succeeded by his employer, Joel Buttles, who retained the office until 1829 when, 
under Jackson, he was displaced for partisan reasons. 

With the Jackson administration came the "express post," which John L. Gill, in a 
Board of Trade address thus described: 

When General Jackson's inaugural address was sent out (March i, 1829) it was by 
express mail, which had horses stationed at every ten miles from Washington to St. Louis. 
The mail was carried in a valise similar to those now carried by commercial travelers. This 
valise was swung over the postboy's shoulder, and he was required to make his ten miles on 
horseback in one hour without fail. At each station he found a horse saddled and bridled 
ready for a start, and it took but a moment to dismount and remount, and he was off. The 
rider was furnished a tin horn with which he used to announce his coming. His arrival here 
was about 10 a. m. and it was amusing to see the people running to the postoffice when the 
post rider galloped through the streets blowing his burn. The few letters carried by this 
express bore double postage. 

Prepayment of postage was not required, and the recipient of a letter, prior to 1816, 
paid in proportion to the distance, eight cents for -10 miles or less up to 25 cents for 500 
miles or over. In 1816, an additional charge was made for each additional piece of paper 
and four rates for each letter weighing more than an ounce. After 1815 weight and distance 
combined fixed the charge, which was often more than was charged by private individuals. 
An announcement by Postmaster Hosack in 1812 indicates that the recipients of mail were 
trusted by the postmaster and the arrearages became so great that he threatened to withhold 
mail till the sum due was paid. 

The mail coach era began in 1816, when Philip Zinn, aided by his sons, Daniel, Henry 
and Adam, extended his service which had begun in Pennsylvania to include Columbus and 
took a contract to carry the mail once a week between Columbus and Chillicothe. Then, 
as roads were constructed other stage coaches were put on and the service extended and 
made more frequent. In 1822 there were three mails a week to and from the cast; two 
mails a week to and from the south and north and one a week from the west. William and 
Robert Neil, Jarvis Pike and A. I. McDowell were among the early promoters of these 



FEDERAL AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS 



1.39 



stage lines that hastened the delivery of mail over excessively bad roads occasionally at the 
rate of 12 miles an hour. 

Bela Latham succeeded Joel Buttles as postmaster in 1829 and continued in the office 
till 1811 when he was succeeded by John G. Miller. The credit system at the postoffice ob- 
tained during Mr. Latham's service and we find him in 1810 giving notice that "letters will 
be delivered to no one who has not a book account, without the postage being paid at the 
time of their receipt." Frequent losses, he adds, compel him to pursue this course, but 
"book account may be opened by making a deposit, the account to be balanced each month." 

Mr. Miller served as postmaster till 1815, when he was succeeded by Jacob Medary, 
who announced that, in accordance with an act of Congress, from and after January 1, 18-17, 
all sums due for postage must be paid in gold, silver or Treasury notes. Stamps were 
authorized by Congress March 3, 1817, and Postmaster Medary received instructions that 
stamps should be sold only for cash, and so announced to the community. It cost live cents 
for a letter of half an ounce a distance of 300 miles, and 10 cents for a greater distance, an 
additional rate for every additional half ounce or fraction. Newspapers were carried free 
for a distance of 30 miles ; private competition was suppressed by prohibiting transmission 
of mail by express unless the postage was first paid. In 1851 postage for a letter of half 




an ounce was made three cents for a distance of .3,000 miles; for more than 3,000 miles, six 
cents. It was not until 1855 that prepayment of postage was required. 

Jacob Medary was postmaster from 1845 to 1847; Samuel Medary, 1847-49; Aaron F. 
Perry, 1819-53; Thomas Sparrow, 1853-57; Thomas Miller, 1857-58; Samuel Medary, nine 
months in 1858; Thomas Miller, 1858-60; John Dawson and Joseph Dowdall for short 
periods in 1860; John Graham, 1861-65; Julius J. Wood, 1865-70; James M. Comly, 
1870-77; Andrew D. Rodgers, 1877-81; L. D. Myers, 1881-1886; DeWitt C. Jones, 1886- 
1890; Andrew Gardner, 1890-1891; F. M. Senter, 1891-98; R. M. Rownd, 1898-1906; H. W. 
Krumm, 1906-11; Samuel A. Kinnear, 1911 . 

The first site of the postoffice, so far as records go, was on East State street, at the 
southwest corner of Pearl. In the latter part of 1861 the postoffice was moved to the rear 
part of the Odeon building, High street, opposite the State House. There it remained till 
November 7, 1874, when it was moved to the northwest corner of the ground floor of the 
City Hall, the room being furnished at a cost of .$1,000, subscribed by citizens. The Coun- 
cil fixed an annual rental of $500. In the spring of 1879 a mail room was fitted up in the 
Union Station and used for assortment and transfer. 

As early as 1858 there was a movement in Columbus for the erection by the Federal 
Government of a building to house the postoffice, judicial and other business of the govern- 
ment. A petition for such a building, signed by 800 citizens, was presented in Congress by 



140 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

S. S. Cox, then representing the capital district. He pointed out that during the 36 years 
from 1820 to 1856, a United States Court was maintained in Columbus and that public- 
spirited citizens had provided a building rent-free. He thought it was time the Federal Gov- 
ernment did something in return, but Congress did not agree with him. He made another 
unsuccessful effort for a federal building in 1860; and it was not till 1880 that Congressman 
George L. Converse secured the passage of an act for the construction here at a cost of not 
more than $250,000 of a building to house the federal courts, the postoffice, the internal 
revenue and pension offices, etc. The site at the southeast corner of State and Third streets 
was purchased for $46,000 and the cornerstone was laid October 21, 1881. During the 
period of construction the postoffice occupied temporary quarters on Third street opposite the 
Capitol, and was moved into the new building October 1, 1887. By 1907 the business had 
so outgrown the building that Congress enlarged the building, erecting a structure that covers 
the entire Third street frontage of the site. At the southwest corner of Chestnut and Third 
streets, David C. Beggs erected a one-story building which the government rented during the 
four years and more of construction. The remodeled building was occupied by the postoffice. 
courts and other federal departments in February, 1912. It seemed all sufficient then, but 
it is crowded now, the business of the postoffice having grown at an enormous rate in the last 
10 years. For the year ending June 30, 1888, the receipts were .$140,309. 42 ; for 1898 they 
were $312,328.59; for 1908, $691,144.23; for 1918, $1,570,907.61. 

In the spring of 1918 Postmaster Kinnear put on a motor service for parcel post as far 
as Hillsboro, and later a similar service as far as Zanesville, with the prospect that it would 
be extended and that other routes for motor carriage would soon be established. Up to that 
time, too, the automobiles for delivery and collection in the city had been contracted for. 
but as a measure of economy and in recognition of the growing service, the Postoffice Depart- 
ment in 1918 decided to install its own automobile service and authorized Postmaster 
Kinnear to contract for a garage with a capacity for the care and repair of 2.5 automobiles. 
A garage was built at the corner of Lazelle and Capital, and the government occupied it in 
October. About 40 men are employed in this service, making the total of postoffice em- 
ployes 360. It is interesting to contrast the volume of this service with that of of 100 years 
before when the postoffice consisted of a desk in a manufacturing establishment. 

The United States Barracks. 

During the Civil War the Federal Government established in Columbus a cartridge 
manufactory. It was located on West Gay street, and there was a branch on the West Side. 
It is said to have turned out 100,000 cartridges a day. By this success, the war department 
seems to have been favorably impressed with the location of Columbus, and in 1863 a bill 
was introduced in Congress to establish here a National Armory and Arsenal. Columbus 
promptly sent a delegation to Washington to promote the enterprise. The delegation con- 
sisted of William B. Hubbard, Samuel Galloway, William G. Deshler, William Dennison. 
Walstein Failing, John S. Hall, J. H. Geiger and Peter Ambos, representing the citizens, 
and A. B. Buttles, Horace Wilson, Luther Donaldson and C. P. L. Butler, representing the 
City Council. Finding the bill in a comatose condition, the Columbus delegation secured 
the introduction of another providing for the location of several arsenals, one of them at 
Columbus. This bill passed and General C. P. Buckingham was designated to select the sites 
and on October 9, invited proposals of ground for the arsenal at Columbus. The result was 
the purchase for $112,377 of 78 acres belonging to Robert Neil. The building which was 
subsequently erected was originally intended solely for the deposit and repair of arms and 
other munitions of war. Buckingham street in front of the tract was named for the officer 
who selected the site. Early commandants were Captain J. W. Todd and Colonel George B. 
Wright. For many years the one building the government had erected was known as the 
arsenal. Then it was made a regimental post and other buildings were constructed, troops 
being moved here from Newport, Ky. After the war with Spain it was changed from a 
regimental post into a recruiting station and as such served a useful purpose, largely owing to 
the exceptional location of the city. A fine hospital, administration building, recruiting 
station, laundry, gymnasium, company quarters and residences for the officers were erected 
and the tract transformed into a veritable park. Such it was when the nation entered the 
World War and every available foot of the tract was used for housing troops, as elsewhere 



FEDERAL AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS 141 

related. Colonel Franklin O. Johnson commandant from 1915 to 1919, was succeeded 
August 15, 1919, by Colonel George O. Cress. 

U. S. Storage Depot, 

In June, 1918, as one of the necessities of war, the Federal Government decided to erect 
just east of the city a number of great warehouses for the storing of supplies needed for the 
army. This was to be one of several depots established in the country for the same general 
purpose. Work was at once begun under the direction of Major T. Frank Quilty, of the 
Quartermaster's department, the contractors being the Hunkin-Conkey Construction Co. of 
Cleveland, N. E. Blair superintendent. With a view to haste, more than three thousand 
men were employed in the construction. The barracks was first erected and then the ware- 
houses, nine in all with a floor space of 50 acres and 10 miles of railroad trackage. The 
estimated cost was .$1,000,000. By the middle of August the work so far progressed that 
some supplies such as canned pork and beans and rope had begun to arrive for storage, with 
other foodstuffs, clothing, medical and ordnance supplies to follow as room was prepared — all 
destined for shipment overseas as needed by the great army there. On August 17, the 100th 
day of construction work, there was a flag raising on Building No. 1 with music by the Bar- 
racks band. All the buildings were completed in December, and the work of receiving, storing 
and shipping was maintained by a military force, with the aid of several hundred laborers. 
The end of the war found the depot still a busy place, for there was need of room to store 
the supplies that had been bought until they could be disposed of. The enlisted personnel, 
under Captain F. A. Grimmer, had been discharged by the middle of March, a few being 
retained for guard and fire protection and several hundred civilians were employed as labor- 
ers. In July the perishable food in cans was offered for sale. 

Count// Infirmary anil Hospital. 

Aside from the liberal quota of State institutions which have from time to time been 
placed in the city, the county has an equal number within the confines of the city, and some 
of civic outgrowth also in the immediate vicinity. 

Only the older citizens know that the first Franklin County Infirmary was originally 
located northwest of the city, in what was once called Sellsville on the present King 
avenue, just west of the Olentangv bridge. The foundations were put in, when it was 
realized a mistake had been made, that the site was too close to the city, and that there was 
not enough land obtainable for the infirmary farm. The work was stopped and after almost 
endless wrangling, the infirmary was located southeast of the city, and the first site was 
sold. For a long time the people of the North Side felt they had been tricked by the 
change, and the loss of an institution which would enhance the value of their own holdings. 
But that feeling lias long since died out, and the location has become one of the city's most 
promising residence sections. Prior to building the present infirmary the county kept its 
paupers in "the poor-house" — an old stone structure of not more than a dozen rooms, on the 
Pennsylvania railroad, in Grandview; later in an old building, still standing on Mohawk 
street. The present Infirmary on the Lockbourne road was built in 1883-8-1, southeast of 
the city. It is a commodious building, delightfully situated, with 100 acres of farm land 
which is cultivated in part by the inmates themselves. In 1908 the County Commissioners 
erected on the grounds adjacent to the Infirmary building two frame structures called shacks 
for the care of sufferers from tuberculosis and, subsequently, when the need appeared, built 
near by a brick hospital for their care. The hospital, which is well equipped, was one of the 
first county hospitals in the State. Both the hospital and the shacks are maintained by county 
funds free to all who are unable to pay for the service. 

Court House and Penal Institutions. 

The first Court House, as narrated elsewhere, was located in l-'ranklinton on the site 
of the present Franklinton school building, and there was a jail near by. When the county 
seat was moved to Columbus in 1824, the Common Pleas Court sat in the building on the 
State House grounds that had been erected for the United States District Court, the county 
officers also occupying rooms therein, hater, a building for the county offices was erected 



112 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



on the State House grounds directly west of the Court House. In 1810 a building was 
erected on the site of the present Court House for the use of the county judges and officers, 
and was used till 1887 when the present structure was erected at a cost of $100,000 and 
dedicated, as described in the chapter on the events of that period. The County Jail was 
constructed at the same time. 

The City Prison, at the northwest corner of Town and Scioto streets, was built in 
187S-79. Prior to that date, the prison had been in a brick structure on the alley between 
Town and Rich streets, across from the present Central Market House. The Work House 
was built in 1891 at Sullivant and McDowell streets, and there misdemeanants were 
worked on contract until 1912 when the new state constitution abolished all contract prison 
labor. Since then as many of these prisoners as possible have been used in cultivating a 
farm acreage owned by the city, in the parks and on other municipal work. The treatment 
of prisoners has taken on the color of helpfulness, as well as punishment and there is a 
prospect that even more will be done to return these prisoners to usefulness. 

The City Hall. 

On February 8, 1869, the City Council bought the site for the present City Hall, 
paying $23,000. Despite the protest of the minority that the amount was exorbitant the 




CoVumbus Public Library (Carnegie Building.) 

deal was consummated. On May 21, 1869, the contract was let to Hall, Fornoff & Co., for 
the building, at $121,822. R. T. Brooks was the architect. May 27, 1869, ground was 
broken, with the usual elaborate exercises, a banquet being given in the evening to the mem- 
bers of the Board of Education and the City Council. The first Council meeting was held in 
the new building March 25, 1872, and the dedication was three days later. Studer in his 
history described the building as "one of the most beautiful and imposing public edifices that 
adorn the capital." It long since lost that reputation and for years there has been a desire 
for something more commodious, convenient and beautiful. 



Public Lillian/. 

The present Public Library building on Grant avenue at the head of State street was 
erected in 1903-06, at a cost for site, building and equipment of $310,000, of which 
$200,000 was given by Andrew Carnegie, the remainder by the city which agreed, in ac- 
cepting the Carnegie gift, to appropriate not less than $20,000 annually for its maintenance 
and growth. The building was turned over by the contractors to the city November 11, 
1906, and was formally dedicated April 1, 1907. Governor Andrew Harris, Mayor D. C. 
Badger, Dr. Washington Gladden and others made addresses. That event was the culmi- 



FEDERAL AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS 



143 



nation of 35 years of effort to secure such an institution for the city. It was June 15, 
1871, that at a meeting of citizens, among whom were John W. Andrews, Joseph Hutcheson, 
Joseph R. Swan, S. S. Rickly, Charles Breyfogle, James Westwater and Dr. W. E. Ide, 
petitioned the City Council to establish a public library. Others joined in the movement 
and a plan for a library under the joint control of the City Council and the School Board 
was evolved. The formal opening of the library and reading room in the east ground floor 
room of the City Hall occurred March 1, 187.3. The Columbus AOhenaeum contributed 
1,200 books, the High School library 358 and the Horticultural Society 33; Council and 
School Board were to make annual appropriations for new books and maintenance. Rev. J. 
L. Grover was the first librarian. The establishment of alcoves followed — one by John G. 
and Win. G. Deshler; a second by Henry C. Noble, a third by John W. Andrews, a fourth 
by Mrs. Mary X. Bliss, in memory of her father, Wm. B. Hubbard; a fifth by Wm. D. 
Brickell and later a music alcove by the Women's Music Club, Mrs. Ella May Smith 
president. These were all endowed or otherwise guaranteed to make yearly additions of 
books. 

In 1891 the School Board, having erected a library and headquarters building on Town 
street, withdrew its books, established its own library and elected J. H. Spielman librarian. 
That left the Public Library with 11,122 books, of which 3,582 were in the alcoves. In 




M, 



■il Hall 



the next two years 8,000 volumes were added by gift and purchase. In 1897, Mr. Grover 
retired as librarian, and John J. Pugh, who had been his assistant, was elected to the 
vacancy. He at once began a campaign for a larger library and better quarters, the result 
being the beautiful Carnegie building and its splendid equipment. The number of books now 
exceeds 125,000. 

Meanwhile the Public School Library flourished with the annual appropriations for its 
support and at the outset duplicated the work of the Public Library in the same section of the 
city. It also provided supplementary reading books for the schools and, under the free 
textbook system, has cared for and issued the books as necessary. Librarian Spielman 
died in 1896 and was succeeded by Martin Hensel. Since then collections of books have 
been made up and sent to the school buildings for temporary use, and in the high schools 
branch libraries have been established. In 1911 the library and headquarters building on 
Town street was so wrecked by a storm that it was abandoned and torn down, offices and 
books being removed to the Ohio National Bank building at the corner of Town and High 
streets. The general circulating department was closed and the reference, traveling and 
branch libraries only maintained. Librarian Hensel reported in 1916 that the books and 
pamphlets numbered 110,813. In 1919 Mr. Hensel retired and Miss Emma Sehaub, long an 
assistant, became librarian. 



144. HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Frank Fager, a resident of the West Side, sought to make provision in his will for a 
public library on West Broad street, giving property valued at $13,000 for that purpose. 
In August, 1918, Judge Bostwick appointed as trustees: John W. Sleppy, J. B. Gliek, 
Walter B. Ferguson, Sarah E. Lewis and Clara T. Barnes. 

Memorial Hall. 

The Franklin County Memorial Building, shortened now to simply Memorial Hall in 
popular parlance, was erected as a monument to the soldiers, sailors, and pioneers of Franklin 
county, at the expense of the county; it was begun in 1904, completed and occupied in 1906. 
The building alone cost a quarter of a million dollars, and furnishings $27,000. A pipe- 
organ was added later by the Women's Music Club, which assumed the expense of $22,000, 
making the entire cost of the building $299,000. The auditorium seats 3,500, but by a 
slight change in the seating plan the capacity can be increased to about 1,600. In late 
years overflow meetings are almost as common as meetings in it, epecially on political 
military, and great civic occasions. The work of the Women's Music Club and other musical 
organizations in this auditorium has been phenomenal for many years. The halls of the 
Grand Army of the Republic and the Pioneer Association are on the second floor of the Hall, as 
also the library of the Old North-West Historical Society, numbering several thousand 
volumes. 

The trustees in charge of the construction were N. B. Abbott, John Siebert, Wm. H. 
Knauss, Eugene Powell and Thomas Carpenter. The architect was Frank L. Packard. 

The Children's Home. 

The site for the County Children's Home was secured in 1878 and the building thereon 
was completed in 1880. Forty children were taken to it from the "old home" of semi- 
public nature, at Town and Front streets. Dr. William Schatz was first superintendent, 
succeeded by Albert S. White, and on his death by his widow, Mrs. Mary E. White. She 
was followed as superintendent by John D. Harlor, who, going into war service in 1918, was 
succeeded by Otis Ellis. The management is in the hands of trustees appointed by the 
County Commissioners. The home is beautifully situated east of the city near Shepard, but, 
like most of the institutions of that date, is is overcrowded. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

STATE BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 

The New Capitol and Its Construction, 1839-57 — Judiciary Annex — Purchase of the Wyan- 
dotte Office Budding — The Penitentiary and Prison System — Women's Reformatory 
and Prison Farm — School for the Deaf — School for the Blind — Central Hospital for 
the Insane — School for the Feeble Minded — State Arsenal — State Board of Administra- 
tion. 

By W. F. Felch. 

Ancient, classic architecture has few more notable examples of pure style than Ohio's 
Capitol ; albeit many are wont to decry it for its severe plainness. It is of pure Doric style, 
which was one of the first and simplest styles in Greece. To travelers and world-wide 
tourists it commends itself for its truth to type, its uncompromising plainness and hence 
primitive beauty of line, like the Parthenon, the temple of Theseus, and other examples, 
before the ornate Corinthian came into vogue. As such it typifies the simple honesty, the 
stury manhood, and stately womanhood of our commonwealth. 

The first Governor to occupy the completed Capitol was Salmon Portland Chase, a man 
of intrinsic worthiness, inherent honesty, and other statesmanlike qualities which bore fruitage 
in Lincoln's war-cabinet when he was called to grace that august body, and later as Chief 
Justice. He was one of the greatest statesmen of Ohio, and fitted into the new structure 
as typical of the principles of the grand old commonwealth, its idols and ideals, as if "born 
to the purple." He was as typical of the state as was the Capitol itself. 

On January 26, 1838, the General Assembly, passed the act which created its Capitol, 
at least on paper. A commission appointed on March 16, consisting of W. A. Adams, of 
Muskingum, Jos. Ridgway, jr., of Franklin, and W. B. Van Hook, of Butler county, signed 
a contract in April for stone, at fifty cents a perch of 25 cubic feet, from a quarry on the 
Scioto just west of Columbus, owned by Wm. S. Sullivant. Most of the work of getting 
out the stone and preparing it for the building was performed by inmates of the Ohio 
Penitentiary. A large number of skilled masons also assisted. 

More than fifty plans were received from architects of the United States, and in 
October three plans were selected for consideration. Some of the plans submitted had esti- 
mated the cost at a million dollars; the three plans led the commission to believe that the 
building could be erected for $450,000, based on prison-labor and low rates. An initial 
appropriation of $50,000 was asked, and granted early in the session of 1839. Active work 
was commenced in April of that year, under the supervision of Henry Walter of Cincinnati, 
and the commissioners. Walter's plan was one of the three submitted. 

The corner-stone of the new Capitol was formally laid July 4, 1839, with a large and 
imposing civil and military display and celebration. During that year the foundation was 
laid to a level with the surface of the ground. In the corner-stone was placed a glass tube, 
hermetically sealed, containing the following: 

The corner-stone of the Capitol of Ohio, in the United States of America, was laid under 
the direction of the commissioners, by Jermiah Morrow, ex-governor of the state and one 
of its earliest pioneers, in the presence of the officers of the state and a large concourse of 
citizens, on the fourth day of July, 183!), at meridian, being the sixty-third anniversary of 
our National Independence. The State of Ohio, being the sixteenth state admitted into the 
Union, was organized into an independent state in the year of our Lord, 1802. 

The next winter the progress of the work was arrested by the ill feeling of other towns 
in the central part of the State toward Colmbus as the capital, as narrated elsewhere; but 
on Februarv 21, 1846, a second act was passed providing for the erection of a new State 
House, and making a small appropriation. Commissioner Van Hook was succeeded by 
Samuel Medary; but little work was done until 1848, when the commission became active 
again. William Russell West and J. O. Sawyer were appointed architects, and Jacob 
Strickler superintendent. Stone was quarried in greater quantities, cranes and derricks were 
provided, and a railroad track laid to the quarries. The result was that the walls were 
erected to a height of fourteen feet in 1849. 



146 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

In 1850 great progress was made, in spite of an epidemic of cholera in the city, and 
at the end of the year the walls were thirty feet in height. An appropriation of $80,000 
had been made the previous winter for the continuance of the work. One of the commis- 
sioners, Joseph Ridgway, jr., died in August of that year, from the cholera, at Mt. Vernon, 
and in March, 1851, Wm. S. Sullivant of Columbus was appointed to the vacancy. The 
railroad was extended to the State House yard, so that stone could be taken to the site 
without reshipment at the Penitentiary. 

In 1851, early, work was started with a large force of free labor and 100 prisoners. 
The walls were forty feet high at the end of the year. In March, 1852, a new commission, 
consisting of Edwin Smith, S. H. Webb and E. T. Stiekney was appointed, to expedite the 
work, and Mr. West was continued as architect. More than 100 stone cutters worked in 
the State House yard and as many more at the Penitentiary this year. The iron frame- 
work of the roof was completed and the whits marble columns for the legislative halls were 
placed in position. 

In May, 1851, Mr. West resigned as architect, and in his place X. B. Kelly was ap- 
pointed, and under his supervision the copper roof, the marble tile of the interior, and the 
stone work up to and including the cornices, were completed. In 1855, Columbus firms 
placed the heating apparatus and finished the ceilings. Mr. Kelly reported that he had 
found in the building no means of ventilation, and that adequate heating for the entire 
building was lacking. In order to get the proper system of heating and ventilation. Mr. 
Kelly found it necessary to line practically tli3 entire building with brick, inside the stone 
walls, and erect two ventilating stacks in the open courts. The desks for the Speaker and 
Clerk of the House were completed the same year, of white Italian marble. 

In April, 1856, a new act was passed, a new commission appointed, — Wm. A. Piatt 
as acting commissioner, with James T. Worthington and L. G. Harkness, advisory mem- 
bers, — and the old plans were submitted to Thomas U. Walker of Washington, D. C, and 
Richard Upjohn, of New York City, eminent architects of the time, but they made no 
material changes in the general design. January 1, 1857, the legislative halls being ready 
for use, the citizens gave a great banquet on the 6th to members, and state officials, and 
visitors from other states. The Cleveland Greys and Columbus Fencibles were conspicuous 
in the parade. The City Council committee on the "house-warming" consisted of Messrs. 
Noble, Comstock, Decker and Reinhard ; and prominent citizens, Wm. G. Deshler, Lucian 
Buttles, Henry Wilson, Robert E. Neil, and Francis Collins, were appointed a committee to 
assist. At 9 ]>. m. the ceremonies began with prayer by Rev. James Hoge, State Senator 
Alfred Kelly delivered the address of welcome, and until after midnight dancing in the 
rotunda, and merriment throughout the building held sway. D. W. Deshler, treasurer of 
the committee, reported $4,703 from all sources, and a balance of +:S00 after defraying 
expenses. 

It was estimated that more than 10,000 persons attended the ceremony of the opening 
of the Capitol, and the crush was so great that many women fainted. There was imminent 
danger of people being killed, when David Taylor and Lucian Buttles, powerful men, forced 
themselves into the door and compelled the opening of all other doors, and no more tickets 
were taken. 

During 1858-59 all unfinished work on the building was completed. The mosaic floor 
ot the rotunda was laid, consisting of 1,957 pieces; the white marble therein is Italian, the 
red, Portuguese, and the black and green in the borders of the figures, are native, from 
Vermont. 

It required twenty years to erect this building. The cost was approximately 
$1,350,000. The building is 304 feet long, by 184 feet wide: it has eight massive columns 
nn the cast and west fronts, and four on the north and south. The chief entrance is at the 
west. From tin' rotunda floor to the to)) of the dome the distance is 136 feet. The climb to 
the dome, over 100 steps, through a narrow corridor, up winding stairs surrounding the 
dome, was lor years a Common test of endurance and poise. 

On the second floor arc the State Library, the chambers of the House of Representa- 
tives .-ind of the Senate, and until recently th i historic "flag-room," discontinued because the 
flags are now established around the rotunda, in hermctical'v-scalcd eases, and the relies 

have been deposited elsewhere, chiefly in the Archaeological Museum. 

The State House addition, or as it is now known, the Judiciary Annex, authorized by 



STATE BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS 



lVi 



the Legislature in 1897, was built at a cost of $360,000 and the commission, — appointed by 
Governor Asa S. Bushnell, comprising A. D. Rodgers of Columbus, Lewis P. Schaus of 
Newark, and Charles A. Bauer of Springfield, — kept within the appropriation. Opha Moore, 
of Columbus, served as secretary of the commission until the completion of the building in 
1900. The blue limestone of the capitol was used in the annex, and the interior finished in 
domestic and foreign marbles. The architects were Samuel Hanniford & Sons, of Cincinnati. 
There has been considerable agitation in recent years, for another addition to the 
capitol entourage, since much of the State's business is now transacted in rented quarters, 
outside of the square, and some at remote points in the city; and a so-called Civic Center, 
covering an adjoining square or squares, has bi'en warmly advocated and somewhat tardily 
advanced to a cogent standpoint, in which the State and city would co-operate, but no 
definite agreement lias been reached. Meanwhile many of the State offices have been housed 
in the eleven-story Wyandotte building on West Broad street, which was bought by the State 
in 1917, and a number are in other buildings. 

The Penitentiary. 

In the last hundred years Ohio has spent between $20,000,000 and $30,000,000 in ex- 
perimental discipline and correction of criminals, and without ascertaining beyond perad- 
venture, that the proper solution has been reached. In the last decade, however, the "honor 
system" has prevailed almost without break, and a high morale established among the 




First Hospital for the Ins 

Street and II in 



ne. East Broad Street between Eleventh 
ilton Avenue, Burned in 1868. 



convicts, second only to the army and some educational centers. At this writing about 1,000 
jsrisoners are "on parole" and working outside of the prison walls, which is a high tribute 
to that system of government. By a series of checks and balances, almost entire "honor" is 
obtained among those who work outside and return at night. Not only are they given em- 
ployment and a wage at various State institutions in the city, but their record in building 
roads in this State, far distant from the Penitentiary, which were needed for transportation 
of munitions and for war-trucking, would argue a large degree of patriotism ; and their im- 
provement in health and happiness is due in large measure to the state-farms for prisoners 
near this city. 

The first prisoner received at the first Penitentiary, (elsewhere described) on the Scioto 
and Mound street site, where it was maintained till 1834, was John Evans, accompanied by 
his brother David, from Pickaway county, October 15, 1815, for "assault and battery to 
kill." The reason for their matriculation was a backwoods melee witli bullies over the belle 
of the ball; the bully and his cousin were handled severely by the brothers, were "on their 
backs for several months," and the victors were pardoned by Governor Worthington, Janu- 
ary 26, 1817. John Welsh, of Franklin count-, was sentenced for stealing hogs, October 13, 
and pardoned two years' later. Henry Sharp, of Scioto county, was sentenced for six years 
for horse-stealing but manumitted May 1, 1816. The fifth man, Thomas Hammon, from 



148 HISTORV OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Belmont, however, stayed his entire term. It will be noted that pardons were numerous. 
Of the 150 received during the first five years, 82 were pardoned, and of the remaining 
68 eleven died, as the sanitary conditions were unsuited. The officials showed little pity, and 
prisoners were often flogged. One out of ten finally succumbed to this exacting treatment. 
In the old books of the prison, which are not complete, 663 were pardoned, or at the rate 
of more than two-thirds. 

During the nineteen years of this old record, many prisoners worked on the construc- 
tion of the Ohio canal. The entry, "Pardoned on the canal" appears 89 times, during the 
years 1827-28. This work was exceptionally arduous and exposed. In the old days, 
when a convict died, his number was given to a new man; but now, each prisoner's 
serial number belongs to him until the Judgment Day. "No. 1," of the old record, for 
instance, was held by seven men; "No. 2" by four. The youngest prisoner, Richard Liver- 
pool, from Hamilton, for arson, was only twelve years old, and sentenced for three 
years, but Governor Lucas, touched by his extreme youth, sent him home soon after he was 
incarcerated. David Fry, aged 13, was pardoned in 1829, after a year. 

These picturesque incidents of the early career of the institution might be added to, ad 
infinitum if space permitted. From 1815 to 1834, only ten women were sent to the prison, 
and all of them were pardoned. Bertillon's system had not been invented, and some of the 
descriptions are indeed laughable. One is set down as "complexion bald-headed," another 
had "a swarthy complexion and a mother in Indiana," the "general appearance" of a third 
consisted of "a scar on right cheek and a wife in Licking county." These landmarks of levity 
relieve the grewsome terrors, somewhat. It was not always so informal. To escape the 
rigors of confinement many took desperate chances, and in nineteen years 101 escaped into 
the surrounding forests. 

The present Penitentiary covers 24.7 acres on Spring street, with a southern frontage 
of 800 feet; it has a simple and pleasing design, flanked by double towers, and indented 
with glyphs or mouldings at intervals. It stands back 150 feet from the street, with terraced 
lawns and flowers to break the awe-inspiring approach to its portals. Handsome two-story 
verandas on the front of the administration building offer comfort and convenience. The 
West Hall was completed in 1834, the East Hall in 1861, and the New Hall in 1877, im- 
proving in architecture each time. The Woman's Department, now abandoned for that pur- 
pose, was at the eastern terminus of the main building. The prison's depth is 1,500 feet, 
or from Spring to Maple street; the eastern wall is in a diagonal course to Maple, nar- 
rowing the frontage there to 510 feet. The western wall, along Dennison avenue, is 1,440 
feet in length. The Warden's residence is on the upper floors. The Guard room is between 
the East and West Halls, or cell-houses. 

On entering his cell, each prisoner, after the day's work, stands at the door, with his 
fingers protruding through the bars, so that guards locking the cells for the night can easily 
make a complete census. This method quickly reveals an escape. The Annex, as its name 
but dimly implies, is the place of execution of the condemned. Hundreds of thousands have 
gazed on its grim instruments of death, from the old scaffold to the later electric chairs, 
and have passed out with pity and sympathy engraved on their faces. 

The Bcrtillon system of identification for criminals and derelicts, was adopted in Ohio 
in 1887. The first measurement took place in the Ohio Penitentiary in October of that year. 

The farm lands first acquired for the institution consist of 442 acres located about 
fifteen miles southwest of this city, and 30.08 acres of quarry land adjoining the Colum- 
bus State Hospital. The value of the lands, $345,548.67, and the buildings, $789,908.05, 
made a grand total of valuation for all property of $1,542,185.93 in 1916. 

Tin- daily average population, June 30, 1916, was 1,884, an increase of 103 over the 
preceding year. In that year, (the last report available), 523 inmates were enrolled under 
the "honor" system, as an outside squad. This has almost doubled to date. The parole 
plan became operative in 1895. Under the prisoner's compensation system, inmates are paid 
at the rate of one to two cents an hour, for an eight-hour work-day. Under this provision 
about $40,000 to $50,000 is paid out annually. Prisoners serving a term for the abandon- 
ment of legitimate children, are credited with 40 cents a dav, for each working dav, all of 
which is remitted to the trustees of the children abandoned. Seventy or more per diem are 
in prison for this offense. 

A new prison farm of about 1,450 acres near London, Madison county, was bought for 



STATE BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS 149 

#250,000 in 191-1, with a view to the ultimate removal of the Penitentiary from Columbus. 
An increasing number of prisoners have been employed there at farm labor and constructing 
a few necessary buildings. The farm products in 1916 were valued at .$25,513.21. The 
buildings put up have cost approximately $60,000. 

United States prisoners were not sent to the Penitentiary until 1888. Afterwards until 
recently a large number of federal prisoners were detained here. It was at one time the 
largest Penitentiary in the country, and in 1898 there were 2,300 inmates. The opening of 
the new Intermediate Penitentiary at Mansfield took a goodly number of those convicted for 
first-offenses, and this, and the parole law, have operated to keep down the number. It 
costs about $300,000 annually to operate the Penitentiary. 

Other parts of the state prison system which should be mentioned are the Lima State 
Hospital for the criminal insane and the Woman's Reformatory at Marysville. The former 
insures the special care and study of criminals who cannot be held accountable for their 
offenses, while the latter secures the separation of the sexes and offers the greatest oppor- 
tunity to women convicted of crime to return to lives of usefulness. The old plan of 
housing men and women criminals under the same roof and discriminating against the latter 
in the efforts at correction, some years ago, brought from the women of the State a great 
protest, and the General Assembly responded generously, almost prodigally, providing a build- 
ing which there have not yet been found in Ohio enough women criminals to fill. 

The State School for the Deaf. 

Second, in chronological sequence, to the Ohio Penitentiary, is the one above named — 
oldest of all the State benevolent institutions, and operating at less expense than an} 7 of 
them. Ohio was the fifth state to make provision for mute pupils — in the year 1827. 

To Dr. James Hoge, pioneer Presbyterian divine of the city, who stood high in the 
councils of chief executives, is due the inception of this institution, as well as the later 
School for the Blind. He was one of seven commissioners, appointed by the Governor to 
draft a general system of free schools for the state, and this opened his eyes to the need 
for the care and education of the deaf and blind. Pennsylvania preceded Ohio by a few 
years in this respect, and invited this state to send mute pupils to its institution, in the time 
of Governor Allen Trimble; this elicited the attention of Dr. Hoge. In 1826 the State was 
polled for mutes, and data secured as to their condition. The report showed 72 "in good 
circumstances," 66 "middling," 279 "poor," and 11 whose financial rating was not given. 
Early in 1827 a bill was passed by the General Assembly authorizing the incorporation of 
such an institution. Dr. Hoge and Gustavus Swan, both of this city, were named among 
the first trustees. 

In evolving methods for raising revenues, without asking too much of the State, many 
expedients were adopted — pay by pupils for their education; a grant of land from Congress, 
and finally, transfer of funds from other departments. The congressional bill, however, 
never got past the Senate. Some of the pupils were required to pay, and after some 
juggling of funds, a few years of trial work effected a revived interest on the part of the 
state, by demonstrating the usefulness of the school. 

The school was kept, first, in rented quarters, at the northwest corner of High and 
Broad, where the Deshler Hotel now stands; on Front, north of Broad; and later at the south- 
east corner of Higli and State, until its present site on Town street was ready. Samuel W. 
Flennikin was the first pupil, and was as such greeted by the Governor before he had been 
there half an hour. Nine others came the first year. 

The present site for the building was purchased in 1829 for $500, and was considered 
cheap, even then. It contains ten acres, and its present estimated value is in excess of a 
quarter of a million. In 1832 a building was started, and completed in 1831. Elaborate 
plans were drawn for the school, and then but a small portion of them executed. The first 
building, as built, was three stories high, and cost $15,000. A new wing was added in 1845, 
bringing the capacity up to 150 pupils, but this was soon outgrown. In 1861 the first 
portion of the present structure was completed, at the rear of the old one, and when the 
new school was opened in it, the old one was raz^d, in 1 H68. 

New buildings have been added, as needed, but always with something to return to the 
State Treasurv after the outlays. The buildings are now valued at $671,500, and the total 
valuation is $1,011,150. The average daily population in 1916 was -197, an increase of 10 



150 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

over tin- preceding year; 113 employes were then in the institution, the ratio of inmates to 
officers and employes being then 4.3. 

No pupil may be received under seven years, nor remain longer than thirteen. The 
school is open to receive all pupils who are too deaf to be educated in hearing schools, who 
are sound of mind, and free from offensive or contagious disease. A regular hearing-school 
course is pursued, as well as vocational training, so that graduates may support themselves 
by a definite trade. Less than a hundred years ago, the sign language was the only avenue 
of approach to the mute pupil. Lip-reading and automatic speech are now taught in all deaf- 
mute schools with great success. Many graduates are proficient in book-binding, type- 
setting, cobbling, painting, basket-weaving, and the girls are expert in sewing, cooking, and 
household work. 

In late years the school has distinguished itself by caring for several pupils who were 
both deaf and blind. The first of these, Leslie Oren, like Helen Keller, lias wonderfully 
repaid the untiring devotion of his teacher by his interest and attention. His case has 
excited world-wide interest among educators. 

Columbus has always been a pioneer in mute education. In 1852 the third annual con- 
vention of American Instructors of the Deaf met in this city. A number of its instructors 
and superintendents have been called to higher and more responsible positions. Horatio 
N. Hubbell was the first superintendent, 1827-1851; John A. Cory, 1851-1852; Collins Stone, 
1852-1863; George L. Weed, jr., 1863-1866; Gilbert O. Fay, 1866-1880; Charles S. Perry, 
1880-1882; Benj. Talbot, acting, 1882-1883; Amasa Pratt, 1883-1890; James W. Knott, 
1890-1892; Stephen R. Clark, 1892-189-1; William S. Eagleson, 1891-1895; John W. Jones, 
1895 . 

The schools for the deaf and the blind do not own farms, but they co-operate as a unit, 
in every possible way. The School for the Deaf does the baking and shoe-repairing of the 
School for the Blind, which reciprocates with the laundry work of the latter, due credit 
being given to each institution. Many hundred pupils have been educated at the School for 
the Deaf, and enabled to make good living outside by their trades, to enjoy life to the utmost, 
and to become excellent citizens in any community. 

School for the Blind. 

The inception of the School for the Blind dates from 1836. Its records date from 
that point, and as it has never been ravaged by flames, are therefore complete. In that year 
the General Assembly named a committee of three — Rev. James Hoge, Dr. Wm. M. Awl, 
and Noah H. Swayne, representatives of the three leading professions — to make a canvass 
of the state for statistics of the blind. There were found to be 72 in easy circumstances, 
74 who were poor, 167 supported by friends, and 20 who were public charges. State action 
was at once invoked in their behalf — Ohio being the fourth state to take up this benevolent 
work. 

In April, 1837, a bill was enacted for the education of the blind. A school was 
opened in Dr. Hogc's church that year, State and Third streets. A teacher and five pupils 
were enlisted and eleven secured as the first year's total. In December the commissioners 
reported that they had secured a lot of "nine acres, a little removed from the plat of 
Columbus, on the north side of the National Road, at a very reduced price" — which was imme- 
diately contributed by a number of benevolent citizens of the capital city. Official docu- 
ments arc silent as to the donors. Today, the school plat contains eleven acres. At one 
time it was much larger, extending east to 18th street, north to Bryden Road and south to 
Main street. 

The first building was four stories high, facing south, with an Italian portico over the 
main entrance. Its cost was .+3 1,000. All that remains of it is a Greek pillar, near the 
central walk, and now crowned with ivy. The work on this predecessor of the present 
building began at once, and was completed by 1839. N. B. Kelly was superintendent of 
construction. It was occupied first in October of that year, and the school continued until 
May. IS 10. under its first teacher, A. W. Pcnniman, but in ISM), William Chapin, after- 
wards a famous worker among the blind, became the first superintendent. In 1816 A. W. 
Pcnniman was pro tempore superintendent; later superintendents have been: 1847, George 
H. McMillan; 1851, Rufus E. Hart; 1855, Asa D. Lord, who had been principal of the 
Central Higll School; 1867, Georffe I.. Smead; 1885, Dr. H. P. Frieker; 1892, Dr. S. S. 



STATE BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS 151 

Burrows; 1896 Rev. R. W. Wallace; 1900, George L. Smead; 1905, Dr. Edwin N. Brown; 
1907, Edward M. Van Cleve; 1915, C. F. F. Campbell; 1919, Frank Lumb, a blind man wbo 
had long been a teacher in the institution. 

In the late sixties the building became very crowded, having 100 pupils, and the legisla- 
ture, May, 1869, authorized the present structure, which was completed, at a cost of 
$358,477.92. It is of stone entirely, and as fireproof as that day and age allowed. It stands 
today, with some minor improvements, as it stood in 1871, when finished. With the excep- 
tion of the school for deaf mutes, the building for the blind is the only one that has not been 
visited by a destructive fire. 

A large number of self-supporting blind people leave its halls every year, out of several 
hundred pupils. The school has done increasingly good work, throughout its eighty years, 
and in addition has sought the betterment of the conditions of the blind outside of the school ; 
also the prevention of blindness in children. It is estimated that fifty percent of blindness 
could be prevented in babyhood, if mothers and nurses were properly intelligent. Owing to 
the difficulty and delicacy required in teaching the blind, one teacher is employed for three 
pupils, and this rule obtains in all institutions. 

The eleven acres are now valued at over $125,000.00; but, to accomplish best results there 
is need of a farm near the city upon which pupils having partial vision can receive agricul- 
tural instruction. The buildings were valued, for the year ending June 30, 1916, at 
$511,425.95, and the total valuation of all the property was $734,688.26. The average 
daily attendance of pupils for that vear was 221 ; this was a decrease over the previous 
year, occasioned by the removal of those who were found to be mentally deficient. There 
were then 36 men and 48 women upon the faculty list. 

Pupils are admitted at as early an age as possible — as soon as they are able to dress 
and care for themselves. When the school is provided with cottages, which are urgently 
needed, it will be possible to admit a few children at even an earlier age. Blind adults are 
no longer admitted to the institution, as these are now cared for by the State Commission for 
the Blind, which lias charge also of blind newsboys and newsmen. 

The Columbus State Hospital. 

This is the oldest hospital in the State excepting the Longview, at Cincinnati, established 
in 1821, and probably one of the largest in the world at the present time. It was opened 
in 1838, a year after the School for the Blind, but at that time, and for many years after, 
they were indifferently called Asylums. 

The Hospital was originally located on East Broad street near Lexington, but the build- 
ing was burned in 186S, and the institution was then removed to its present location on the 
hilltop west of the city. 

The present hospital building, which is over a mile in circuit, represented then the 
largest single public investment in Ohio, with the exception of the State Capitol. The 
institution has 301 acres of land, 100 of which are tillable, and on this farm-garden were 
raised in 1916, over $17,000 worth of produce. The land was worth then. $456,225.00, 
the buildings, $1,817,861.58. The total value was $2,506,437.76. A large pavilion for 
tubercular patients has since been built. There were then 1,826 patients, a decrease of 
50 over the previous year. There were 209 employes, 102 men, and 107 women. The 
entire acreage was purchased in 1870 for $100,000. 

The original East Broad street site consisted of 61 acres, then far out of the city. An 
immense building covering an acre of ground was planned, and November 30, 1838, con- 
struction had proceeded far enough to make possible the admission of patients. When com- 
pleted the main building and wings were three stories high, and a walk through all the halls 
and galleries exceeded a mile. The cost of the building was approximately $150,000, much 
of the work having been done by prisoners. In the "middle sixties" there were from 300 to 
350 inmates. Dr. Wm. M. Awl was the first superintendent. 

On November 18, 1868, this building burned to the ground; the weather was cold, wet 
and sleeting, and owing to difficulty and delay in fighting the fire, six of the patients were 
suffocated in the ward where the fire originated, but all others were safely taken out, and 
none escaped. The School for the Deaf opened its doors temporarily, until the patients 
could be sent home or properly cared for by the State. The starting of the fire was always 
attributed to a patient. 



152 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

The next Legislature, 1870, decided to sell the old site for not less than $200,000 and 
rebuild. The old site brought $250,000, and the present site was at once secured, two 
miles west of the then city. The present building was constructed on "the Kirkbride plan," 
conceived by Dr. Thomas Kirkbride, of Philadelphia, an eminent abenist. This was the 
accepted plan for many years, until the cottage plan became the vogue. It was seven years 
in building, and cost completed $1,462,634.55. The annual cost of operation is approxi- 
mately $350,000. The average enrollment is 1,800, or the maximum number that can be 
cared for. The employes number 200. 

A single ward now accommodates 120 patients, as many as the entire institution cared 
for when first opened. The passage of years is marked by a steady improvement in the 
care of patients. In the early years there was a court or stockade, where they were exer- 
cised; now they roam over the entire grounds, under proper supervision. 

The superintendents have been, in order of service: 1838, Dr. W. M. Awl; 1850, Samuel 
H. Smith; 1852, E. Kendrick; 1854, George E. Eels; 1858, R. Hills; 1864, W. L. Peck; 
1873, John M. Davies ; 1876, Richard Gundy; 1877, L. Firestone; 1880, H. C. Rutter; 1883, 
C. M. Finch; 1887, John W. McMillen; 1889, D. A. More; 1890, John H. Ayres; 1891, A. B. 
Richardson; 1897, E. G. Carpenter; 1902, George Stockton; 1909, C. F. Gilliam; 1918, Wm. 
H. Pritchard, now serving. 

The School for the Feeble Minded. 

Last in point of time of establishment, of the benevolent institutions of the State, in this 
city, hut the second of its kind in the nation, is the above-named structure. Like the 
State Hospital, the Court House, and the original State House, it was destroyed by fire and 
thereby lost all its first records. 

It was founded in 1857, by an act of the General Assembly and the directors rented 
an old house in Main street, the one now occupied by the Home of the Friendless, and sixteen 
pupils were enrolled. William Dennison of this city, afterwards Governor of the State, 
was one of the original trustees, and Dr. R. J. Patterson, the first superintendent, for three 
years, when Dr. G. A. Doren was selected to succeed. Dr. Doren was superintendent for 
forty-five years, until his death in 1905. By 1860 the home which had been used, had grown 
too small and an addition was built. This house was occupied until 1864, when the Legisla- 
ture appropriated $25,000 towards a permanent location. The state purchased a portion of 
the present site, at $35 an acre, securing 100 of the present 187.1 acres, two miles west of 
the then city, on the brink of an eminence on the west side of the Scioto river valley, and 
opposite the State Hospital for the Insane. This site overlooking the city, was a beautiful 
one, and a fine maple grove runs around the entire frontage of the high ground. 

The original plans contemplated caring for only 250 patients, but to-day it cares for 
over 1,600, and calls for the service of 200 attendants. It was ready for occupancy July, 
1868, at which time there were 105 pupils. The great fire occurred November 18, 1881, 
razing almost the entire building, at a loss of $150,000. Distance from the city and lack 
of water prevented much salvage. Xo lives were lost, however, and the pupils returned to 
their homes, pending rebuilding of the school. 

Upon the death of Dr. Doren, Dr. E. H. Rorick succeeded to the superintendence and 
served for two years, when he was followed by Dr. F. J. Fmerick, making but four appoint- 
ments in forty vears. Dr. Emcrick states succinctly the condition, mental and physical, of 
the defectives: 

In the earlier years of the state treatment of mental deficiency the theory was held that 
these children could he fitted for life in the world, and their training was with a view to send- 
ing them hack to their earlier surroundings. This idea has now been abandoned, and in- 
stead the underlying thought is that the institution is to he their permanent home 

They are happier at the institution for the reason that their deficiencies are not so apparent, 
and they are never the butt of remark or jest, as often is the ease about their own homes. 

The custodial farm at Orient of 1,200 acres is an immense factor in their development. 
There all the vegetables used at the institution are raised; 150 cows are milked; enough 
shoes arc turned out to supply all the children; and all plain sewing is now done by the 
inmates. Work is made a privilege, not a necessitv or correction, and withdrawing the 
work is found to he an important corrective. Everything possible is done to make them 



STATE BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS 153 

happy — long play-hours, weekly dances, often dramas in which they can take part. Those 
who run away, upon occasion, almost always return of their own accord. 

It may be added that the institution now owns 1,4-14.96 acres valued at .$268,699.80, 
of which 1,247.75 constitute the custodial farm. The buildings are valued at .$1,372,155.00, 
and the total valuation of all property in 1916 was $1,822,863.39. The daily average 
population for that year was 1,960, the number of officers and employes was 260, or 93 
men and 167 women; the ratio of inmates to officers and employes being 7.5. 

The authorization act before the State Legislature of April 17, 1857, was written by 
the late Dr. Norton S. Townshend, for many years afterwards head of the agricultural 
department at the Ohio State University. Hs was then representing Lorain countv in the 
Legislature. Appropriately he was made a member of the first board of trustees. 

The Problem of the Feeble-Minded. 

In June, 1918, began the publication of The Ohio State Institution Journal, at Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, under the auspices of the Ohio Board of Administration, for the benefit 
of the twenty institutions under its control, with Mr. Frank B. O'Blenness, executive clerk, 
as its editor. Other publications of the Board are "The Problem of the Feeble Minded," 
by Dr. E. J. Emerick, superintendent of the Institution for the Feeble-Minded, and 
director of the Ohio Bureau of Juvenile Research; "Mental Examination of Juvenile De- 
linquents," "A Mental Survey of the Ohio State School for the Blind," "The Increasing 
Cost of Crime," "Crime Prevention," by Dr. Thomas H. Haines, Psychologist and Clinical 
Director of the Bureau; "The Family of Sam Sixty," by Mary Storer Kostir, and "The 
Feeble Minded in a Rural County of Ohio," by Mina A. Sessions, aides in the same Bureau. 

The Bureau of Juvenile Research was established July 1, 1911. It did not come into 
existence without a cause, and many events conditioned it. For example on June 30, 1917, 
there were on the rolls of the two State Industrial Schools of Ohio 1,737 boys and girls, 
of whom 1,281 had been admitted during that year. Each one of these from the time of 
admission became a social state problem, that neither parents nor local authorities could 
solve or handle, and hence they had become state' wards. Examinations at the Boys' Indus- 
trial School in Ohio showed that of 100 consecutive admissions 16 were feeble-minded, 26 
were borderline cases, and only 17 were of normal mentality. In the Girls' School 56 were 
feeble-minded, 11 borderline, 13 mentally retarded, and only 11 normal. All citizens 
familiar with the conditions realized that something must be done. 

In 1911 the Ohio Board of Administration came into existence, entrusted with the 
management of all state institutions devoted to the care of the dependent wards of the State. 
It was required "to promote the study of the causes of delinquency, and of mental, moral, 
and physical defects, with a view to cure and ultimate prevention." In 1913 the Legisla- 
ture passed a law creating the Bureau of Juvenile Research. But it did not provide 
necessary buildings in which to carry on the work, and house the children under observa- 
tion. The work of the first three years of the Bureau was, therefore, much hampered, and 
only general investigations made, besides the issue of the publications named. The State 
Legislature of 1917 provided $100,000 for Bureau buildings; with the completion of these 
the larger phases of their work will begin to appear. Dr. Henry H. Goddard is director 
of the Bureau, having come from the Training School at Vineland, N. J., in May, 1918, 
to succeed Dr. Thomas H. Haines. 

Ohio Board of Administration. 

The Ohio Board of Administration was brought into existence and placed in charge of 
all State benevolent and penal institutions in August, 1911, to accomplish four things: To 
remove politics from their management ; to introduce and maintain business principles ; 
to increase efficiency; and to secure greater economy. At the end of the first six years, 
despite rising war prices, a saving was effected of more than $3,000,000. There has all 
along been a wonderful development in the various departments of the State, which neces- 
sarily adds to the expense. There is now but one board of four members, whereas under 
the old regime there were twenty-one boards of four or five members each. 

The last report of the present Board, for the year ending June 30, 1918, discloses 
some important facts, subject, of course, to the conditions imposed by war work. The per 



154 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

capita cost to citizens of Ohio was increased seven per cent, by the high cost of living, oper- 
ating expenses ten per cent. ; but net results have been considerably minimized by good 
business methods; the per capita cost for operation steadily increased after 1912, the first 
year, but the present increase is only 86 cents over the per capita of 1911, under the old 
regime. In 1918 the total amount spent for food supplies was a trifle over one and a half 
millions of dollars, or an increase over 1917 of 11 per cent. The fuel expense increased 
twenty-six per cent., owing to congested traffic and phenomenal war conditions. 

The entire operating expenses for the year covering the care of 23,000 wards, was 
$5,068,005.80, or an increase of ten per cent, over 1917. The building program for the 
two years was the largest in the history of the Board. The average daily population of 
all the State institutions for 1918 was 23,235, an increase of 617, or three per cent, over 1917. 
The larger part of this was noted in the penal institutions; the reformatory gained 184, 
the Penitentiary increased from 1875 to 2000; the School for the Blind decreased from 235 
to 182 reflecting credit on the Ohio Commission for the Blind and its campaign to prevent 
blindness; the State Hospital now holds 1,815 wards; the School for the Deaf 472; Feeble- 
Minded, 2,261; Blind, 182; Penitentiary, 2,000. Institutions outside of the city are not given 
herein, for obvious reasons. 

State Arsenal. 

The State Arsenal on West Main street is built on a part of the tract that was origin- 
ally set aside for the Penitentiary in 1812. When the Penitentiary on that site was aban- 
doned in 1834, there began a long dispute as to ownership of the tract. It was claimed by 
the heirs of Kerr, McLaughlin and Johnston and later by others under a quit claim deed. 
The dispute was settled in favor of the State in 1854, the tract was divided into lots, most 
of which were sold, $1000 of the proceeds being appropriated to the widow of McLaughlin. 
In 1860 three of the lots were reserved as the site of the State Arsenal, which was ordered 
built at a cost not to exceed $14,000. In 1863, the General Assembly appropriated $2,500 
for grading, fencing and improving the site. The building is 60x100 feet, two stories with 
basement and attic, with an octagonal tower at each of the front corners. 



CHAPTER XX. 

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 

The Ohio State University, Its Origin and Development — Capital University, Lutheran Col- 
lege and Seminary — Catholic Schools, St. Joseph's Academy, St. Mary's of the Springs, 
Pontifical College Josephinum, Aquinas College. 

By W. F. Felch. 

The first intimation of the need of an agricultural school in Ohio was shown in a 
meeting of the Ohio Agricultural Society, in Columbus, January 8, 1839, when a committee 
was appointed to consider the propriety of purchasing a tract of land for an agricultural 
school and for an experimental farm. The matter was again broached in 1815, by the State 
Agricultural Convention ; and the introduction of the study of agriculture in the common 
schools was also suggested by the State Agricultural Society, in 185i, but no progress had 
been made in fifteen years, except by private enterprise. 

Meanwhile, a school of agriculture, the first of its kind in Ohio, had been established 
at Oberlin, by Hon. Norton S. Townshend and others, which was to all intents and purposes 
the parent of the Ohio State University; but, in lieu of endorsing this school in 1854, a 
resolution was adopted recommending that a school or schools of agriculture be permanently 
endowed by a Congressional grant of lands. 

It was not until eight years later, however, (July 2, 1862, in mid-war times), that 
Congress was finally moved to accede to this potent demand, and passed an act, which 
granted each state 30,000 acres of public land, for each of its senators and representatives. 
The proceeds of this grant were to be applied to the endowment of at least one college in 
each state, — "without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military 
tactics — to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanical 
arts." 

At a special meeting, November, 1862, the State Board of Agriculture recommended 
that Ohio accept the grant offered, and appointed N. S. Townshend and T. C. Jones to 
memorialize the General Assembly, which, February 9, 1864, passed an act to accept the 
lands tendered, and pledging performance of the conditions imposed. Certificates of "scrip" 
were accordingly received for 630,000 acres of land and placed on file in the State Treasury, 
and, April 13, 1865, an act, providing for the sale of the scrip and the disposition of the 
proceeds, was passed. 

Immediately, applications were made by various educational institutions in the State, as 
was to be expected, for a share of the fund. This, of course, caused a duality of opinion, — 
one party advocating the division of the funds, the other, their use in the establishment of 
one college. This indecision hindered definite procedure for six more years. The State 
Board, from the start, advocated the establishment of one centrally located institution. 
This policy also had the vigorous and active endorsement of Governor R. B. Hayes — a warm 
supporter of Ohio State, from the start, — to whom later Hayes Hall was dedicated. The 
sale of the land-scrip, meanwhile, was so slow that, on April 5, 1866, an act was passed, 
removing the minimum restriction to 80 cents per acre, in order to sell it more readily. It 
was finally disposed of at a rate of only 53 cents per acre, producing ultimately, — by 1878 
—a fund of .^500,000 from the 630,000 acres. 

The commission appointed to locate the institution received bids from Miami University 
and from the Farmers' College, but both of these were rejected. By resolution, March 30, 
1868, the General Assembly finally declared in favor of one college, and one experimental 
farm; a majority of the committee favored Wooster, the minority, Urbana, for the location 
of the farm, — the former being eventually selected. 

Practically nothing was accomplished until the General Assembly, March 22, 1870, 
enacted a law giving the prospective institution the name and style of "The Ohio Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical College," and creating a board of trustees, one from each congres- 
sional district to be appointed by the Governor, to govern it. This Board held its first 
meeting in Columbus, April 18, 1870, and appointed Valentine B. Horton president, R. C. 



15(5 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Anderson secretary, and Joseph Sullivant treasurer. The General Assembly, May 11, 1870, 
passed an act authorizing counties of the State to raise by taxation money to compete, by 
donations, for the location of the college. 

In response to this appeal Champaign and Clarke counties each offered $200,000, and 
Montgomery $ 100,000, all in 8 per cent, bonds ; while Franklin county at an election August 
13, 1870, approved by 500 majority a proposition to donate $300,000. Additional donations 
by citizens and by railways centering in the city, amounted to $28,000 more. The Franklin 
county proposition was accepted, October, 1870, by the Board, which, thereupon, proceeded 
to select from numerous farms offered the present farm-site, which is now over 400 acres 
in extent and bids fair to reach 1,000 in a few years, — known as the Neil Farm, — "lying on 
the Worthington road about two miles nortli of Columbus." This tract of approximately 
327 acres was bought for $115,950. 

With the opening of 1871 active preparations for building and occupancy began. W. 
B. McClung was appointed, January 6, 1871, first superintendent of the college farm, at 
a salary of $1,500. First students recall him with pleasure, many of whom began their 
novitiates in farming under him. The site for the first college building, University Hall, 
was selected, somewhat too far from the Worthington road, and plans for the structure were 
invited; the plan of Jacob Snyder, of Akron, was adopted, and R. N. Jones of Delaware, 
was appointed superintendent of construction. 

Joseph Sullivant of Columbus, treasurer of the Board, has the honor of proposing the 
course of studv which, after much discussion, was adopted. The studies included were 
agriculture, mechanic arts, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology, mining and metallurgy, 
zoology and veterinary science, botany, horticulture, English language and literature, modern 
and ancient languages, political economy and civil polity. 

The presidencv of the institution was offered to General Jacob Dolson Cox, of Cincin- 
nati, and was declined. It was next offered to United States Senator J. W. Patterson, who, 
after accepting, also declined, owing to political developments in Congress. The way was 
thus opened for an educational expert, and such selection was made as Mill be seen. In 
January, 1873, the following were elected members of the faculty: 

Thomas C. Mendenhall, of Columbus, Professor of Physics and Mechanics. 

Sidney A. Norton, of Cincinnati, Professor of General and Applied Chemistry. 

Edward Orton, of Yellow Springs, Professor of Geology, Mining and Metallurgy. 

Joseph Milliken, of Hamilton, Professor of English and Modern Languages. 

Wm. G. Williams, of Delaware, Professor of Latin and Greek Languages. 

Norton S. Townshend, of Avon, Professor of Agriculture. 

All of these accepted the election except Professor Orton, who declined the professorship 
but in the following April accepted the presidency to which was added the chair of geology. 
Professor Williams was released on the request of the trustees of Ohio Wesleyan University, 
with which institution he was connected. 

An act of the General Assembly, in 1872, provided that specimens of the soils, minerals 
and fossils of Ohio, collected by the Geological Survey of the State, should be classified, 
labeled and presented to the college. This was the beginning of the large collection now in 
Orton Hall, the home of the geological department of the University. 

During the summer of 1873, Prof. R. W. McFarland, of Oxford University, was called 
to the departments of mathematics and civil engineering, and John H. Wright, a recent 
graduate of Dartmouth college, was chosen assistant professor of languages. Prof. Albert 
H. Tuttle, in January, 1871, was appointed to the chair of zoology, and Thomas Mathew, of 
Columbus, was appointed instructor in drawing. Prof. William Colvin of Cincinnati, was 
appointed, June, 1875, professor of political economy and civil polity; and Miss Alice 
Williams was made assistant in the department of English and modern languages. John 
H. Wright resigned, June, 1876, and Josiah R. Smith, A. B., then teaching in the Colum- 
bus Higli School, was appointed in his stead. During the same year. First Lieutenant Luigi 
Lomia of the Fifth U. S. Artillery, was, on request of the trustees, detailed by the Secretary 
of War to take charge of the department of military instruction. There were no more 
changes until 1877, and the above list, with the changes, constitutes practically the first 
faculty of the college. 

While the first college building was still in an incomplete and chaotic condition, the 
institution opened, September 17, 1873, with between thirty and forty students; classes were 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



157 



organized in nearly all the departments. It was then considered the smallest of Ohio 
colleges, but destined to unlimited growth, and the city was very proud of it. The inaugural 
address of President Orton was delayed, and was delivered, January 8, 1874, in the Senate 
chamber. 

The number of trustees was fixed, by an act of the General Assembly, April 20, 1877, 
at five; and on a third re-organization of the body. May 1, 1878, at seven, the name of the 
college being then changed from The Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College to the Ohio 
State University. 

In 1877, the chair of mine engineering and metallurgy was created and John A. 
Church was appointed to the professorship. In 1879 the Mechanical Laboratory was erected 
and equipped ; the chair of history and philosophy was created, with John T. Short as 
assistant professor. Professor Mendenhall resigned his chair in June, 1878, to accept a 
similar position in the Imperial University of Tokio, and Stillman W. Robinson, C. E., was 
appointed to the vacancy. In 1879, Lieutenant Lomia was appointed adjunct professor 
o€ mathematics and teacher of elocution, and Nathaniel W. Lord became assistant professor 
of mining and metallurgy. 

The number of students at the close of the first year, June, 1871, was 90; the second 
year 118, the third year 143, the fourth year 251, the fifth year 309. The first class grad- 




ing Ohio State University in 1888 



uated in 1878 consisted of six young men, five of whom took the degree of B. Sc. and one 
the degree of B. A. The educational fund at that time amounted to $500,000, which bore 
interest at 6 per cent., or $30,000 a year, which meant approximately $100 a year for each 
student. 

Of the farming land under cultivation in 1879 there were 229 acres. This afforded pay 
for labor which aided a great many students to graduate. $6,500 accrued to the University 
this year by the sale, November 29, 1878, of 11,903 acres of Virginia Military lands, in 
Scioto county. The earnings of students by farm-labor in 1879 amounted to $1,250. 

A second course of public lectures on agriculture was given in January, 1880, for the 
general public, — the greater part of them by Dr. N. S. Townshend, by whom the course 
was inaugurated. The first course was delivered early in 1879, and courses were main- 
tained for six years, being the precursors of the Farmers' Institutes. 

In his annual report for 1880, President Orton recommended the construction of a 
chemical laboratory. At the close of the college year, June, 1878, President Orton had 
tendered his resignation, but it was not at that time accepted. At the close of 1881 he 
insisted upon retiring, and confining his duties to the chair of geology, which by this time had 
grown to demand all his attention; his resignation was accepted, June 21, 1881. 

Walter Quincv Scott, of Easton, Peima.. was chosen President, and in addition took the 
chair of philosophv and political economy. In the same year, Professor Samuel Carroll 



158 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Derby, late President of Antioch College, was appointed to the chair of Latin language 
and literature, which he still retains, (1920), being the senior professor of the present 
faculty. Professor Josiah R. Smith became professor of the Greek language and literature 
and so continued till his death. A new chair of horticulture and botany was created, also, 
under Professor W. R. Lazenby, B. S., of Cornell; and First Lieutenant George H. Ruhlen 
of the 17-lth infantry, was detailed by the Secretary of War as military instructor, vice 
Lieutenant Lomia whose term had expired. Professor Joseph Milliken retired in May, 
1881, owing to infirmity, and his death occurred soon after. His duties were apportioned 
to other professors for the time being. He was a retired minister, an accomplished linguist, 
a pronounced wit, and kept his classes on the qui vive by his bright sallies. 

It would be almost impossible, in the brief space at our command to enlarge upon the 
faculty changes that occurred thereafter, covering a whole book, perhaps ; the faculty con- 
sisted of sixty-six in 1892, and now numbers close to five hundred, many hundreds of changes 
having taken place in over forty years time. Having written of the fathers of the Uni- 
versity, in the faculty sense, until the period when a good working force was secured, we 
may be excused from further detail. 

The General Assembly, March 31, 1882, made an appropriation of $20,000 for a chemical 
laboratory, which was soon built, as also three residences for professors the same year. 
An Agricultural Experiment Station and a Meteorological Bureau were established on the 
campus in 1882. The next year $15,000 was appropriated to erect the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Hall. 

Rev. Wm. H. Scott, President of Ohio University, at Athens, Ohio, was elected, June, 
1883, President, and professor of philosophy and political economy, vice Walter Quincy 
Scott, who failed of re-election and resigned. Professor T. C. Mendenhall, who had re- 
turned from Japan, withdrew from the faculty, December, 1881, to accept the appointment 
of professor of electrical science in the office of the Chief Signal Officer of the United 
States. Professor R. W. McFarland retired in 1885, to accept the presidency of Miami Uni- 
versity. At the close of 1888, Professor Albert H. Tuttle retired from the chair of zoology 
to accept the chair of biology in the University of Virginia. 

The Chemical Laboratory building was destroyed by fire February 2, 1889, and $5,000 
was tendered for a temporary equipment with $10,000 at the next session of the General 
Assembly for the construction and equipment of a new building. In 1889 died Profesosr 
Alfred H. Welsh, associate of Professor Geo. W. Knight as professor of English language and 
literature. This was a distinct loss to the University, as lie had attained a wide reputation 
as a writer, including a history of American literature and many mathematical works, — 
having written and published fourteen books in thirteen years, and lie virtually died from 
over-work. 

Congress passed an act, August 30, 1890, of much financial importance to the University 
and similar institutions, still in their swaddling clothes, increasing the annual fund for their 
support from $15,000 to $20,000, — this being supplemental to the original grant of land 
"scrip" to agricultural and mechanical colleges. 

Perhaps the most notable event of the next few years was the creation of the Law 
School. The trustees, by resolution, June, 1890, established the law department, with Hon. 
Marshall Williams, Chief Justice of the Ohio Supreme Court as dean, and a large faculty, 
mainly from tin Columbus bar, — which doubled the faculty, although the number of law 
students in 189] was only 50. The law school was conducted for a time in the Franklin 
County Court House. In 1892 the entire faculty of the University, counting the lawyers, 
consisted of sixty-six members. 

Thomas F. Hunt, of Pennsylvania, was elected professor of agriculture in lieu of X. S. 
Townshend in 1891, who, on account of age, asked to be relieved. Thus, one by one, the 
original faculty were passing away. The University was now possessed of five buildings, 
and in 1892 three others were in course of erection, (Orton, Hayes, and Veterinary Halls'). 
There were also six houses and the north dormitory, housing 64, and the south dormitory, 
24 more. The library held only 12,000 volumes, including the Sullivant and Deshler col- 
lections, in 1892. 

After twelve years of steadfast and unselfish devotion to the interests of the University 
Dr. William Henry Scott retired as President in June, 1895, and was elected to and 
accepted the chair of philosophy. Dr. James Hulme Canfield, then Chancellor of tile Uni- 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



159 



versity of Nebraska, was elected President and assumed his duties July 1. Professors Orton, 
Norton, Townshend, Robinson, Lord, Derby, Smith and Knight were then the leading mem- 
bers of the faculty, and some of them held the pioneer chairs. The long contest over the 
Page will was still in the courts, and had been carried to the Lnited States Supreme Court 
for adjudication before any portion of the proposed endowment could be used for the 
erection of Page Hall. The Law School was still sustained by an annual fund of $1,500 
from the State levy. An unexpected donation of $3,000 had been made by Emerson 
MeMillin, then of Columbus, for the purchase of books for the Law Library. A little later, 
Mr. MeMillin made an additional donation of .$10,000 for an astronomical observatory; 
and upon the completion of the building, a 12-inch telescope was installed. In 1896 he 
added another $5,000 for the beautification of the grounds. The observatory was put vi 
charge of Professor Henry C. Lord who is still serving. 

The next few years saw a considerable growth in the physical equipment of the Uni- 
versity. The Chapel in University Hall was enlarged and rearranged and suitable execu- 
tive offices were provided in the same building. Horticultural Hall, the Biological building, 
and the Armory and Gymnasium were erected, the former at a cost of nearly $50,000 and 
the latter at a cost of $98,936.76 for the building and $5,663.91 for equipment. Page Hall 
owes its existence to the munificence of Henrv F. Page, of Circleville, who devised certain 




lands in Ohio and Illinois to the University, subject to a life interest of his widow and 
daughter. The litigation that followed was long and tedious. 

In 1899 the Presidency passed from Dr. Canfield to the present incumbent, Dr. William 
Oxley Thompson, under whom the physical growth has continued, and the intellectual and 
spiritual forces have been enlarged and organized and directed to ever higher achievements. 
The home economics department, the beginnings of which were made in 1898, has now a 
building of its own. Ohio Union, Oxley Hall, the botany and zoology building, Brown 
Hall, the industrial arts building, the physics building, several buildings for the College of 
Agriculture and others have come. A beautiful Library building lias been provided, and the 
campus structures number more than forty. 

Besides the Graduate School, the colleges now number eleven: Agriculture, Arts, Phil- 
osophy and Science, Commerce and Journalism. Dentistry, Education, Engineering, Homoeo- 
pathic Medicine, Law, Medicine, Pharmacy and Veterinary Medicine — each with a dean and 
faculty. 

The University has been co-educational from the very beginning and has graduated many 
women of fine attainments. While the nation was at war in 1917-18 many of the student 
activities were carried on by young women with no lowering of standards. Admission to 
the University is by certificate from accredited high schools and academies or after examina- 



160 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



tion in five groups of studies — English, history, mathematics and foreign languages, and 
the entire work is arranged on the group and elective system. A summer session has been 
added, and now education is available there throughout the year. The University, with its 
colleges and graduate school, is the crown of the public school system of Ohio and is of 
ever-increasing worth. 

Capital University. 

Earlv in the history of the State, many Lutherans settled in Ohio, coming from Germany 
and the Eastern states. In 1818 the Evangelical Lutheran Synod was organized and the 
question of founding a theological school began to be agitated. It was not, however, until 
18.'30 that the Synod decided to take this forward step. Then it chose Rev. William 
Schmidt, who had recently come from the University at Halle to a pastorate in Canton, to be 
the professor of theology around whom the institution was to develop. He was permitted 
to retain his pastorate for a time and began his educational work in his own house in Canton 
with six students, thus establishing the second Lutheran Seminary in America. 

By resolution of the Synod in 1831, Columbus was chosen as the seat of the seminary. 
Fourteen acres of ground at what was then the southern extremity of High street was 
bought and with the aid of contributions of $2,500 by citizens of Columbus, two buildings 
were erected where later the Hayden residence was built. To the theological course an 
academical course was added and Columbus' first school of higher education was thus pro- 
vided. 

In 1839, Professor Schmidt died and was succeeded by Rev. C. F. Schaefer of Hagers- 
town, Md., who resigned after three years. In 1846, Rev. W. F. Lehmann came to the school 




Chapel University (Lutheran.) 



as professor and continued witli it until his death in 1880. During his period of service a 
college department was added, and since then the seminary and the college have worked 
along together as Capital University, chartered in 1850 by the General Assembly. Rev. 
Wm. M. Reynolds was the first President of the University, his associates being Rev. Mr. 
Lehmann, Rev. A. Essick and J. A. Tressler. 

The Soutli High street property had been sold in 1849 to Peter Hayden, and the 
institution was moved temporarily to Town and Fifth streets. It was here that Dr. Theo- 
dore G. Wormley served for a time as professor of chemistry and Daniel Worley as tutor. 

Dr. Lincoln Goodale, in order that the institution might again be suitably located, about 
this time gave as a site a four-acre lot at the northwest corner of High and Goodale 
streets. A handsome building costing $10,000 was erected and dedicated September 14, 
1853, the English address being delivered by Hon. William H. Seward, the New York 
statesman. 

President Reynolds was succeeded in 1854 by Rev. C. Spielmann, who resigned in 1857 
owing to failing health and was succeeded by Rev. W. F. Lehmann, who had up to that 
time held a subordinate place in the administration. When he died in 1880, Dr. M. Loy 
became the fourth President. 

In 187(i, tin' High and Goodale street site had become undesirable and the institution 
was moved to its present location east of Alum creek on the route of the old National Road, 
a seventeen-acrc tract of land presented for the purpose. There an even better main build- 
ing was erected. Other buildings including Leonard Science Hall, Rudolph Library, Recita- 
tion Hall, Gymnasium and Auditorium, residences for professors, a church and a power house 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 161 

followed until now there are ten buildings on the tract, with the country on the east and 
the city on the west. 

Rev. Otto Mees was called to the Presidency in 1912, succeeding Dr. L. H. Schuh, who 
became Housefather and Pastor in 189-i, resigning in 1912. The faculty now numbers 
twenty-two, and the students number nearly .'500. By the action of the Synod in 1918, ad- 
mission was offered to young women, and for the first time the institution became co-edu- 
cational. Dr. M. Loy, who became President in 1880, was made professor emeritus in 1902. 
Dr. F. W. Stellhorn served in the faculty from 1881 to 1918. Rev. E. Schmid served from 
1860 to 1896. Other teachers whose names shine like stars in the history of the institution 
are: Dr. Theodore Mees, Dr. G. H. Schodde, Rev. C. H. L. Schuette, Professor George 
K. Leonard, and Rev. A. Pfleuger. F. W. Heer has been Treasurer for thirty years. 

Catholic Educational Institutions. 
By Helen Moriarty. 

Columbus Catholics have always been noted for their devotion to religious education. 
From the time the first parish school was opened the generosity of the people in this regard 
has never flagged. The earliest religious teachers in Columbus were the Sisters of Notre 
Dame, who came to Columbus in 185.5 at the request of Father Borgess, pastor of Holy 
Cross, and Father Fitzgerald, pastor of St. Patrick's, to take charge of their respective 
parish schools. Their first home in Columbus was located on what is now Marion street, 
a small frame house, still standing. Their next home was on Oak street. In the course 
of time at the request of the Bishop the Sisters decided to open an academy for the higher 
education of girls and to this end bought property on East Rich street. Here in September, 
1875, St. Joseph's Academy was opened, and soon became one of the solid educational insti- 
tutions of the city, a standard which it still maintains. Its department of music under the 
direction of Sister Maria Joseph, a musician of remarkable ability, was a strong factor in 
the development of the musical life of the city in the early days, and many of the town's 
best musicians were trained within the walls of St. Joseph's. This veteran religieuse became 
incapacitated for work only within the past few months after more than fifty years of ardu- 
ous and unstinted labor. 

Additions have been built to the Academy and convent from time to time and in 1880 
a chapel was added. A school for small boys was started a few years ago at the corner 
of Rich and Sixth streets. The present Superior is Sister Josephine Ignatius, who has 
been connected with the institution for many years. There are 58 Sisters in the community, 
who teach in the Academy and in four parish schools besides. The Sisters also give reli- 
gious instruction to the Catholic children in the Institution for the Blind. 

With the Academy are connected two active literary societies — the Watterson Reading 
Circle and the Notre Dame Literary Circle, the latter made up chiefly of graduates of the 
Academy. The Watterson Reading Circle has been in existence for twenty-four years and 
has a high standing among literary circles throughout the country. It maintains a lecture 
course which has brought many distinguished men and women to Columbus and has done 
much to foster the intellectual life of the Catholic people. Its members also, with the 
Bishop's approval, do social and catechetical work. 

St. Mary's of the Springs, situated about three miles east of Columbus, is one of its 
popular educational institutions. Its history dates back to 1830, when a small band of 
Dominican Sisters came into Ohio from Kentucky on the invitation of Bishop Fenwick of 
Cincinnati. They settled in the historic town of Somerset, Perry county, where they con- 
ducted a school and novitiate for thirty-six years. In 1866 their home there was totally 
destroyed by fire. While they were considering a new building, Mr. Theodore Leonard of 
Columbus, offered them a tract of land east of Columbus, also pledging his assistance in the 
erection of a suitable building. The offer was accepted, and the building was put up on 
the picturesque site, which because of the many springs in the grounds was called St. Mary's 
of the Springs. The school was opened in September, 1868, and from that date has had 
a steady and substantial growth and a high standard as an educational institution. Many 
additions have been built to meet the needs of the times and the property is now a beautiful 
one and one of the show places of the city. The first community numbered 26 Sisters, 
where now there are 262 with about .'50 novices in training. St. Mary's is also the mother- 



162 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

house of this community. Mother Miriam Maasterson is the Mother General of the congrega- 
tion, succeeding in 1916 Mother Yineentia Erskine, who had held the office for 21 years. In 
addition to the Academy with its 125 pupils, the Sisters teach parish schools in various cities 
of Ohio, as well as in Pennsylvania and in New York City and New Haven, Conn. In the 
two latter cities they also have prosperous academies. 

The Pontifical College Josephinum is one of the most extensive Catholic educational 
institutions in the city. It is located on East Main street at the corner of Seventeenth 
street. It was founded by Rev. Joseph Jessing, first in Pomeroy, Ohio, for the care of 
orphan boys, and later in Columbus where he transferred the work in 1877, together with the 
printing plant of the Ohio Waisenfreund, a paper started by him to finance his charity 
enterprise. The bovs were educated and trained in technical and mechanical branches. In 
1888 Father Jessing further extended his work by opening a school for worthy young men 
anxious to enter the priesthood who were without means to prosecute their studies, and from 
that small beginning evolved the present college. The seminary was opened in the fall of 
189-1. In 1892 Father Jessing placed the institution under the immediate jurisdiction of 
the Sacred College of the Propaganda, whence came its present title, the Pontifical College 
Josephinum. Father Jessing, who had been made a Domestic Prelate with the title of 
Monsignor by Pope Leo XIII, died in 1899, his iron constitution worn down by a life of 
incessant labor and extreme self-denial. He was succeeded by Rev. Joseph Soentgerath, 
D. D., one of his most valuable assistants, who has conducted the institution with great suc- 
cess. There is a faculty of 17 priests, teachi lg 105 clerical students and 56 young men in 
the seminary. One of the professors, Rev. A. W. Centner, Ph. D., was in 1917 commissioned 
as Chaplain in the army. 

Still connected with the Josephinum is the St. Joseph's Orphan's Home where forty 
bovs are cared for. The Sisters Mission Workers of the Sacred Heart have charge of the 
domestic department of the home and the Josephinum. 

Until the year 1895 Columbus had no facilities for the higher education of Catholic boys. 
In that year Bishop Hartley requested the Dominican Fathers to take charge of a high 
school and college for boys and young men which he wished to establish. The site chosen 
was the plot of ground at the corner of Mount Vernon and Washington avenues which be- 
longed to the diocese, and was once the site of the Catholic cemetery. The first building 
was completed by the first of the year 1906 and school was opened on February 6. The 
school prospered from the first. In 1912 an addition was built to supply the growing 
needs of the school and at that date, the name of the college, which had heretofore been 
known as St. Patrick's, was changed to Aquinas College. There are now in the college about 
250 students, some of whom are boarding students from various parts of the country. The 
faculty numbers twelve Dominican Fathers, with Rev. M. S. Welch, O. P., as President. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 

Early Schools and Teachers — Academies, Seminaries and Institutes — First Public Schools — 
Growth of Public Schools in Favor — School Superintendents and Their Administi ations 
— German in the Schools — Men and Women on the Board of Education — Private 
Schools and Business Colleges. 

While in the earliest legislation with reference to the Northwest Territory, there was 
thought of the necessity for education and provision for the maintenance of schools, the first 
schools in this community, as well as in others, were privately supported, parents paying the 
teacher in proportion to the number of their c lildren in school. The lands that were set 
aside for school purposes did not yield the necessary revenue. They were virgin, unoc- 
cupied for the most part and of little value. The support they were able to give was never 
great, and they were finally sold, the proceeds being turned into the State Treasury as an 
irreducible debt, the income since 1825 having been supplemented annually by a general tax. 

The first school was where the first settlement was made, in Franklinton, and the first 
school house, built probably in 1806, was a log structure about IS feet square and stood a 
little north of Broad street west of what is now Sandusky street. It was built by Lucas 
Sullivant, the builder of most of the first things in Franklinton. His son, Joseph, in later 
life wrote that his acquaintance with school life began in this "cabin, with its slabs for seats 
polished by use, and big chimney witli downward drafts, with fleas inside and hogs under 
the floor, no grammar, no geography, but a teacher who ruled with a rod." Perhaps the 
teacher referred to was Dr. Peleg Sisson, for when that worthy taught in that school house, 
Mr. Sullivant is known to have been a pupil. But there were women school teachers in 
those days as now, and the first Franklinton teachers of whom there is record were Miss 
Sarah Reed, also a Christian worker with Dr. James Hoge, and Miss Mary Wait. William 
Lusk at an early day taught a common subscription school and not later than 1818 opened 
an academy. 

The first school east of the Scioto was opened in the Presbyterian log church on Spring- 
street, in 1814. Wm. T. Martin taught a school on Town street half a block east of High, 
in 1816-17, his wife aiding him with the younger pupils. Dr. Sisson moved his school from 
Franklinton to a room in the Pike tavern and about 1819 took charge of a classical school 
for boys that had been opened in a frame building at the northwest corner of High and Town 
streets. About the same time, Mrs. David Smith, wife of the editor of the Monitor, opened 
a school for girls on Front street. Rudolphus Dickinson, Samuel Bigger and Daniel Bigelow 
were also among the early Columbus teachers. John Kilbourne's Ohio Gazeteer for 1826 
says: 'Columbus contains four or five private schools and a classical seminary," at a time 
when there were 200 dwellings and 1,400 inhabitants. Near the close of that year, 
the first public school was established, but many pay schools — academies, seminaries and 
institutes — continued to exist and were attended by children of all ages. 

One of these was the Columbus Academy which in 1820 was housed in a one-story frame 
building on Third street at the present Central Presbyterian church site. The structure 
was erected by a school company of about twenty citizens, out "among the pawpaw bushes 
with but three other houses in the vicinity." The first teacher was Aaron G. Brown, a 
graduate of Ohio University, and among his pupils were Joseph Sullivant, W. A. Piatt, 
John and Daniel Overdier. Margaret Livingston, J. R. Osborn, Robert and John Armstrong, 
Henry Mills, Keys Barr, Margaret, Elizabeth and Moses Hoge. Cyrus Parker and William 
Lusk also taught in this academy at one of its several locations, for it was removed to 
Front street and later to Fourth, near the present Central Market house; and so, too, H. N. 
Hubbell, Andrew Williams and Moses Spurgeon. 

Special schools for girls were not lacking;. In 1826, Miss Anna Treat and Miss Sarah 
Benfield opened a "female academy" in the Pike building, West Broad street, and conducted 
it for several years. In the McCoy building at the northwest corner of High and State 
streets, the Columbus Female Seminary was opened in 1828, with Rev. Joseph Labaree as 
principal and a superintending committee composed of N. McLean, R. W. McCoy, J. M. 



164 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Espy, Henry Brown and James Hoge. Mr. Labaree was assisted by Miss Emily Richardson, 
Miss Margaret Richardson and Miss Amy Adams. 

The basement of Trinity Episcopal church, from 1835 on, was the home of a number 
of private schools taught by J. W. Mattison, J. O. Masterson, W. S. Wheaton, George Cole, 
Ezra Munson and others. In 1830, Elder George Jeffries taught school in a log house on the 
north side of West Mound street, where also he organized the First Baptist church. In 
1838-39 a high school for young ladies was conducted in the lecture room of the First Pres- 
byterian church by Miss Mary A. Shaw. These and other instances testify to the close rela- 
tionship in those days of the church and the school. A tragic incident in the private school 
life of the city was the drowning of J. O. Masterson in the Scioto. Dismissing school, one 
day, in a building on Gay street, he asked each of the pupils to submit an essay next morn- 
ing on "Never speak ill of the dead." When the pupils went to school the following day, 
they learned that their teacher had been drowned. 

In 1836, a number of women doing charity work discovered many children, some of them 
orphans, who did not go to school. They organized a society representing all the churches 
and established a school in a brick building on a lot near Fourth street that Alfred Kelley 
gave for the purpose. A report, December, 1837, showed that school had been conducted for 




iiil#? 
P 






Columbus Academy, built in 1820. 



five quarters at an expense of $287.50, that 92 different children had attended, with an average 
of 35, and that $750 had been raised by membership fees. The work was continued for 
some years. 

Prior to 183G, the colored people maintained a school in the southern part of the city. 
In the year named a school society was formed, with David Jenkins, B. Roberts and C. 
Lewis as trustees. In the fall of 1839, the society had $60 in the treasury and a subscribed 
building fund of $225, the goal being $700 for lot and building. In 1810 there was a colored 
school with (S3 pupils. In 1811, Alfred Kelley, John I,. Gill and Peter Hayden erected a 
building at tin- northeast corner of Oak and Fifth, and established a school there which was 
taught for several years by Robert Barrett. 

In the multitude of private schools that have come and gone, these others must be men- 
tioned: The Columbus Institute, in 18-10, by Abiel Foster, at Rich and Front streets; the 
Female Seminary, 1813-18. by Mr. and Mrs. E. Schenck, at Broad and High; the Literary 
.and Scientific Institute, 1840-46, by Rev. John Covert, on Town street; the Esther Institute, 
1852-62, by Charles Jucksch, T. G. Wormlcy and others, first on Ricli street, later in a pre- 
tentious building on East Broad street near Fourth, where the Athletic Club now stands; the 
English and Classical school for girls, 1884-94, by Miss L. M. Phelps and a strong corps 
of teachers, at Broad and fourth streets and th • Columbus Latin School, established at Fourth 



PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS 165 

and State streets in 1888 by Charles E. Moore, and later conducted for five or six years bv 
Fra?ik T. Cole. 

In 1822, Governor Trimble appointed a state commission to devise and report a system 
of common schools for the state. Caleb Atwater and Rev. James Hoge, of Columbus, were 
among the active members. Their report, while not adopted by the General Assembly, led 
to the school act of 1825. Under this law, each of the townships in Franklin county was 
divided into school districts, in which school directors were elected. In that part of Columbus 
which was then Franklinton, there were two districts, while in Columbus east of the river there 
were six. The two Franklinton districts were found to have 40 and 37 householders respec- 
tively, while the six in Columbus showed a total of 273 householders with 405 children from 
five to 15 years of age. Among the earliest directors in the Franklinton districts were Winches- 
ter Risley, Wm. Badger, Samuel Deardurff and Horace Walcutt. Among the earliest in the 
Columbus districts were Wm. T. Martin, Dr. Peleg Sisson, David Smith, Otis Crosby, Wm. 
Long, D. W. Deshler, Orris Parrish, Andrew Backus, Rev. Chas. Hinkle, Thomas Car- 
penter and Joseph Hunter. 

In April, 1826, the Court of Common Pleas appointed as the first county school exam- 
iners: Rev. James Hoge, Dr. Charles H. Wetmore and Rev. Henry Matthews. They exam- 
ined and granted certificates to teachers as follows : Joseph P. Smith, W. P. Meacham, C. W. 
Lewis, Eli Wall, H. N. Hubbell, Nancy Squires, John Starr, Robert Ware, Margaret Liv- 
ingston, George Black, Kate Reese, Cyrus Parker, Lucas Ball, Ira Wilcox and Caleb Davis. 
Other early county examiners were Dr. Peleg Sisson, Bela Latham, Samuel Parsons, P. B. Wil- 
cox, I. N. Whiting, Rev. George Jeffries, Wm. S. Sullivant, Timothy Lee, Joseph Sullivant and 
David Smith — all names that stand out in local history. 

The first public schools to be opened were those in the second district of Franklinton 
where Caleb Davis taught, using the log building that Lucas Sullivant had erected near the 
river in 1806, and in the third district of Columbus, where H. N. Hubbell taught, usino- the 
Academy building that Lucas Sullivant and 20 other citizens had built in 1820. The first 
teachers in the other Columbus districts were Starr, Wall, Lewis, Smith and Meacham. The 
reason for this precedence was that in the two districts named buildings were at once availa- 
ble. Nineteen days after the organization of the Columbus third district, the directors — Otis 
Crosby, David Smith and Wm. Long — bought the Academy lot and building, January 30, 
1827. A peculiar historic interest thus centers in that site and building. The lot was the 
northeast corner of Town and Fourth streets, and extended back to the alley. The building 
stood on the north end facing east. It was a two-room frame 31x48 feet, and was distin- 
guished by a belfry in which hung a bell that was said to be second only to that on the 
State House. A large wood-burning stove stood in the center of each room. The other 
furnishing consisted of board benches, a few of which had low backs, a few writing shelves, 
a plain boxlike desk for the teacher and a small blackboard. The building was used as a 
school till 1836, when the school directors — John L. Gill, Ichabod G. Jones and Jonathan 
Xeereamer — sold the lot to Orris Parrish, reserving the building which was later converted 
into a blacksmith shop, then into a feed store and was torn down in 1870. 

In the other districts schools were opened at different dates and at places not identified. 
School funds were derived from taxation and the interest on the fund created bv the sale of 
school lands. The amount for the several districts was meager, amounting in 1826 to 60^ 
cents to each householder. A teacher's pay was approximately $15 a month and the term of 
employment was three or four months. In the third district, in 1837, school was main- 
tained four months, while the private schools ran seven; in the fourth district, there was no 
public school that year, while three private schools ran four months each. In the ten years 
(1829-38) D. W. Deshler was treasurer of the first district, he received a total of $1,621.22, 
or about $160 a year. Others had less. These facts indicate the uncertainty and irregu- 
larity that marked the work of the first public schools. Many preferred the private schools 
and clung to them, and even in that day. according to the record, there were parents wholly 
indifferent to their children's education. In 1826 an observer wrote: "There are many 
children growing up amongst us whose parents entirely neglect their education. Thev are 
wholly illiterate and enjoy at home neither the benefit of precept nor example. Youth nightly 
infest our streets with riot and din, accompanied with the most shocking profanity." Ap- 
parently there were bad boys and wayward girls even in those "good old days." The same 
writer adds: "Teachers see to the morals of the little ones entrusted to them no further than 



166 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

the hours of exercise, and even then sometimes suffer a state of insubordination wholly in- 
consistent with improvement." Criticism of teachers is evidently no new thing. 

There were women among those to whom teachers' certificates were first granted under the 
law of 1825, but all the teachers first employed under the law, both in Columbus and Frank- 
linton were men. Miss Kate Reese, who taught a public school near Third and Long streets 
in 1835, was the first woman teacher in public employ. Elizabeth Williams (afterwards Mrs. 
Abel Hildreth) was the next, in 1837, her school being held in the building at Front and 
Court, the second structure used by Elder George Jeffries and Ins Baptist church. 

In its first twelve years the public school system traveled a hard road. It had little 
money and much opposition. But in Columbus it found stalwart advocates. Among them 
was Alfred Kelley who, as a representative in the General Assembly, offered in 1837 a reso- 
lution instructing the standing committee on schools to inquire into the expediency of creating 
the office of State Superintendent of Common Schools. The office was created and Samuel 
Lewis was its first incumbent. Happily he was an enthusiast. In his first year he traversed 
the State, mostly on horseback, visiting 40 towns and 300 schools and covering a distance 
of 1 200 miles. He reported to the General Assembly that there was a deep interest in public 
schools, especially among parents, and that where schools were free to rich and poor alike, 
they flourished best. He recommended the creation of a State School Fund, the establish- 
ment of school libraries, the publication of a school journal and proper care of the school 
lands. He asked and was granted authority to call upon county auditors for information. 

Superintendent Lewis found no stronger support anywhere than in Columbus. Among 
those earliest at his back were Rev. James Hoge, Alfred Kelley, Mathew Mathews, P. B. 
Wilcox, Smithson E. Wright, David W. Deshler, Joseph Ridgway, jr., R. Bixby, Joel 
Buttles, Wm. Hance, Noah H. Swayne, Col. John Noble, Lewis Heyl and Rev. Frank R. 
Cressv. Columbus in 1838 became a separate school district, with its own directors elected 
for three years and with authority to establish schools of different grades and to "provide 
(annually) at least six months good schooling to all white unmarried youth in the district." 
The clerk of the city became the clerk of the school board. The receipts for school purposes 
ran from $3,502.10 in 1838 to $2,174.80 in 1814, the decline being due to hard times and leg- 
islative permission to reduce the levy. W. H. McGuffey, of school reader fame, spoke in the 
churches on education in 1838, and in December of the same year, the Ohio Educational 
Convention was held here, with Rev. James Hoge as chairman. The local newspapers also 
greatly helped to popularize education in free public schools. 

As a result of three meetings of citizens, all in September, 1838, Dr. Peleg Sisson, Adam 
Brotherlin and George W. Slocum were elected the first Columbus school directors and a 
tax of $3,500 was authorized to buy three lots and provide buildings — one at Long and 
Third, one at Rich and Third and one at Mound and Third streets. The first named lot was 
bought from Lyne Starling in the following January for $500 and in April the other two 
were acquired — a lot at Mound street for $525 and the north half of the present school 
site at Rich street, with the Hazeltine school building on it, for $1,200. Thus in 1839 the 
school directors owned four lots and two school buildings, the Columbus Academy property 
at Town and Fourth having already passed into their hands. The number of pupils in that 
year was 400 and the number of teachers twelve. Most of the schools were maintained in 
rented rooms at a rental of $fi00 annually. This showed progress, but it did not satisfy; 
already strong sentiment was finding expression in the newspapers that all public schools 
should be held in buildings municipally owned ; it was better economy to pay the $f>00 in 
interest than in rent. 

In 18 1! Dr. Peleg Sisson, James Cherry and P. B. Wilcox were elected directors. The 
report of 1842 shows that 13 schools, one German, were maintained till the funds were 
exhausted; five of them were taught by men for seven months at $80 a quarter and eight by 
women for eight and a half months, at $50 a quarter. The number of pupils ranged from 
f>00 to 750, though there were 1.598 children of school age in the city. In 1812 there was 
organized a teachers' association which was maintained for many years. 

Early in 1815 Joseph Ridgway, jr., a representative in the General Assembly, intro- 
duced and secured the passage of a bill for the better regulation and support of the common 
schools. It created for Columbus the Board of Education of six members, and after popu- 
lar election and subsequent organization, the board appeared thus constituted: Wm. Long 
president, Smithson E. Wright secretary, H. I". Huntington treasurer, P. B. Wilcox, James 



PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS 167 

Cherry and J. B. Thompson. At the same election a proposition to levy a tax to build school 
houses was defeated: Yeas 104, nays 211, blanks 501. But at the election in 1816, when 
Thompson and Wright were re-elected, the tax proposition prevailed: Yeas 776, nays 323. A 
tax that would yield $7,500 was levied by ths City Council, and the board erected three 
buildings on the sites previously purchased. These buildings were all of a style called "Lan- 
castrian," of one story and built of brick. Each was 187-J feet long and 24 feet wide and 
contained six rooms, furnished for primary, secondary and grammar grades. When they were 
finished the city had about $14,000 invested ii school lots, buildings and equipment. 

In January, 1847, the board elected Asa D. Lord, M. D., the first superintendent of 
public schools, and he began his work May 15 following, assuming general oversight of the 
schools, the examination of teachers and the arrangement of the course of study. Dr. Lord 
was then 31 years of age, having been born in Madrid, St. Lawrence county, X. Y., June 17. 
1816. He taught his first school at the age of 16 and at 23 became principal of the Western 
Reserve Seminary, Kirtland, Ohio, one of the earliest normal schools in the country. While 
at Kirtland he took his degree in medicine and organized there, in 1843, the first teachers' 
institute in Ohio. In Columbus he organized the first graded schools in the State and, besides 
his regular duties, edited at different times four school papers, the Ohio School Journal, the 
School Friend, the Public School Advocate, and the Ohio Journal of Education. He served 
as superintendent for seven years, beginning at a salary of $600. In 1863, having completed 
a course in theology, he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Franklin. For several 
years he was superintendent of the Ohio Institution for the Blind and in 1868 was called to 
a similar position in Batavia, N. Y., where he died in 1874. 

Dr. Lord's administration was one of vigorous growth. At the outset he organized the 
staffs at the three buildings thus: North building (Third and Long), D. C. Pearson, princi- 
pal, Miss Lavina Lazelle, Miss Roxana Stevens, Miss A. N. Stoddart; Middle building 
(Third and Rich), Charles J. Webster, principal, Miss Catherine Lumney, Miss Roda Sinnel, 
Miss E. Fally, Dr. and Mrs. Lord; South building (Third and Mound), Orlando Wilson, 
principal, S. S. Rickly (teacher of German), Emily J. Ricketts. Principals were paid $400 
a year, the other men teachers less, women teachers $140 a year. Each building had primary, 
secondary and grammar grades; the total enrollment was 1.750, average attendance 798. 

The tide of sentiment was running in favor of the public schools, and there was call 
for instruction in the higher branches. There was long discussion of the question out of 
which came the conclusion that the demand was just and that, if it were not met, the prof- 
fered favor of many would be lost to the public school system. So, in November, 1847, a 
high school department was opened in the Middle building, with Dr. and Mrs. Lord in 
charge. The attendance the first quarter was 25, the second 33 and the third 50. The 
growth was such that the department was taken to the Covert building on East Town street, 
where S. S. Rickly was one of the teachers for a year ; then to the basement of the Reformed 
church across the street, where E. D. Kingsley began teaching in 1819; and in 1853. to the 
State street building where it remained till 1862. The first high school class was graduated 
in December, 1851, in the Reformed church, James L. Bates making the address. 

One school for colored children had been maintained since 1839; in 1853 there were 
two such schools. German was taught as earlv as 1839; in 1845 there were two German 
schools and in 1847 there were three, occupying the South building and a rented room. In 
1850 these schools had an enrollment of 207; in 1851 there were four German schools with 
316 pupils; in 1852 the board bought a lot at Fourth and Court streets and at a cost of 
$3,000 erected a frame building to which the German schools were removed. 

The site of the present Sullivant school building on State street was bought in 1852 and 
a plain brick building of three stories and a basement was erected at a cost of $15,000. In 
1853 the high school department was housed there, in connection with other schools. 

At the resignation of Dr. Lord, Februarv 21, 1854, to accept another position, David 
P. Mahew became superintendent of the Columbus schools and served till July 10, 1855, when 
lie resigned to accept the chair of chemistry and physics in the Michigan State Normal 
School, of which he was afterwards president. In his year as superintendent here the schools 
included three grammar, eight secondary, nine primary, three German, four colored schools 
and the high school. Night schools were also maintained. J. Suffern became the first 
special teacher of music, Mr. Folsom the first special teacher of penmanship. The organi- 
zation of the colored schools caused much enthusiasm among the people of that race; of the 336 



168 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

colored children enumerated, 312 were enrolled. Two of these schools were on Gay street, 
one on High and one on Town. The teachers were C. H. Langston, J. A. Thompson, T. 
N. Stewart and A. E. Fuller. The high school showed an enrollment of 150, average attend- 
ance 100. 

Dr. Asa D. Lord came back to the superintendency at Mr. Mahew's departure, and served 
another year to July 11, 1856, when Erasmus I). Kingsley was elected, Dr. Lord going to 
the superintendency of the Ohio Institution for the Blind. Mr. Kingsley was a native of 
Whitehall, N. Y. In 1818 he was graduated from the New York State Normal School in 
Albany. For one year he was principal of Aurora Acadenn^ ; he taught one year in Colum- 
bus in 1819 and for seven years thereafter was superintendent of the Marietta public schools. 
From Marietta he came to the work here, served for nine years and, after his retirement was a 
merchant and useful citizen in Columbus. He died May 13, 1907. 

When Superintendent Kingsley 's administration began, Columbus had five school buildings 
— the three on Third street, the German building on Fourth and the State street building 
Adding those that were rented, the total number of school rooms was 36. When he retired, 
the number of buildings was 12, the number of rooms 57 and the number of teachers 63. 
The number of youth of school age was 7,759 and the enrollment 4,148. A lot adjoining 
the German school, one adjoining the Rich street school and the Douglas school site were 
bought in 1856-57. The Broad and Sixth street site, with a foundation that Trinity Episcopal 
church had laid for a proposed house of worship, was bought in 1859, and the high school 
building was erected in 1860-61 at a cost of $23,400. The Middle building in 1859 was con- 
demned, and a plain two-story brick structure was erected at a cost of $15,000. S. B. Phipps 
became special teacher of music, Mr. Rittenberg of writing and Adolph Mott of French. 
The courses of study and rules of administration were revised; an intermediate department 
was put in between the secondary and grammar grades ; playgrounds were rearranged ; 
special attention was given to the elementary branches and the word method of teaching read- 
ing was introduced. Night schools and teachers' meetings were maintained. 

In 1864, the method of electing members of the board on a general ticket was aban- 
doned and one member was chosen from each ward. Of the first board thus elected, Fred- 
erick Fieser was president and Henry T. Chittenden secretary. In 1865 William Mitchell, 
A. M., was elected superintendent and served six years. He had been graduated from the 
Ashland (O.) Academy and had received his master's degree from Kenyon College. He 
had been superintendent of schools at Frederiektown, Norwalk, and Mt. Vernon, and had 
been a captain in the Civil War. Leaving here in 1871, he practiced law for a time in 
Cleveland and was afterwards State Superintendent of Instruction of North Dakota. He 
died in March, 1890. 

During Superintendent Mitchell's administration, lots were bought on Park street, Spring 
street, Fulton street and Third and Sycamore, and buildings were erected, all patterned after 
that at Rich and Third streets. In 1870 the State street building was condemned and on the 
same site another, named in honor of Joseph Sullivant, was erected at a cost of nearly $69,000. 
In 1871 all the colored schools, which had been variously located, were assigned to a recon- 
structed building at Long and Third streets which, because of his earnest advocacy of the 
project, was named the Loving building for Dr. Starling Loving. In the German schools 
of this period, German was first taught, then English, after which the two languages were used 
in the instruction. 

Robert W. Stevenson, A. M., was elected and began his service as superintendent, July 
13, 1871. He was a native of Zanesville and had served as superintendent at Dresden and 
Norwalk. He served here 18 years, resigning in 1889 to become superintendent of schools 
at Wichita, Kas. He died March 6, 1893. Prior to 1875 one of the board members had 
served as secretary, but in that year Granville A. Frambes was elected to that position and 
served also as assistant superintendent, continuing thus for ten years, when O. E. D. Barron 
became clerk. In 1875, the first normal training school was opened in the high school, with 
the principal in charge and with the assistance of teachers of his staff. Classes were held 
on Saturday. In 1883, this school was formally organized in the Sullivant building with 
Miss L. Hughes as principal and was reorganized in 1889, with Miss Margaret Sutherland 
as principal. Superintendent Stevenson's administration was one of rapid extension and much 
building. In 1872, extension of the city boundaries took in the Franklinton school which 
had been maintained in the old Court House and eight suburban schools, the Fieser building, 



PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS 



169 



the Miller avenue, the Douglas avenue, the Northwood, the Garfield, the Fifth avenue, the 
Eighth avenue, the Front street, the present Mound street, the Siebert street and other build- 
ings were erected. The Loving school was abandoned and sold in 1882, and the colored 
pupils were distributed to other buildings according to residence. The position of super- 
intendent of buildings was created in 188-1 and Henry Lott was elected to the place; Frederick 
Schwann followed in 1888; Frederick Krumm in 1890; Edward J. Aston in 1894. In 1883, 
a branch high school was established in the Second avenue building, with C. D. Everett as 
principal, Rosa Hesse assistant. 

When Superintendent J. A. Shawan began his administration in 1889, there were 25 
school buildings with an average attendance of 13,504 and a corps of 279 teachers. The 
annual cost of running the schools was $361,826.52. W. S. Goodnough was supervisor of 
drawing and W. H. Lott supervisor of music. In 1890 the compulsory school law became 
operative and David O. Mull was appointed truant officer. Mr. Mull died in 1891 and John 
E. Jones was appointed, serving until his death in 1918. In 1891, Mr. Goodnough resigned 
to accept a position in New York, and was succeeded by Miss Helen Fraser who served for 
12 years. Miss Lillian Bicknell, who took up the work in 1903, was followed by W. D. 
Campbell in 1912. 

The first departure from the one-high-school plan was in 1891-93 when the North High 
school was erected and occupied. In 1895 a high school for the South Side was temporarily 




Indianola Public School. 



located in the Ohio avenue building and in 1898-99 high school buildings for both South 
and East Side were provided. West High school soon followed, and the original high school 
at Sixth and Broad was given over to commercial courses for the entire city. With the 
extension of the city boundaries, Clinton and Milo High schools were added and junior high 
schools were organized in four grade buildings in 1913. 

A school savings plan was begun in February, 1902, with the idea of showing the 
children how pennies saved will grow into dollars. Two savings banks co-operated, teachers 
receiving deposits and the banks making weekly collections and opening accounts with the 
children depositors. The plan was a success from the start. In five months the collections 
aggregated $8,665.30. The next year 3,291 accounts ranging from 50 cents to $2.11 showed 
a total of $11,721.21. The first five years showed a total savings of $66,500. The total for 
the year 1911-12 was $17,028.82; in" 1913-14, it was $19,140.47. In August, 1916, the total 
of deposits was $228,191.40 and there was then on deposit $80,658.71. 

Manual training and domestic economy began to be taught in 1893. In 1906 this was 
broadened into manual training, industrial art, shop work and domestic science, and a trades 
school was established in the building at Front and Long streets, and was there maintained 
till 1916 when, the site having been sold to the Y. M. C. A., the school was moved to a new 
building on the Spring street site. W. B. Dee was first director of manual training and J. 
H. Gill of the trades school. 

Kindergarten work in Columbus dates back to 1838, when Caroline Louise Frankenburg, 



170 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

who had been an instructor under Froebel, conducted a school for a short time. Subse- 
quently she went again to Germany and, returning in 1858, opened a kindergarten on the 
south side of Rich, just east of High street. There was for a time in the 1870's on Fifth 
street, north of the Cathedral, a school for the training of kindergarten teachers. Kinder- 
gartens were maintained in the public schools for a time in 1892-93, with the aid of Women's 
Educational and Industrial Union, that organization paying the teachers. The work was 
resumed and made a part of the school system in 1912. 

David Riebel was made school architect in 1893 and Edward J. Aston became superin- 
tendent of buildings January 1, 1891, to meet the continuous building operations and the call 
for care and repair of the numerous buildings. There were then more than 30 buildings and 
new ones were being erected at the rate of two or three a year. Now there are 60 school 
sites and 57 buildings valued with contents at approximately $ 4,500,000. 

To meet the working conditions and make possible compliance with the compulsory edu- 
cation law, evening schools were reorganized in 1893, running four or five months with an 
average attendance of 150. Evening trade schools were added in 1913. A special school for 
truants and incorrigibles was opened in 1906; special attention was given to backward 
students with medical advice for the physically and mentally defective. In 1912 a psycho- 
logical clinic for retarded pupils was held showing that, by the Binet test, they were from 
2-i to 7 years younger mentally than physically. Physical inspection of pupils to determine 
defects was formally inaugurated in 1913, Dr. H. M. Platter in charge and assisted by four 
school nurses. Dr. Platter was succeeded in 1917 by Dr. C. P. Linhart. 

In 1913 a special school for anaemic children disposed to tuberculosis was opened at Neil 
avenue and Hudson street overlooking the Olentangy. Money for the building was contri- 
buted by citizens through the Society for the Prevention and Cure of Tuberculosis. The 
society also provided the clothing outfit, a nurse, a cook and the necessary lunches. The 
board provided the site, the equipment and teacher. Twenty-five pupils were at first accom- 
modated, later 50, and there were at one and the same time educated and nursed back to health. 
The board and society thus co-operated till 1916 when the full management of the school was 
taken over by the board, the building which cost $6,111 passing also to its ownership. Fresh 
air and the recreation of children at the buildings continually received more attention, and 
in 1913 half -work-half-play schools were inaugurated. Penny lunches were also served in 
buildings by the Home and School Association. Funds for the purchase of shoes for less for- 
tunate children were established and at Thanksgiving time the children took to their buildings 
contributions which totaled large and served well. 

In February, 1911, Edward B. McFadden, clerk, was also made treasurer, and the school 
funds from all sources were received and put at interest in banks selected by competitive 
bidding. The interest rate secured at the outset was from 2.65 to 3.25 per cent, and the aggre- 
gate increase has run from $8,000 to $12,000 a year. 

The congestion in the buildings in 1913 was such that portable buildings in the school 
and adjoining yards were used at ten of the buildings, and in 1915 the number of them had 
increased to 32. The school attendance was approximately 25,000, and there was no money 
tor needed buildings. The expenses of the board had increased to nearly $1,500,000 annu- 
ally, the tax commissioners refused the levy asked, and the bonded debt for buildings had 
increased to $1,243,400. In 1916 this debt was $1,131,000. 

1 lie flood of 1913 closed seven buildings, the water reaching in most of them to the second 
floor. Relief stations were established in the upper stories of the most available, and 
teachers and janitors heartily co-operated with the other agencies. Among those who lost 
their lives were 12 school children. In the other schools of the city a relief fund of $2,12 4.12 
was raised and expended by the principals of the seven submerged buildings. To this 
fund the Women Teachers' Association added $789.85. The buildings were reopened at dif- 
ferent times between April and June. 

German, as has been seen, was early taught in the public schools and special provision 
was made for the accommodation of those who desired such instruction. In the report of 
1872 the statement is made that "the German language, as well as the English, is the 
medium of communicating the subjects to the pupils, and both languages enjoy equal im- 
portance, yet without mingling them together. This German-English instruction begins in 
the lowest grades and is continued uninterruptedly to the high school and through it as a 
branch of instruction." This was considered by the superintendent as particularly creditable. 



PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS 



171 



the system surpassing those in Cincinnati and St. Louis. The Ger man system was the 
pattern when industrial schools were introduced later. The number of pupils studying Ger- 
man in 1914 was reported to be 4,340, about one-sixth of all the pnpils. With the breaking out 
of the war, German instruction began to lose favor; in 1917, it was restricted and in 1918 
it was wholly discontinued. Many German books were burned and the remainder were sold 
to be made into paper. 

In 1906 free textbooks were adopted universally for the first four grades and later ex- 
tended to the fifth and sixth for arithmetic. This made new work for the Public School 
Library which had long been providing books for supplementary reading in the schools as 
well as conducting a general circulating and reference department. J. H. Spielman was the 
first school librarian. He was succeeded in 189(5 by Martin Hensel, and Mr. Hensel in 1919 
by Miss Emma Schaub. 

Instruction in music, introduced in 1854, has been given by Charles R. Dunbar, S. B. 
Phipps (1859), Carl L. Spohr, Carl Schoppelrei (1869-70), Herman Eckhardt (1871-72), J. 
A. Scarritt (1874-86), W. H. Lott (1887-1905), Tillie Gemuender Lord (1906-14), R. W. 
Roberts (1915 — ). The later incumbents have been supervisors. Anton Leibold became 
instructor of physical culture in 1889 and continued the work until 1919 as supervisor. 
Penmanship has had special attention under Mr. Rittenburg (1859), C. W. Slocum (1892) and 
C. P. Zaner (1913). Miss Faith R. Lanman has for several years been director of home 
economics, Miss Mathilde Hungelmann of German and Miss Elizabeth Samuel of kinder- 




Roosevelt Junior Ilii/li School. 



garten. R. G. Kinkead, who was first elected as assistant superintendent, became supervisor 
of grades in 1915, while Miss Marie Gugle became supervisor of high schools. 

In the period from 1904 to 1918, the siz; of the board and the number of members were 
several times changed. In 1904 there were 19 members elected, one from each ward; in 
1905 three members were elected at large and one from each of 12 sub-districts; in 1912, 
four were elected at large and seven from sub-districts; in 1915, the membership was reduced 
to seven elected at large as their terms expire for a term of four years. The first woman 
elected to the board was June Purcell Guild, who resigned after a short service in June, 1912. 
Mrs. Cora Mae Kellogg and Mrs. Dora Sandoe Bachman have also served, the former re- 
signing on her removal from the city, and the latter being succeeded on the completion of her 
term, by Miss Kate M. Lacey,' elected in 1917. Mrs. Win. McPherson was elected a member 
in 1919. 

The management of the schools has commanded the energies of many of the best citizens 
of Columbus. The longest service on the board was that of General Charles C. Walcutt, 
22 years; the next was that of Dr. Starling Loving, 19 years. Joseph Sullivant and Dr. 
Alexander Neil each served 16 years, F. J. Heer 14 years. Dr. J. B. Schueller and Rev. 
James Poindexter served 10 years each. Thomas Sparrow, Frederick Fieser, Konrad Mees, 
S. W. Andrews, nine years each; Louis Siebert 8 years, and Dr. E. J. Wilson seven years. 
Among the others to whom it was permitted to render notable service were Aaron F. Perry, 
Judge James L. Bates, ,Tud<>'e J. Wm. Baldwin, J. J. Jannev. A. B. Buttles, J. G. Miller, 



172 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Senator Allen G. Tlmrman, William Trevitt, Francis Collins, John Greiner, Otto Dresel, 
Judge E. F. Bingham, Henry T. Chittenden, Thomas Lough, C. P. L. Butler, Isaac C. Aston, 
Dr. R. M. Denig, Louis P. Hoster, L. J. Critchfield, Captain Lorenzo D. Myers, Dr. J. W. 
Hamilton, C. J. Hardy, Henry Olnhausen, George Beck, P. W. Corzilius, Philip H. Bruck, 
George H. Twiss, Francis C. Sessions, W. R. Kinnear, John J. Stoddart, E. O. Randall, 
'/,. L. White, Thomas C. Hoover, M. A. Gemuender, Theodore Leonard, Charles E. Morris, 
P. D. Shriner, Charles F. Turney, Charles A. Stribling, Judge Frank Rathmell, Dr. W. O. 
Thompson, Judge J. E. Sater. The present members are: Warner P. Simpson, Fred D. 
Connolley, Frank L. Holycross, Wm. H. Conklin, Kate M. Lacey, Augustus T. Seymour 
and Mrs. Lucretia McPherson. 

Joseph Sullivant was president of the board for 13 years, General C. C. Walcutt for five 
years, Rev. B. N. Spahr and Dr. Starling Loving, three years each. Other presidents after 
the reorganization in 1875 were Henry Olnhausen, Edward Pagels, Judge John E. Sater, 
Jonas A. Hedges, Dr. Edward J. Wilson, John J. Stoddart, Z. L. White, Thomas A. Mor- 
gan, Dr. J. U. Barnhill, F. J. Heer, John L. Davies, Charles S. Means, Charles J. Palmer, 
John L. Trauger, John J. Stoddart, W. O. Thompson, Edward Herbst, King G. Thompson, 
Dora Sandoe Bachman, W. D. Deuschle, Joseph S. Kornfeld and Fred D. Connolley. 

In the period when the clerk was selected from the board membership, S. E. Wright, 
James L. Bates, A. B. Buttles, Allen G. Thurman, Francis Collins, John Greiner, Otto 
Dresel, S. S. Rickly, Henry T. Chittenden, S. W. Andrews, Peter Johnson, R. M. Denig and 
Alexander Neil served. Granville A. Frambes served from 1875 to 1885; O. E. D. Barron 
from 1885 to 1895; James A. Williams from 1895 to 1906; Harlan P. Judd from 1906 to 
April, 1910, when he died; Edward B. McFadden from 1910 to the present. 

In 1916, Superintendent Shawan resigned, after 27 years of service and retired to his 
country home. Knowing his purpose, the board made search for a successor before the end 
of the school year and elected John H. Francis, superintendent of the Los Angeles schools, 
Mr. Francis, with the aid of principals and teachers,, made a survey of the schools and asked 
for a bond issue of $3,500,000 for new buildings and repairs. The proposition was beaten 
at the polls by a very large majority. In the spring of 1918 the board "ranted Mr. Francis 
leave of absence to accept a war-work position in Washington, and Charles H. Fullerton be- 
came acting superintendent, serving until July, 1919, when Mr. Francis resumed the super- 
intendence - , Mr. Fullerton again becoming assistant. 

Columbus has numerous private schools, some of which have stood the test of years. 
Among these are the Columbus Shcool for Girls, conducted by Miss Alice Gladden and Miss 
Grace Lattimer Jones at Parsons avenue and Bryden Road; the Columbus Academy (boys), 
by F. P. R. Van Syckel, Franklin Park South; the Wallace Collegiate School and Con- 
servatory, Jefferson avenue; the Fox School of Oratory, by Frank S. Fox, Neil avenue; 
Bliss Business College, Office Training School, Columbus Business College, Mann's Business 
Training School and Hartsough's College of Shorthand. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE BENCH AND BAR. 

First Franklin County Common Pleas Court and County Officers — First Attorneys Admitted 
to Practice — List of Associate Justices — Removal of Courts from Franklinton to 
Columbus — Common Pleas Judges Under the Constitution of 1S51 and Since — Notable 
Justices of the Peace — List of Prosecuting Attorneys, Probate Judges and Superior 
Court Judges — District, Circuit and Appellate Courts — Ohio Supreme Court and Su- 
preme Court Commission — United State: District Court — Mayor's Court, Police Court 
and Municipal Court — Juvenile Court — Reminiscences — Noteworthy Cases Tried Here 
— Bar Association. 

The history of the courts of what is now Columbus begins with the creation of Franklin 
county by the General Assembly in 1803, and the appointment of John Dill, David Jamison 
and Joseph Foos to be associate justices of the Court of Common Pleas of Franklin, and of 
Wyllis Silliman to be president judge of the circuit, which included the counties of Adams, 
Scioto, Ross, Franklin, Fairfield and Gallia. This was the second of three circuits, into which 
the State was divided. Only the presiding judge was a lawyer; the associate justices were 
good, public-spirited citizens, to whom fell the business which under a later system was trans- 
ferred to the County Commissioners and the Probate Judge. 

The first session of the Franklin County Court of Common Pleas was held May 3, 1803, 
the associate justices only sitting. It was held in a room of one of the primitive buildings 
that had been erected in Franklinton, now a part of West Columbus. There were no lawyers 
present. Lucas Sullivant was appointed Clerk, and the only other action was the granting 
of the application of Joseph Foos and Jane Foos, relict of John Foos, for "letters of admin- 
istration on his estate." 

On May 10, the court held another session and, as provided by law, divided the county 
into four townships — Franklin and Darby, west of the river and Harrison and Liberty, east 
of the river — and provided for the election of Justices of the Peace, June 21 following. 
The justices so elected were: Franklin township, Zachariah Stephen and James Marshal; 
Darby, Joshua Ewing; Harrison, William Bennett; Liberty, Joseph Hunter and Ezra Brown, 
Ohio's one Representative in Congress was elected the same day, and it is interesting to note 
that the vote for the entire county was 150. It was then the business of the Common Pleas 
Court to count and certify the vote, and the record of that count, signed by David Jamison 
and Joseph Foos, may still be read. 

Other early records show that this court issued tavern licenses, ordered surveys, 
directed the opening of roads, fixed the bounty to be paid for wolf and panther scalps, 
made allowances for certain services and directed the erection of public buildings. It ap- 
pointed the first group of county officials. Lucas Sullivant was appointed the first Clerk of 
the Courts. He was also appointed the first County Recorder. Other appointments by the 
court in 1803 were: Jacob Grubb, County Treasurer; Benjamin White, County Collector and 
also Sheriff; Joseph Vance, County Survevor. The court seems to have appointed a Prose- 
cuting Attorney when it needed such an official, and the first of record is John S. Wills, in 
1803. The County Commissioners, Sheriff ani Coroner were elected in 1804 and 1805, and 
other officials continued appointive, some by the Commissioners. Dill, Jamison and Foos 
remained as associate justices till 1808, when Foos resigned and was succeeded by William 
Thompson, who served by appointment till 1809, when Isaac Miner was elected. 

At the September, 1803, session of the court, Wyllis Silliman, presiding judge of the 
circuit being present, with two of the associates, David Jamison and Joseph Foos, five attor- 
ney's expressed their wish to practice in the court and took the necessary oath. They were 
John S. Wills, Michael Baldwin, Philemon Beecher, William W. Irwin and John Reddick. 
On the same day, the Commissioners who had chosen Franklinton as the county seat were 
allowed $12 each for their six davs' service, one of them, Jeremiah McLene, being allowed 
$3 additional for "writing and circulating the notices required by law." John S. Wills, for 
services as Prosecutor pro tempore, was allowed $10. His task was the presentation of the 
first indictment by a grand jury — that of Usual Osborn for assault and battery on John 
Story. The case was never tried, the record showing that the court accepted the terms of 



174 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

their private settlement, each party paying half of the costs. That was at the January, 
1804, term, at which also Adam Hosack, who had just been elected Sheriff, was allowed 
$1.50 for summoning the grand jury. 

Following the associate justices already named, down to 1851, when the courts were re- 
organized, those who held these offices were, in the order of their service: Robert Shannon, 
William Reed, Alexander Morrison, jr., Arthur O'Harra, Samuel G. Flennikin, David Smith, 
Recompence Stansbery, Edward Livingston, Abner Lord, John Kerr, Thomas Johnston, 
Arora Buttles, William McElvain, Adam Reed, Christian Heyl, James Dalzell, John A. 
Lazell, John Landes, and William T. Martin. The president judges from 1803 to 1851 
were Wyllis Silliman, Levin Belt, Robert Slaughter, William Wilson, John Thompson, Orris 
Parrish, Frederick Grimke, John A. McDowell, Gustavus Swan, Joseph R. Swan and J. L. 
Torbet. 

The first lawyers to locate here were David Smith, Orris Parrish, David Scott and Gus- 
tavus Swan. Soon after came John R. Parrish, who died in 1829, T. C. Flournoy, James 
K. Cory and William Dohertv. According to Martin, there were ten practicing lawyers here 
in 1831 — Gustavus Swan, Orris Parrish, Noah H. Swayne, P. B. Wilcox, Lyne Starling, M. 
J. Gilbert, Mease Smith, John G. Miller, Samuel C. Andrews and John D. Munford. Around 
the first five of those men, much of the early historv of Columbus centered. 

The court met in rented rooms in Franklinton until 1808, when the first Court House 
was erected, as described in another chapter. Then and even before, a session of court was 
a great event in the community. "In the early history of Ohio," wrote the late Richard A. 
Harrison, "each judicial circuit was composed of many counties, and each county was very 
large. The lawyers traveled with the president judge of the circuit from county to county, 
on horse, over wretched roads, a great part of the year, with their papers and books in their 
saddlebags, and some of them, not without flasks and packs. They were often compelled to 
lodge two in a bed, thus carrying into practice Blackstone's theory that the science of law 
is of a sociable disposition. A session of court was an event of interest to all the inhabit- 
ants. It was largely attended by mere spectators. The lawyers were thereby stimulated to 
do their best, much more than they were by the pittances received from their clients. Trials 
were of short duration. The lawyers went straight to the material points in controversy, 
and the fray was soon ended. A trial was not a siege, but a short hand-to-hand contest." 

In 1821, when the county seat was removed from Franklinton to Columbus, the asso- 
ciate judges of the Court of Common Pleas w?re Edward Livingston, Samuel G. Flenniken 
and Arora Buttles, and the presiding judge of the circuit was Gustavus Swan. A. I. 
McDowell was Clerk and Robert Brotherton was Sheriff. The court met in the United 
States Court House, which citizens of Columbus and the Legislature jointly had erected in 
1820 on the State House square, flush with High street and almost opposite the north end 
of the Neil House. The structure, says Martin, "was a plain brick building, two stories 
high with a rough stone foundation. It was probably 15 feet square, and the roof ascended 
from the four sides to a circular dome in the center. The front had a recess entrance, 
about the size of a large portico, but within the line of the front wall. The same recess 
extended up through the second story, thus affording a pleasant view of the street from the 
second story. On the lower floor there was a hall through the center, and two rooms on 
each side, one of which was used for the office of the Clerk of the United States Court, 
one as an office for the Marshal and one as a jurv room. Back of this building, there was 
erected in 1828 a one-storv brick structure, in which the countv offices were located." 

By the Constitution of 1851, the State was divided into nine Common Pleas districts. 
with one such judge in each county; and there was created a District Court, consisting of 
two or more of the Common Pleas judges and one judge of the Supreme Court. The dis- 
tricts were also split into subdivisions, and Franklin, Pickawav and Madison counties com- 
prised the third subdivision of the fifth judicial district. To this subdivision, one judgeship 
was assigned and in the sixty-eight years six men have filled it as follows: 

James I.. Bates, from February !>, 1852, to February 9, 1867. 
John I,. Greene, from February 9, 1867, to February 9, 1882. 
Hawley J. Wylie, from February 9, 1882. to February 9, 1887. 
Thomas J. Duncan, from February 9, 18S7. to February 9, 1897. 
Thomas M. Bigger, from February 9, 1897. to February 9, 1919. 
Robert P. Duncan, from February 9, 191'), 



THE BENCH AND BAR 175 

There have been changes in the subdivision until now Franklin county is a judicial unit, 
and as the business of the courts increased, additional judgeships have been created by 
statute. The other judges and their terras of service are as follows: 

Joseph Olds, from May 11, 1868, to May 11, 1873. 

Edward F. Bingham, from May 11, 1873, to April, 1887. 

David F. Pugh, from April, 1887, to May 15, 1898. 

Curtis C. Williams, from May 15, 1898, to May 15, 1903. 

Eli P. Evans, from May 1, 1878, to May 1, 1903. 

George Lincoln, from February 9, 1880, to February 9, 1890. 

Isaac N. Abernathy, from February 9, 1890, to February 9, 1895. 

DeWitt C. Badger' from May 8, 1893, to March, 1903.* 

Marcus G. Evans, from March, 1903, to date. 

Edmond B. Dillon, from May, 1903, to November, 1919. 

Frank Rathmell, from May, 1903, to date. 

Charles M. Rogers, from January 1, 1907, to date. 

Edgar B. Kinkead, from January 1, 1909, to date. 

Daniel H. Sowers, from November, 1919. to date. 

The present Common Pleas bench of Fra lklin county consists of six judgeships — one 
created by the constitution and five added by statute, as indicated above. It has always been 
a bench of high character, the judges enjoying the confidence of the people, as shown by the 
length, of terms they have served. 

Of the many Justices of the Peace in this and other townships, it is possible to name 
only a few, notable for repeated re-elections or for other activities. Arthur O'Harra and 
Jacob Grubb served 15 and 18 years respectively, and were among the first. David W. 
Deshler served four years, James Kilbourne three years, Ezra Griswold eleven years, William 
T. Martin, 21 years, John Tipton 15 years, William Walker 21 years, Pereival Adams 18 
years, Andrew Dill 15 years, John Eberly 24 years, Alexander Cameron, Samuel Kinnear and 
Timothy Lee 15 years each, Billingsly Bull 12 years, John G. Miller six years, John P. Bruck 
and Lot L. Smith nine years each. It was before Justice Bruck that the interesting case of 
Frederick Douglas, the colored orator, against the Ohio Stage Company, was brought. On July 
16, 1850, Mr. Douglas paid to the company the regular fare, $3, for passage from Columbus 
to Zanesville. After he had taken his seat inside the coach, the agent ordered him out and 
directed him to take a seat on top. He declined to take the seat above and asked for the 
return of his money. As the agent refused, Douglas brought suit, Joshua R. Giddings being 
his. attorney. The company settled out of court, paying Douglas $13 and the costs. 

In the list of Prosecuting Attorneys, beginning with the temporary appointment of 
John S. Wills in 1803 and continuing down through the years (by election since 1833) there 
are some distinguished names. The list runs: John S. Wills, Reuben Bonam, David Scott, 
John A. McDowell, Thomas Backus, John R. Parrish, James Corey, Joseph R. Swan, P. 
B. Wilcox, Moses H. Kirby, William W. Backus, Lewis Heyl, L. H. Webster, Thomas 
Sparrow, B. F. Martin, George L. Converse, J. O. Reamey, Milton H. Mann, Edward T. 
Delaney, George K. Nash, Joseph H. Outhwaite, William J. Clark, R. B. Montgomery, 
Cyrus Huling, Curtis C. Williams, Joseph H. Dyer, Charles W. Vorhees, Lee Allen Thur- 
man, E. L. Taylor, jr., Augustus T. Seymour, Karl T. Webber, Edward L. Turner, Robert 
P. Duncan and Hugo Schlesinger (incumbent 1919). 

A Probate Judge for each county was also created by the Constitution of 1851, probate 
business up to that time having been attended to by the associate judges in the several 
counties. The office was made elective for three years and the following have served in 
Franklin county: W. R. Rankin, 1852-55; Wm. Jamison, 1855-58; Herman B. Albery, 1858- 
63; John M. Pugh, 1863-79; John T. Gale, 1879-85; Charles G. Saffin, 1885-91; Lorenzo 
D. Hagerty, 1891-97; Tod B. Galloway, 1897-1903; Samuel L. Black, 1903-17; Homer D. 
Bostwick, 1917 . 

The Superior Court of Franklin county, with a single judge, having jurisdiction in civil 
cases onlv, was established by the General Assembly in 1857, and abolished in 1865. Fitz 
James Matthews was the first judge of this court and after a five-year term, was re-elected 
in 1862. Owing to ill health, he resigned in 1861, and J. William Baldwin was appointed. 



17(5 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

serving till the court was discontinued and its business transferred to the Common Pleas 
Court. 

The first District Court, under the Constitution of 1851, was held in Columbus June 15, 
1852. There were present James L. Bates, Sheppard F. Norris and John L. Green, Common 
Pleas judges. On the following day, Supreme Court Judge Thomas W. Bartley joined them. 
They appointed Henry B. Carrington, E. Backus, Noah H. Swayne, Henry C. Noble and 
John W. Andrews a committee to examine applicants for admission to the bar, and then ad- 
journed. The District Court existed for thirty years, but proved unsatisfactory for several 
reasons, one of which was that, owing to pressure of business in their own court, a Supreme 
Court judge was not always present, and Common Pleas judges were left to pass on their 
own decisions. 

In 1883, a Constitutional amendment provided for a Circuit Court composed of judges 
having no connection with the lower courts. Franklin county fell into the second circuit 
with Preble, Darke, Shelby, Miami, Montgomery, Champaign, Clark, Greene, Fayette and 
Madison counties. The first term of this court was held in Columbus, beginning February 
23, 1885, with Marshall J. Williams, John A. Schauck and Gilbert H. Stewart on the bench. 
Other judges of this court have been: Charles C. Shearer, James I. Allread, Augustus N. 
Summers, Harrison Wilson, Theodore Sullivan, Charles W. Dustin, H. L. Ferncding and 
Albert H. Kunkle. 

Under the Constitution of 1912, the Circuit Court became the Court of Appeals, the State 
being divided into eight appellate districts and the jurisdiction of the new court being ex- 
tended. Eacli district has three judges a majority of whom may decide all questions except 
a reversal upon the weight of evidence, where a unanimous court is required. The principal 
feature of the Appellate Court is the finality of its judgment in an increased number of cases, 
so that practically all general litigation among private suitors ends with this court. The 
thought of the constitution-makers was that one trial and one review meet all the essential 
demands for an efficient administration of justice. The Supreme Court retains jurisdiction 
over judgments of the Court of Appeals in a limited class of cases — judgments in cases origi- 
nating in the Court of Appeals, cases involving constitutional questions, cases of public and 
general interest, and judgments of one Court of Appeals in conflict with another. The judges 
of the Appellate Court of this district in 1918 were. Albert H. Kunkle, Springfield, presid- 
ing judge; James I. Allread, Columbus, and H. I,. Ferneding, Dayton. 

The Ohio Supreme Court has met in Columbus since the removal of the capital from 
Chillicothe. Of the thirty judges under the first Constitution, but one was from Franklin 
county — Gustavus Swan, appointed in 1830 to fill a vacancy expiring in 1831. Of those who 
served under the Constitution of 1851, three were chosen from Franklin county — Joseph R. 
Swan, Robert B. Warden and John W. Okey. Of the others a few, like Allen G. Thurman, 
of Ross county, and Selwyn N. Owen, of Williams county remained in the city where they 
had served and became a part of its active citizenship. 

There have been two Supreme Court Commissions — judicial bodies created by the Gen- 
eral Assembly to assist the Supreme Court in clearing its dockets. The first of these was 
appointed in 1876 and concluded its labors in 1879. Richard A. Harrison was offered an 
appointment to it but declined. The second was appointed in 1883 and served two years. 
George K. Nash was a member. 

The responsible position of Supreme Court Reporter lias been filled by a number of 
Columbus men. The first of these was Pliin -as B. Wilcox, who served in 1810. Edwin M. 
Stanton, the great war secretary of Lincoln's administration, who clerked in a Columbus 
bookstore in 183 1, served as Reporter in 1811-11 inclusive. Robert Bruce Warden was re- 
porter in 1853 and after a short service on the Supreme bench again in 1855. Leander J. 
Critchfield served from 1856 to 1871 and then declined reappointment. Epinctus I.. DeWitt 
served from 1871 to 1885, and was succeeded bv George B. Okey, who served till 1887. 
Emilius 0. Randal] was appointed in 1895 and served continuously till his death in 1919. 
He edited and published forty-eight volumes of the Ohio State Reports and ten volumes 
of the Reports of Court of Appeals. John I.. W. Henney is the present Reporter. 

The United States District Court was moved to Columbus soon after it became the cap- 
ital. It met for a time in a brick building, once known as the Buckeye House, which stood 
on the present site of the Chamber of Commerce building, Broad street, half a square east of 



THE BENCH AND BAR 177 

High street. Later, it occupied the hall of the House of Representatives, and then took 
rooms in the brick Court House, already referred to, on the State House square. In 1855, 
there was a division of the district, which took the United States courts to Cleveland and 
Cincinnati. In 1880, the court was returned to Columbus, when the eastern division of the 
Southern Ohio district was created. The sessions were first held in the Council chamber in 
the City Hall, then in rooms on the second floor of the building; at the southwest corner of 
State and Fourth streets, and in the Federal building at the corner of State and Third streets, 
since its erection. The return of the United States Court in 1880 was signalized by the 
Columbus Bar Association, by a banquet in the City Hall, June 1, in honor of the United 
States Court judges and court officials. An address of welcome was made by Henry C. 
Noble, and there were responses by Justice Noah H. Swayne, of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and Judges P. B. Swing, William White and Joseph R. Swan. Hon. Richard 
A. Harrison also spoke for the city. 

In order, the judges of this court have been: Charles Willing Byrd, until 1828; William 
Creighton, two months, appointment rejected by the Senate; John W. Campbell, till his death 
in 1833; Benjamin Tappan, three days, appointment rejected by the Senate; Humphrey H. 
Leavitt, till his death in 1871; Philip B. Swing, till his death in 1882; William White, who 
died soon after he took his seat; George R. Sage, till 1898; Albert C. Thompson till 1909; 
John E. Sater, appointed in 1907 and still serving. 

Judge Sater's appointment was due to the fact that the volume of business was such as 
to demand the presence of a Federal judge here all of the time. And it has continued to grow 
until at the end of his eleventh year of service, Clerk C. P. White's records showed that, 
excluding the sums handled in the bankruptcy court and sums which had been deposited 
awaiting the termination of suits involving such sums and an order of the court for their 
distribution, Judge Sater had rendered judgments for each and every day of the eleven years, 
Sundays and holidays included, to an amount averaging -$11,000 a day. 

The validity and construction of many of the State laws have been tested in this court 
during Judge Sater's incumbency. Notable among these laws so tested were the dairy and 
food act, the Juvenile Court act, the coal screen act, the act creating the Tax Commission, 
and the "Blue Sky" law, all the decisions except the last-named being affirmed. Federal 
statutes, too, have found in this court correct interpretations, notably the Harrison law 
regulating the sale and distribution of narcotics and the pure food law as applied to the 
marketing of champagne and Maraschino cherries. 

The period of the great war of 1917-18 brought to this court some notable cases. 
Judge Sater tried what was probably the first case under the War Act — that against 
Hennacy and Townsley for conspiracy to defeat the enlistment and draft — and the conviction 
of the men is believed to have put an end here to resistance to the selective service act. He 
also tried the first case in the country under the statute which makes it a crime to threate?! 
to kill the President, and he rendered the first reported opinion on the constitutionality of 
the vice clauses of the selective service act, as well as the first reported opinion on that part 
of the sabotage act which makes an attempt to interfere with the manufacture of war material 
a crime. The first case under the War Act making it a crime wilfully to interfere with 
the possesion and operation of railroad property, taken over by the President for the better 
prosecution of the war, was also tried in this court. 

The Mayor's Court came into existence with the organization of Columbus as a town, Feb- 
ruarv 10, 1816. The Mayor was clothed with the powers of a Justice of the Peace within 
the corporate limits. He could administer oaths and levy and collect fines, and he held court 
for the trial of law-breakers taken into custody by tile police. His judicial powers re- 
mained with some slight variations the same until 1891, when the General Assembly created 
the office of Police Judge and Matthias Martin was elected to the bench for three years. In 
1891 Judge Martin was succeeded by Thomas M. Bigger, who served until 1897, when he 
resigned to take his seat on the Common Pleas bench. Governor Asa Bushnell appointed 
Samuel J. Swartz to the vacancy, and at the succeeding municipal election, Judge Swartz 
was elected to succeed himself and served till 1899, when he resigned to take the office of 
Mayor. Moses B. Earnhart served by gubernatorial appointment until the next municipal 
election, when N. W. Dick was chosen and served till 1903, when R. I.. Wildermuth was 
elected and, by reason of a change in the date of the municipal election, served till Janu- 
ary 1, 1908, when Samuel G. Osborn succeeded and served till January 1, 1916, when, under 



} 78 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

the law creating the Municipal Court, the Police Judges and the Justices of the Peace were 
brought together in one bench. This lias resulted in dignifying all the processes of the old 
courts and in civil cases extending the jurisdiction so as to include those involving claims to 
the amount of $'750. Homer Z. Bostwick was elected Chief Justice, and Samuel G. Osborn, 
Frank Ruth and E. F. Berry were elected judges. In November, 1916, Chief Justice Bost- 
wick, having been elected Probate Judge, resigned, and the Governor appointed John F. 
Seidel to the vacancy. 

Separate Juvenile Courts were authorized by the General Assembly April 23, 1908, the 
judges of the Common Pleas Court in each county being empowered to designate one of 
their number to sit in the cases of minors under arrest. In Franklin county, Probate Judge 
Samuel L. Black was so designated and served efficiently until he retired as Probate Judge 
in 1917, when he was succeeded in this function by the newly elected Probate Judge, Homer 
Z. Bostwick. The cases, not only of delinquent children, but also of adults contributing to 
the delinquency, of parents failing of their duty to children and of others whose conduct is 
inimical to child life, are dealt with in this court, and much good has been accomplished and 
is still capable of accomplishment. 

Because of the number of the courts in Columbus the city was at a very early day a mecca 
of lawyers. Primitive means of travel caused delays and lawyers were here brought together 
more frequently in a social way than they now are. In various ways, each was able to 
measure up outside the court room, the antagonist he was to meet within it. Of the judicial 
procedure and the men engaged in it in the period centering about 1810, the late L. J. 
Critchfield testified: 

The meeting of lawyers in Columbus, in attendance upon the court, during the greater 
part of each winter, became in effect a high school of law and oratory. The men who thus 
assembled were the flower of the Ohio bar, and in measuring strength with one another in 
the discussion of causes in court, they developed and exhibited the highest intellectual powers 

of the profession and the best specimens of forensic eloquence We may well 

imagine what deep interest the court and bar, as well as the general public, would take in 
these battles of the giants, when the combatants were such men as Burnet, Hammond, Wright 
and their compeers, with the occasional presence and participation of Doddridge of Virginia, 
and Henry Clay, of Kentucky; and when, during a later period, Ewing, Stanbery, Corwin, 
Vinton, Goddard and their associates were in their prime and contended for the mastery. 

But those days passed with the coming of the railroad, the telegraph and other con- 
veniences of civilization which have increased the hurry of life. Lawyers are not now found in 
waiting groups as they once were. The public, busy with its own affairs, leaves the lawyers 
to their eloquence and the courts to their processes, for the most part confident that justice 
will emerge. 

Naturally, many important cases have been tried in the courts lure. The first of them 
were fugitive slave cases, in which there was great popular interest because of the growing 
antagonism to slavery. The first of these was heard in the United States District Court 
here in 1816, but the most notable because it almost brought Ohio into rebellion against the 
United States, was heard in the Supreme Court here in 1859. It was the case of Simeon 
Bushnell and Charles Langston, who had rescued fugitive slaves from Federal officers who 
were taking them back into the South. The rescuers were arrested and sought release by 
habeas corpus proceedings in the Supreme Court. The contention was that the fugitive slave 
law was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court sustained the law and remanded the prisoners, 
but only by a majority of one in a bench of five. Chief Justice Joseph R. Swan delivered 
the opinion, holding that a State Court cannot interfere with the orderly action of the 
United States Court within its constitutional limit. It was a courageous action, especially 
since his interpretation of the law produced a result in conflict with his personal feelings and 
bis political beliefs, for he had been elected in 185 1 on an anti-slavery platform. In this 
decision he antagonized public sentiment throughout Ohio, but lie was a man to do what he 
believed to be right, whatever might happen. At the close of the opinion, lie said: 

As :i citizen I would net deliberately violat" the constitution or the law 1>\ interference 
with fugitives from service, but if a weary frightened slave should appeal to me to protect 
him from his pursuers, it is possible I might momentarily forget my allegiance to the law and 
constitution, and give him ;i covert from tho' c who were on bis track. There an 1 , no doubt, 
many slave-holders who would tons follow the impulse of human sympathy; and if I did it 
and were prosecuted, condemned and imprisoned, and brought by my counsel before this 



THE BENCH AND BAR 179 

tribunal on a habeas corpus, and then were permitted to pronounce judgment in my own case, 
I trust I should have the moral courage to say, before God and the country, as I am now 
compelled to say, under the solemn duties of a judge, bound by my official oath to sustain the 
supremacy of the constitution and the law: "The prisoner must be remanded." 

One of the most celebrated cases ever tried in Columbus was that against Lyman Cole 
and five others, charged with burning the steamer, Martha Washington, and her cargo, in 
the Ohio river, December 15, 1851, in order to collect the insurance. Arrests were made in 
December, 1852, and a preliminary examination was made before United States Commis- 
sioner P. B. Wilcox, who held them for trial in the United States District Court. The 
accused were indicted in May, 1853, and the trial began before Judge McLean in the 
following October. There was a great array of lawyers. The District Attorney was 
assisted by Henry Stanberv, while among the attorneys for the defense were Thomas Ewing, 
George E. Pugh, George H. Pendleton, Noah PL Swayne and Samuel Galloway. The trial 
lasted many days and aroused great interest, partly because of the sensational character of the 
charge, but chiefly because of the prominence of the counsel. The public anticipated a great 
display of oratory at the close, and there was bitter disappointment when the defense submitted 
the case after the District Attorney's argument. The jury, after deliberating two days, 
brought in a verdict of "not guilty," which was received with a great shout by the waiting 
people. 

There have been important land title cases which cannot here be detailed. There was 
the "geography war" of 1880, arising from the effort of the Columbus Board of Education 
to reverse its action substituting Harper s geographies for the Cornell series. In the 
Supreme Court, the case for the Harper publishing house, as against that of Van Antwerp, 
Bragg & Co., was won on an interpretation of parliamentary law, it being held that the 
board could not within one week of its decision reverse it except by a three-fourths vote, 
which did not appear. 

The bar of Columbus has produced a number of really great lawyers, such as Joseph R. 
Swan, Allen G. Thurman, R. A. Harrison and Noah H. Swayne, the last named attaining 
to the bench of the United States Supreme Court. Some have shone in other fields — S. S. 
Cox, distinguished as a politician, diplomat and author; Samuel Gallowav, friend of Lincoln, 
orator and wit; General Joseph H. Geiger, widely known for his political oratory and humor- 
ous lectures. Gustavus A. Swan and Joseph R. Swan wrote books of "Pleading and Prac- 
tice," the latter being also the author of "Swan's Treatise," which has stood the test of more 
than two generations and is still regarded throughout the United States as the leading author- 
ity on magistrates' courts. P. B. Wilcox and James A. Wilcox wrote books of practice. 
Judge P'itz James Matthews, with the assistance of Judge H. B. Albery, published the last 
edition of "Raff's Guide," an authority for guardians and trustees. Judge Warden wrote a 
philosophical treatise on "Man and Law"; W . H. Page, a book on "Wills and Contracts"; 
Henry J. Booth, a book on the law of street railways; Paul Jones, a book on taxation; David 
K. Watson, a history of the I'ederal Constitution, and Judge E. B. Kinkead, a work on 
pleadings. 

The last fifty years have seen tremendous changes in the legal profession in Columbus. 
The growth of the city, the increase in the number of corporations and the development of 
new kinds of trading produced new relations Corporation law became more important. 
Tile practicing lawyer no longer needs the KiV, flat-topned table in the middle of the 
room for maps and atlases and for drawing outlines of farm lands and town lots, for that class 
of work has been taken over by the abstracters of title and real estate men who have sprung 
up to dispute and divide his ancient heritage. Classification came and now we have legal 
specialists of different kinds, each doing a wo -k which was once but a part of that of the 
general practitioner. 

In 1869 a Bar Association was organized, fifty-four names being signed to the constitu- 
tion, and with varying strength and activity this organization has continued till now, main- 
taining a measure of esprit de corps and strivmp; to improve methods and facilitate the 
business of the courts. In its present membership there arc 350 attorneys, the total of all 
classes in the county being estimated at 500. 

For obvious reasons it is impossible to speak of all of these individually. Suffice it to 
say that for talent, virtue and achievement the v measure well, and the bench and bar of 
Columbus will not suffer by comparison with any similar group in the land. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE PRESS. 

A Pioneer Enterprise Here as Elsewhere — The Freeman's Chronicle of 1812 — The Western 
Intelligencer Moved Here in 1814 — The Ohio Monitor of 181G — Two Lines of Descent 
to the Present — The Ohio Statesman anil Ohio State Journal — The Columbus Gazette, 
The Crisis of Medaru and the Capital City Fact — Sunday Newspapers — The Dis- 
patch — The Citizen — Weekly Newspapers — German Language Papers — Religious 
Newspapers — Educational and Other Monthlies — Tf'omen in Journalism — Elliott-Os- 
born Tragedy. 

Here as elsewhere, the newspaper was one of the earliest pioneer enterprises. The 
people of the settlement wanted to know, not so much what was going on among themselves 
as what the outside world was doing. The former they could learn from their neighbors 
by word of mouth, but the latter was a longer story and more difficult to obtain. All this 
is revealed in the newspapers themselves, through the columns of which one will look almost 
in vain for information about the life of the community. The interest of the people was in 
the doings of the government at Washington, the happenings in the East and in Europe, 
and the early editors met it as they could. But their troubles were many and great. 
Presses were primitive; paper and ink and type, like the news itself, were brought from long 
distances over roads that were scarcely more than trails, or up the river by boat. The 
means of transportation were such that the arrival of news and supplies was subject to all 
sorts of delay ; and many a weekly issue was omitted because there was no white paper or 
ink. There were other omissions because there was sickness in the editor's family or other 
duties were more imperative. But the subscribers were charitable. No one was without 
shortcomings, and subscriptions were paid more often in produce than in money. The 
struggle to subdue the wilderness was common to all and, if every person was doing his best, 
there was no fault to be found. 

It was war that brought the first newspaper to Columbus — the war of 1812. Colum- 
bus was still in swaddling clothes, but Franklinton, west of the river, was a town of fourteen 
years and a convenient rendezvous for soldiers. Besides the regular population, many were 
coming and going. James B. Gardiner saw the opportunity of service and established the 
Freeman's Chronicle, "pledged to religion, liberty and law." The first issue of the paper 
bore the date of July 1, 1812. It was a folio of four columns to the page, and its news 
was of Washington, Europe and the Indian war. The foreign news was from three to five 
months old, the Washington news from three to five weeks old; with the war news the editor 
was more fortunate, for the headquarters of General William Henry Harrison, first at Piqua, 
were later removed to Franklinton. As for the immediate vicinity, the news was in the ad- 
vertisements or in the occasional brief comment of the editor. Other papers, which came 
by mail, were the chief source of information; and when the mail was delayed, there was 
no Freeman's Chronicle — breaks that were made up for by the occasional issue of extras, 
tlie size of a handbill containing some important news. One of these, issued Sunday evening, 
January 2 1, 1813, announced "Lewis' victory at the River Raisin." In an editorial, April 
8, 1S1 t, it is stated that $150 had been expended for paper alone during the last six months, 
and not more than $30 had been received for subscriptions. The end was in sight. The war 
had ended, the community had again settled down to peaceful pursuits and a rival newspaper 
had appeared on the other side of the liver. Publication ceased in 1815. 

That rival was the Western Intelligencer which in 1814 was moved from Worthington 
where its publication was begun in 1811. The equipment for this paper was bought by 
Colonel James Kilbourne, founder of Worthington, in 1 80S), and Ezra Griswold had set 
seven columns of type for the first issue, but at that point the project was interrupted, and 
there was no issue until two years later, when Joel Buttles and George Smith bought the 
plant. An interesting tradition is that this press was originally the property of James B. 
Gardiner, of the Freeman's Chronicle, and was used by him in the publication of an earlier 
paper at Marietta. 

The Western Intelligencer, when it was moved to Columbus, became the Western Intelli- 



THE PRESS 181 

gencer aiid Columbus Gazette. In 1817 the name was changed to Columbus Gazette, in 1825, 
to Ohio State Journal and Columbus Gazette; in 1837 to Ohio State Journal and Register; 
in 1838 to Ohio State Journal, which it has since remained. 

Men who have been prominently identified with this newspaper as owners or editors in 
its more than a century of publication are: Joel Buttles, George Smith, James Hills, P. H. 
Olmsted, Ezra Griswold, George Nashee, John Bailhache (1825), Charles Scott (1835), 
Smithson E. Wright, John M.^Gallagher, John Teesdale (1843), William B. Thrall (1846), 
Henry Reed (1818), William T. Bascom (1851), Oren Follett, Aaron F. Perry (1855), 
John Greiner, Colonel Wm. Schouler, A. M. Gangewer, Henry D. Cooke, William Dean 
Howells (1S58), F. W. Hurtt, Wm. T. Coggeshall (1865), J." Q. Howard (1868), General 
James M. Comly (1871), Andrew W. Francisco (1872), Sylvanus E. Johnson (1877), 
Colonel James Taylor, Samuel J. Flickinger (1878), W. W. Bond, Captain Alfred E. Lee, 
General B. R. Cowen, Henry Monett, Jerome C. Briggs (1882), Colonel Wm. S. Furay, 
Edward K. Rife, George B. Hische, Colonel James Ellison, D. L. Bowersmith, R. F. Wolfe. 
H. P. Wolfe (1903), Samuel G. McClure, Colonel E. S. Wilson, Robert O. Ryder, and Harry 
J. Westerman, who since 1901 has been the successful and widely copied cartoonist. 

The next longest line of newspaper descent, which ended with the suspension of the 
News, under the management of Allen Albert in 1907, was begun with the establishment of 
the Ohio Monitor in 1816 by David Smith and Ezra Griswold. It came to represent the 
opposing political party and did so far many years. In 1835 Mr. Smith, who had become 
sole owner, sold the paper to Jacob Medary, who consolidated it with the Hemisphere, and 
published it under that name till 1837, when it became the Ohio Statesman, with Samuel Medary 
& Brothers as proprietors. On combination with the Ohio State Democrat in 1854, it became 
the Ohio Statesman and Democrat; in 1857, the name was changed back to Ohio Statesman; 
in 1879, it became the Democrat and Statesman; in 1880, the Times; in 1888, the Press; in 
1895, the Press-Post, on the absorption of the Post, which had been established in 18S8, 
with H. S. Perkins as editor and Charles Q. Davis as manager; in 1905, after it had fallen 
into the hands of a company of which Allen Albert was the representative, it became the News. 
And, bearing that name, it died in 1907. 

The names that stand out prominently in connection with the Monitor and its successors 
are those of David Smith, who was its editor for the first 19 years; Samuel Medary, whose 
editorship, with the exception of two short intervals, extended from 1837 to 1857; S. S. Cox 
(1853-51), H. W. Derby, Horace S. Knapp, Colonel Charles B. Flood, James Haddock Smith, 
Thomas Miller (1858) George W. Manypenny, Amos Layman, Lewis Baker, E. B. Eshel- 
man, Richard Nevins (1867), Jonathan Linton (1872), John H. Putnam, William Trevitt, 
John G. Thompson (1880), Solon Goode, James Goode, George H. Tyler, Simeon K. Dona- 
vin, Henry T. Chittenden (1881), Ferd J. Wendell, Charles' W. Harper, J. H. Galbraith, 
Clarence Jones, DeWitt C. Jones, L. P. Stephens, Ellis O. Jones. John J. Lentz, W. P. 
Harrison and Allen Albert. 

One of the weekly papers of long life and much influence was the Columbus Gazette 
which was continuously published in one cause or another from 1819 to 1S86. It engaged 
the activities of many men, including, George M. Swan, John Greiner, Gamaliel Scott, 
Char'es S. Glenn, Alexander E. Glenn, S. S. Peters, E. O. Randall, L. G. Thrall, J. H. Hann 
and George E. Thrall. It began as a Free Soil paper and died advocating prohibition. 

The Crisis, established by Samuel Medary, January 31, 1861, to advocate the settlement 
of the troubles between the states without resort to arms, created a great commotion. Its 
unpopularity made for it a great circulation and incited citizens and soldiers to violence. 
But Governor Medary was a pacifist not to be denied, and he continued to publish his paper 
till his death. November 7, 1861. Others carried it on till 1870, when it was merged into the 
Statesman. 

Sunday newspapers (weeklies) for a time had quite a vogue. The first was the Sunday 
Morning News, published continuously from 1867 to 1900. In 1875 came the Sunday Herald 
which was consolidated with the News in 1891. The Sunday Capital first appeared Feb- 
ruary 17, 1878; its last issue was in March, 1891, after its editors, Wm. J. and P. J. Elliott, 
had shot and killed on the street Albert C. Osborne, editor of the Sunday World, a rival 
paper started a short time before. Sunday newspapers as separate publications ceased to 
be profitable when the dailies came into the Sunday field, and the bad morals of some of them 
hastened the departure of all. 



182 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Other weeklies of note were the Saturday Bohemian, designed to criticise the stage, 
society and politics, edited by Arnold H. Isler (1882-1885); The Owl (afterwards Light) 
edited by Opha Moore (1888); The Modern Argo, a high-class literary publication, by S. H. 
Dooley (1878); The Saturday Critic by Colonel W. A. Taylor in 1882. 

In 1851 a number of journeyman printers began the publication of the Daily Capital 
City Fact. After a few months, the paper came into the control of Colonel John Geary, who 
continued the publication till 1863, when he sold it to W. H. Foster, who changed the name 
to the Evening Express. The Express was discontinued in 1864. 

The Sentinel, a morning daily, backed by Allen G. Thurman, Henry Chittenden and 
other Liberals and Democrats, was established in 1872 to support Horace Greeley for the 
presidency. J. Q. Howard was editor. It lived six years. 

Among the papers absorbed by the Ohio State Journal, aside from those already men- 
tioned, were the Western Statesman in 1828; the Ohio State Bulletin in 1835, the Columbian 
in 1855, and the Western Home Visitor in 1856. On each side of the political fence, when 
there was dissatisfaction with the chief exponent of party faith, a new paper was started, 
struggled awhile and was absorbed or discontinued. In these contests, the Journal fared 
better than the Statesman, for the latter was several times overcome and would have perished 
but for the splendor Governor Medary gave to the name. The Statesman and its successors 
were many times in financial difficulties and litigation, and on the latest of those occasions, 
the line expired. The Journal was in the hands of a receiver in 1851, and it was in sore 
distress in 1858 when Henry D. Cooke became its managing spirit. Much money has been 
made in the Columbus newspaper field, but much has been lost, and the losers far outnumber 
the gainers. It is only when the many efforts are considered in the light of service that 
the men who lost money can find comfort, but that may be all sufficient. Scores of Columbus 
daily and weekly publications lived their little day and passed, and their names are either 
forgotten or without present significance but to each of them we may give the credit for 
some part, great or small, in the making of the public opinion controlling the progress of 
the city. 

The Dispatch Printing Company was incorporated with a nominal capital stock of 
$10,000 in June, 1871, by Wm. Trevitt, jr., Samuel Bradford, Timothy McMahon, James 
O'Donnell, Peter C. Johnson. L. P. Stephens, John M. Webb, J. S. B. 'Given, C. M. Morris 
and Willoughby W. Webb — all men of newspaper experience. With the exception of the last 
named, they paid in $100 each and agreed to work ten weeks, without drawing salary, the 
same to be credited to them on the books. Twenty-five per cent, was after the first ten 
weeks paid in cash, in the second year, 50 per cent, and in the third year, 75 per cent., the 
remainder in each case being credited. In the summer of 1874 the company sold the paper 
to Captain John H. Putnam and Dr. G. A. Doren for $10,500. They secured the Associated 
Press franchise, improved the equipment and January 1, 1876, sold to Captain L. D. Myers 
and Wm. D. Brickell. In 1882 Captain Myers, having been appointed postmaster, sold his 
interest to Mr. Brickell, who, in 1003, sold the paper to J. J. Gill, of Steubenville, and 
others. In 1905, the majority of the stock was bought by Robert F. and Harry P. Wolfe. 
The history of the Dispatch, unlike that of most Columbus papers has been one of continu- 
ous growth and prosperity. Mr. Brickell added the Sunday issue, buying the Sunday Morn- 
ing News to get the Associated Press service, thus making the Dispatch a six-day evening 
and Sunday morning paper. 

Prominent among its editors and editorial writers have been Willoughby W. Webb, John 
II. Putnam, Captain L. D. Myers, Stephen B. Porter, John H. Green, Osman C. Hooper. J. 
I. inn Rodgers, Webster P. Huntington, Charles M. Lewis, Clarence Metters, John Metters, 
Arthur C. Johnson, Charles J. Reiker and George F. Burba. Dispatch cartoons, which 
have long been made by W. A. Ireland, have gained a national fame. 

The Dispatch was long published in the building at the northeast corner of High street 
and Lynn alley. Mr. Brickell bought the bui'ding at the northeast corner of High and Gav 
streets and moved the Dispatch into it. In 1907, after the paper had passed into the hands 
of its present owners, the building was burned. For about two years the paper was published 
from the rooms, 3 1-38 N. High street, to which the rescued presses and type had been moved. 
The work of constructing a new building pro •ceded in the meantime, and the paper was 
again housed at the Dispatch corner in the fall of 1910. 

The Columbus Citizen was established as a six-day evening paper by George W. Dun, 



THE PRESS 183 

the first number having been issued from the office of the Express-Westbote, German daily, 
210 South High street, March 1, 1899. George Smart was editorial manager, performing 
the duties of both managing and city editov. June 1, 1900, E. E. Cook became city editor and 
later, when Mr. Smart went to Cleveland, became managing editor, and in 1901 became 
editor, with B. S. Stephenson as managing editor and R. H. Jones city editor. On resigna- 
tion of Mr. Stephenson, E. H. Hilt became managing editor and was himself succeeded in 
1909 by Mr. Jones, H. F. Busey becoming city editor. 

The first move of the Citizen was, with the Express-Westbote, July 31, 1899, to the 
building, 208 South High street. On September 24, 1900, the Citizen was issued from its 
own plant and its own office, 47 East State street, just east of the City Hall. On July 6, 
1904, Mr. Dunn sold a controlling interest in the paper to the Seripps-McRae organization 
and later disposed of the remainder of his stock to persons connected with that organization, 
removing to Toledo where he died while publishing the Toledo Times. In 1910 the Citizen 
Publishing Company bought a lot at the corner of Third street and Lynn alley and erected 
a two-story brick building and, with a complete equipment, issued the first paper there Novem- 
ber 28, 1910. 

The Citizen was established as an independent paper and continued as such until Sep- 
tember 2, 1901, when it announced its purpose to be Democratic. After its purchase by the 
Seripps-McRae organization, it again became independent and has so continued. Charles 
F. Fischer became business manager, February 8, 1904, and is still serving, with Mr. Cook 
as editor. Harry S. Keys, Citizen cartoonist, entertains with his humor and, like the others, 
helps with his more serious drawings to make public opinion. 

On August 14, 1915, the Saturday Monitor, with E. Howard Gilkey as editor, made its 
appearance, the publication office being at 136 East Gay street. On July 10, 1916, the 
Daily Monitor appeared, avowedly as a Republican organ. S. B. Anson eame from Cleve- 
land to be publisher, and J. S. Ralston was understood to be the principal financial backer. 
The paper was moved to large and well appointed quarters at the southwest corner of High 
and Chestnut streets, where publication was suspended July 6, 1917, on the order of Mr. 
Ralston and the appointment by the court of Mr. Gilkey as receiver and the issuing of an 
injunction to prevent Mr. Anson and others from continuing the publication. About 125 
persons were thrown out of employment by the suspension, which was due to accumulating 
losses. 

The Liberal Advocate, the official organ of the retail liquor trade of the State, after a 
career of twenty-five years as a weekly, suspended publication immediately after the election 
of November, 1918. Ohio had just voted to prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxicating 
liquors. 

The Labor News, a weekly devoted to the cause of labor, was first published in 1915 
under a partnership agreement by J. A. Armstrong, O. C. Gilbert and William Blinco, of 
Columbus, and Walter Hilton, editor of the Wheeling Majority. In February, 1919, the 
Columbus Labor News Company was incorporated by the three Columbus men named, H. M. 
Hageman and J. R. Elder, to continue the publication and "combat the Bolsheviki and I. 
W. W. menace in all organized or unorganized groups of wage-earners, to uphold the funda- 
mental principles of the American Federation of Labor and the betterment of mankind in 
general, with an eight-hour day for all workers." 

The Columbus Democrat, weekly, seven-column folio, was established in September. 
1915, by the Columbus Democrat Company. It is devoted to local news and comment and 
the support of the Democratic organization in countv and State. 

The Week, owned and edited by C. C. Philbrick, was established April 9, 1910. In its 
sixteen 10x15 pages there has appeared every Saturdav a review of the week's politi- 
cal, financial and sporting news and various features. By its sub-title, is was first "a journal 
of fundamental Democracy," but later "a Republican paper with established principles." 
Prior to the establishment of the Week, Mr. Philbrick was the directing force of the Ohio 
Sun, a morning daily, established July 4, 1907, in an old residence on Broad street opposite 
the Capitol. The paper survived less than two years. 

The first German language newspaper printed in Columbus was the Emigrant, Henry 
Roedter editor, begun in 1833 and discontinued the following year. The Ohio Staatszeitung 
was the next — a Whig campaign paper in 1840. Beginning in 1811 and continuing for about 
18 months, the Ohio Eagle (Adler) was published by V. Kastner. The failure of the Eagle 



184- HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

suggested to .Jacob Reinhard that lie try his hand at the business and he went to Cincinnati 
to talk over the project with F. Fieser, then editor of the Volksblatt there. The two united 
their forces and the result was the establishment in October, 1813, of Der Westbote, so 
named when the daughter of Stephen Molitor, Mr. Fieser's assistant, drew out of a hat 
a slip bearing that name. The paper was printed with new equipment in a building on East 
Main street. Reinhard & Fieser, as the firm name was, continued to publish the Westbote 
till May, 1881, when Mr. Fieser sold his interest to William F. Kemmler, George J. Brand 
and Peter Hintersehitt, all of whom bad for many years been in the service of the company 
and had helped to make it a journalistic success in a none too favorable location. In 1885, 
a joint stock company was formed with a capital of $ 100,000, the principal stock holders 
being Jacob Reinhard, Henry A. Reinhard and the other three men named. The Westbote 
was first a weekly, then a semi-weekly and later a tri-weeklv. 

In 1876, Leo Hirsch, a fugitive from Prussian militarism which in his paper in Frank- 
fort he had antagonized when it was preparing for the war against France, came to Columbus 
and became a member of the Westbote staff. Two years later, in the era of exclusive 
Sunday papers, he established the Sontagsgast and built it up till in 1890 he was able to launch 
the Columbus Daily Express, a Republican paper in the German language. Success crowned 
this effort also, and in 1903 he was able to buy the Westbote which he consolidated with 
the Express as the Express-Westbote, daily. The Westbote was continued as a semi- 
weekly and the Sontagsgast as a Sunday paper. Mr. Hirsch died in August, 1908, and the 
papers were continued by his sons, Gustav, Ralph and Max Hirsch, the chief figures in the 
German-American Publishing Company. The company was doing a thriving business at the 
outbreak of the war with Germanv, but it never faltered in its Americanism. "We have 
from this time but one duty to perform, and that an unswerving, unfaltering loyalty to the 
country and the flag of our adoption," read an Express-Westbote editorial. On August 17, 
1918, the company because it believed that no more German language newspapers should be 
published in this country, announced the discontinuance of its three papers. Gustav 
Hirsch was then a major in the Tenth Field Battalion of the United States Signal Corps, 
and his brothers were prominent in the war work at home. The company then employed at 
its publication office, 271 South Third street, forty-two persons, to each of whom a month's 
pay was given. 

The Hunter-Trader-Trapper is a monthly of regular magazine proportions and a nation- 
wide circulation of about 90,000. It was established in October, 1900, by A. R. Hardinir 
and conducted by him till June, 1914, when it was bought by F. J. and W. F. Heer, and has 
since been conducted with increasing success, with Otto Kuechler as editor. Camp and 
Trail, a weekly established by Mr. Harding in June, 1910, was merged into the Hunter- 
Trader-Trapper in August, 1913. 

The Kit-Kat, a literary monthlv, established in January, 1912, was published by the 
Kit-Kat Club for a year and then was turned over to the editors, Osman C. Hooper, Charles 
C. Pavey, Herbert Brooks and A. W. Mackenzie, who with the aid of a foundation of a score 
or more men, mostly members of the Club, have since continued it as monthly or quarterly. It 
is no! a commercial project. 

Tin- first religious paper to be published in Columbus was the Cross and Journal, a 
Baptist weekly, which was later the Journal and Messenger, of Cincinnati. Its Colum- 
bus career covered the period from 1838 to 1849, George Cole, Rev. D. A. Randall and Rev. 
J. I.. Batchelder being connected with it as editors and owners. Mr, Batchelder, to whom 
the paper passed in 1849, moved the publication office to Cincinnati. 

The Ohio Waiscnt'reund is a religious weekly for Catholics, founded in 1872 at Pomeroy, 
Ohio, by Id v. J. Jessing, and five years later brought to Columbus, where it has since been 
published with marked success, the proceeds being used in the maintenance of the Josephinum, 
an orphans' home and school. This is a German language paper. Another paper, the 
Josephinum Weekly in English, also emanates from the institution. 

The Catholic Columbian, weekly, dates back to 1ST !• , when Bishop S. H. Rosecrans, 

Rev. I). A. Clarke. Rev. M. M. Meara, I.uke Byrne and Major O. T. Turney organized 
I In- Columbian Printing Co. The first number was published January (i, 1 S 7 -"> , Bishop 
Rosecrans, the editor, being assisted by Father Clarke who also served as business manager. 

At I he death of Bishop Rosecrans in 1878, the whole editorial work devolved on Father 
Clarke, who also continued as business manager. In 1881, John A. Kuster, of Newark, 



THE PRESS 185 

bought an interest and assumed the business management, and three years later became sole 
proprietor, Father Clarke retiring, happy in the nine years to have established on a sound 
basis a Catholic family journal for central Ohio. Under Mr. Kuster's management the Colum- 
bian continued a useful and growing service for twenty-five years. In 1906 he sold the paper 
to James T. Carroll and associates. Since then Mr. Carroll has been editor and publisher. 

The Lutheran Book Concern was established in Columbus in 1881, making the city the 
center of the denomination's publications, just as the Capital University had made it an 
educational center. John L. Trauger was the first manager and at his death was succeeded 
by F. J. Heer. In 1907, A. H. Dornbirer assumed that function and is now serving. The 
Concern publishes religious books on the society and on individual account and issues a 
number of church publications. The oldest of these is the Lutheran Standard, established 
here in 1842 as a weekly. Rev. J. Sheatsley is the present editor. The German language 
counterpart of the Standard is the Lutherische Kirehenzeitung, which was established in 1859. 
Rev. R. C. H. Lenski has been the editor-in-chief for fifteen years. The Lutheran Youth is 
an English language weekly, established in 1912. Professor C. B. Gohdes is the editor. The 
Theological Magazine is a periodical of 96 pages printed in both German and English. Dr. 
F. W. Stellhorn is the editor. A half dozen periodicals for the Sunday school, some monthlv 
and others quarterly, with a circulation covering the United States and Canada, are also 
published. 

The Jewish Chronicle, a monthly magazine of twenty-four large pages, devoted to the 
interests of the Jewish people in America, was begun in April, 1918 — E. L. Parker publisher, 
Louis Rich editor, and Sampson H. Rosenfield business manager. 

The Ohio Teacher, a monthly, was founded by Dr. John M. McBurney, at Cambridge, 
Ohio, in August, 1880. Dr. McBurney at that time was a professor in Muskingum College, 
at New Concord, with which institution he was long connected. In 1889 lie sold the maga- 
zine to Prof. Martin R. Andrews, of Marietta College, and Superintendent Henry G. Williams, 
of the Marietta public schools, who published it in Marietta until 1902, when Professor An- 
drews sold his interest and Dr. Williams became sole owner. The office of publication was 
moved to Athens, where Dr. Williams became dean of the State Normal College organized in 
the spring of that year. The circulation of the Ohio Teacher grew rapidly and by 1906 it 
had outgrown the facilities for publishing it in Athens. The publication office was then 
removed to Columbus and has remained here continuously ever since, the editorial rooms now 
being at 101 North Third street, while the mechanical work is done by the Stoneman Press Co., 
on South High street. The magazine is vigorous in its editorial policy and is a staunch ad- 
vocate of better schools, better trained teachers, better citizenship and better government 
and an equal educational opportunity for nil. Dr. Williams, the owner and editor, has given 
thirty-seven years to the cause of education in Ohio. 

The Ohio Educational Monthly, now owned and edited by Mr. J. L. Clifton, had origin 
in 1851, when the Ohio Teachers' Association, in session at Cleveland, decided to establish 
an educational journal as the organ of the Association. A committee, appointed at that meet- 
ing, made a favorable report at the meeting in Columbus the following year. The report 
was adopted, and the management of the project was put into the hands of the executive 
committee. A. D. Lord was made managing editor, and the first number appeared in January, 
1852, under the name of the Ohio Journal of Education. In 1858 it was transferred to 
private parties, owing to financial difficulties, and Anson Smyth, State Commissioner of Com- 
mon Schools, became the editor. In 1861 Dr. E. E. White became associated with Mr. 
Smyth in the publication, and in 1863 became sole owner and editor. In 1875 he sold the pub- 
lication which had been renamed by Mr. Smyth the Ohio Educational Monthly, to Dr. W. 
D. Henkle, who published it at Salem until his death in 1881. The following year it became 
the propertv of Dr. Samuel Findlev, who published it at Akron until 1895 when it was sold 
to Prof. O. T. Corson, who published it at Columbus until August, 1918, when he in turn 
sold to Professor Clifton, who for two years had been its managing editor. Professor Clifton 
has for years been connected with the public schools and is a member of the faculty of the Col- 
lege of Education, Ohio State University. The Ohio Educational Monthly is the oldest publi- 
cation of its kind in the United States. Its offices are at 55 East Main street. 

Women have been a working factor in Columbus journalism since 1890. Women proof- 
readers appeared even before that, but gradually disappeared as the Typographical Union 
took over that task. Then they appeared in the newspaper offices as society editors, literary, 



18(5 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

art and dramatic critics, reporters of philanthropic activities, telephone-desk and rewrite re- 
porters and the editors of special columns of advice to the love-lorn and others. In their 
employment of women Columbus newspapers have been conservative, never having assigned 
them to purely sensational and degrading tasks. Notable among the women who have done 
newspaper work, some of them only occasionally for some special public purpose arc : Rachel 
Frances Harrison, Elise Fitch Hinman, Mrs. Earl Clark Derby, Rowena Hewitt Landon, 
Georgia Hopley, Nellie Elizabeth Slaughter, Clara Markeson, Penelope Smythe Perrill, 
Helen Converse, Ella May Smith, Nan Cannon, Millicent Easter, Dolly Patterson, Helen 
Moriartv. Ellen J. Connor, Alice Coon Brown. Sadie B. Connor, Maud Murray Miller. 
Charme Seeds, Alice Peter, Sara C. Swaney, Mary Toole, Daisy Krier, Dorothy Knott. 
Anna Quinby, Ruth Young, Ruth Parrett, Olga Jones and Mary Lewis. Mrs. Maybel 
Monvpeny Huntington, Mrs. Dickson L. Moore, Dr. Alice Johnston and others have been 
prominent in publicity work for special causes. 

Journalism in Columbus, as in most places, has been marked by newspaper quarrels, 
mostly with ink, occasionally with fists and canes. The record of fisticuffs and ink, however. 
was broken in 1891, when the quarrel between two Sunday newspapers, the Capital and tin- 
World, resulted in murder. In the Sunday World of February 22, which was owned and 
edited by Albert C. Osborn and F. W. Levering, there appeared an article which William 
J. Elliott, editor of the Capital, interpreted as a reflection on his wife and mother. It was 
the culmination of a long controversy over the respective merits of the papers and their 
editors. On Monday morning William J. Elliott and his brother, P. J. Elliott, were together 
on High street, when they met Osborn opposite the Capitol. The street was thronged with 
people, for there was a delayed observance of Washington's birthday, with a parade by 
patriotic societies. As the hostile editor approached the shooting besran and was continued 
till Osborn had been killed. W. L. Hughes a by-stander, was also killed, and half a dozen 
others in the crowd were more or less injured. It was the greatest and most sensational 
of all Columbus tragedies. The local daily papers were full of the details, and probably no 
important paper in the country failed to comment on it. The Elliotts were immediately 
arrested, in due time were indicted for first degree murder, and the trial of William J. 
Eliott began May 1 following, before Judge D. F. Pugh, of the Common Pleas Court. 
For the State there appeared Cyrus Huling, Prosecuting Attorney; Ira Crum, Assistant 
Prosecuting Attorney; Henry J. Booth and Colonel J. T. Holmes. The attorneys for the 
defense were George L. Converse, Thomas E. Powell, E. L. Taylor, Gilbert H. Bargar and 
M. B. Earnhart. The taking of testimonv continued till July l(i; there was a week of argu- 
ment by the attorneys and. after five days of deliberation, the jury returned a compromise 
verdict, finding the prisoner guilty of second degree murder. Elliott was sentenced to the 
Penitentiary for life, but was released after a few years, with the understanding that he 
would leave the State. P. J. Elliott was subsequently tried and convicted of manslaughter. 
lb was sentenced to imprisonment for twenty years, only a part of which he served. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 

Early Religious Leaders — Rev. James Hoge, Rev. Samuel West, Bishop Philander Chase — 
Presbyterians, Methodists, Episcopalians, Lutherans, Baptists, Congregationalists, 
Church of Christ, Vniversalists, United Brethren. 

To put into a few pages of a general history an adequate account of the religious life of 
the community with its hundreds of church organizations is a difficult task. In the 122 years 
since the founding of Franklinton, the workers have been innumerable and a list even of those 
who have preached the Gospel from the various pulpits cannot here be given. It is only 
left to the historian to sketch the beginnings and some portions of the development to the 
present great network of religious instruction and inspiration and to name some of the men 
who have served notably as churchmen and citizens in the building of the city. 

There was no recognized religious leader in the Franklinton community till Rev. James 
Hoge came in 1805 and established worship, according to the Presbyterian faith, in the house 
of John Overdier, a two-story frame building north of Broad and Sandusky streets. Later, 
he preached in the Court House, which was erected in 1807, and in September of that year 
was called to be the pastor of the First Presbyterian church, a relationship which he main- 
tained for SO years, his farewell sermon having been preached June 25. 1857. It was a 
great service, of which more will be said later. 

The Methodists appeared here as an organization in 181 1, when Rev. Samuel West, 
then in charge of this circuit, brought together George MeCormick and his wife, George 
B. Harvey and Miss Jane Armstrong, constituting them a class to which Moses Freeman, 
a colored man, was soon admitted. From that humble beginning has sprung the great Metho- 
dist organization of the present city. 

Trinity Episcopal church was organized by Bishop Philander Chase in 1817, the first 
church officers being: Orris Parrish and Benjamin Gardiner, wardens; John Kilbourne and 
Joel Buttles, vestry; Joel Buttles, secretary. There was no regular rector or building for 
some years, and Bishop Chase, then living in Worthington, preached occasionally in a one- 
storv frame building on Third street, between Town and Rich. 

The German Lutheran Reformed church was organized in 1821, Rev. Charles Hinkle 
pastor, and worshipped in a frame building on Third street between Town and Rich. 

The Baptists next appeared, having been organized in 1825 by Rev. George Jeffries, 
who figures in early Columbus history as cabinet-maker, glazier, school teacher, school 
director and manufacturer. He was a man of many parts and is to be classed among the 
sturdy men of the time who made the city. 

Holy Cross Catholic church was organized in 1833 and soon after erected a small stone 
church on Fifth street between Town and Rich. 

Thus in 1831 when Columbus became a city, six religious denominations were repre- 
sented here in a population of about 2,000. All of the churches were weak, some of them 
without pastors. Martin in his history names eight officiating clergyman of that date: Dr. 
James Hoge, Presbyterian: William Preston, Episcopalian; L. B. Gurlev, Methodist, with 
Thomas Asbury and Jesse F. Wiscom, local preachers, and Russell Bigelow, agent for the 
Temperance Society, all of the same denomination; George Jeffries and Edward Davis, 
Baptist. The Welsh Presbyterians organized in 1S37 and, without a regular pastor, wor- 
shipped in a small frame building on Town street, east of Fifth. In the same year the 
Universalist Society appeared and held meetings in the United States Court House, where 
Rev. A. A. Davis, of Delaware county, preached. The German Evangelical Protestants 
organized and erected a church on Mound street in 18 12; the German Reformed, Rev. Hiram 
Shall, Town street, between Fourth and Fifth, in 1816; the Welsh Methodists organized in 
1848 and erected a brick building at Long and Sixtli streets, Rev. Mr. Perry of Granville, 
being the first pastor. The first Jewish organization appeared in IS 19, when 28 members 
worshipped in rented rooms, with S. Lazarus as rabbi. The colored Methodists appear as a 
separate organization in 1823, and the colored Baptists in 183(i, with a building on Gay 
street, between Third and Fourth, and the Anti-Slavery Baptists (colored) in 1817. with 



188 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

a brick building on Town street, between Fifth and Sixth. It was there that Rev. James 
Poindexter first preached. The two congregations were afterwards combined, with him as 

pastor, in the Gay street building', and there he ministered for many years, being the most 
distinguished representative of the race in civic, as well as religious affairs. 

The First Congregational church, winch has played so important a part in the life of the 
city, was first constituted September 29, 1852, its original 42 members having been dis- 
missed from the Second Presbyterian church for that purpose. Among its first officers were 
M. B. Bateham, J. W. Hamilton and F. C. Sessions. Its rules of government were partly 
Presbyterian and partly Congregational, with Rev. Wm. H. Marble as first pastor. In 1856 
by a unanimous vote of the members the organization became the First Congregational 
church. 

As the churches have from the first rendered an incalculable service in determining 
the high quality of civic life, so many of the religious leaders have come, either from active 
participation in public affairs or from the silent influence they exerted from the sanctuary, 
to be regarded as never-to-be-forgotten builders of the city. First and foremost of these 
is Rev. James Hoge who, born in Moorfield, Va., the son of a Revolutionary soldier and 
divine, came here when he was 21, and here spent the remainder of his life. He preached 
for two years and then organized the First Presbyterian church, of which he w r as pastor 
for 50 years. He was prominently identified with all the early charitable and benevolent 
enterprises, participated in the establishment of the state schools for the education of the 
deaf and blind and the first hospital for the insane. He was an early advocate of the pub- 
lic school system, and in his years of activity no public gathering for doing good was 
complete without him. The Presbyterians have also given to the city Rev. E. D. Morris, 
pastor of the Second church from 1855 to 1868, afterwards identified with Lane Theological 
Seminary; Henry L. Hitchcock, pastor of the same church till 1855, when he became presi- 
dent of Western Reserve University; Rev. William E. Moore, for more than 20 years pastor 
of the same church and from 1872 a sterling factor in the city life. 

Of the Methodist leaders only a few can here be mentioned: Rev. J. M Trimble, 
pastor of Town street church in 18-10-11 and later at Wesley Chapel; Rev. A. G. Byers, once 
pastor of Third avenue, later secretary of the State Board of Charities and foremost in 
the State's benevolent work; Rev. James L. Grover, at different times pastor of Wesley 
Chapel and Third avenue church and later the first librarian of the Public Library; Rev. 
Granville Moody, pastor of Town street church in 18-15-17 and, in the Civil War, colonel 
of the 71th Ohio Infantry, commandant at Camp Chase where he won the affection of the 
Confederate prisoners, and later in active military service. 

Rev. Philander Chase, (after 1818 Bishop) was the founder of the Protestant Episcopal 
church here, being identified with it from 18 17 to 1830. He came from Connecticut to 
establish churches in this section, made his home on a farm between Columbus and Worth- 
ington, preached in both places, and organized at his farm house a college which was after- 
wards established at Gambier as Kenyon College. It was in 1826 that Bishop Chase took 
possession of the new site and began the erection of the first building of the present thriving 
i n st i t lit ion. 

For eight years ending about 1865, Rev. 1). A. Randall was the regular pastor of the 
First Baptist church, and thereafter often preached in the absence of the regular pastor or 
on special occasions. He was later tin- head of the linn of book dealers, Randall & Aston. 
He was traveler and author, and was interested in the early efforts to establish a public 
library, I In- fruit of which is the present institution, of which his son. Dr. F. O. Randall, 
was long a trustee. Another Baptist minister who contributed much to the city life 
was Rev. I. F. Stidham, who was pastor of the First church from 1871 to 1886. He was 
deeply interested in the science of ! he dav and for his achievements received from Denison 
University the degree of Ph. I). 

Notable pastorates in the German churches, each covering about three decades, were 
those of Rev. Conrad Mees, pastor of the German Evangelical church which long stood at 
High and .Mound streets; Rev. W. F. Lehmann, of Trinity German Evangelical on Third 
street, and Rev. Christian Heddaeus, of the Independent Protestant German church at 

Mound and Third streets. None but a good and useful man could hold a pastorate so long. 

One of the vigorous ministers of Universalist faith is Rev. E. I.. Rexford, who first came to 

Columbus lo preach in 1869. He was for a number of years pastor of the church when it 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 189 

worshipped on Third street .south of Town. Later he preached in the church on State street 
and after that was pastor of All Souls church. His interest in public welfare work has 
been keen and helpful. 

Next to Dr. James Hoge, the man who came nearest to being pastor to the whole com- 
munity was Dr. Washington Gladden who, coming in 1882 to be pastor of the First Con- 
gregational church, remained either as pastor or pastor emeritus until 1918. He entered at 
once into the life of the city, helped to establish industrial justice, was prominent in the 
city government reform movements and for two years was a member of the City Council. 
Every good movement sought and found his support. His 36 years of life and service here 
left a strong impress for good on the community. 

There is much more that might be said of these and other useful leading churchmen, 
but space in this volume will not permit. It now remains to speak briefly of the early 
church organizations — the mother churches of the several denominations, with a reference 
to the later churches, the children and grandchildren of the first. With the growth of the 
city, the church-goers scattered ; missions in outlying districts were established ; these 
missions grew into churches, many of which have established missions further out, in their 
turn to become churches. An adequate statement of the process of growth would require a 
volume; we can only hope in a measure to indicate the development. 

Presbyterian. 

The call to Dr. Hoge to become pastor of the First Presbyterian church September 25, 
1807, was in the handwriting of Lucas Sullivant, and was signed by Robert Culbertson and 
William Reed as elders, and by Joseph Dixon, John Dill, David Nelson, Wm. Domigan, 
Joseph Hunter and Lucas Sullivant as trustees. The initial membership was 13. Under 
the call, which he accepted, he was to be pastor for three-fourths of his time at .$300 a year, 
the remainder of his time to be left open for missionary work in adjacent territory. Dr. 
Hoge was ordained and installed by the Presbytery of Washington, June 17, 1808. 

The first meeting house was erected in Franklinton in 1811, chiefly through the gen- 
erosity of Lucas Sullivant. It was a small brick building, which before its completion was 
taken over by the commissary department of the government and filled with grain. In 
March, 1813, a heavy rain penetrated to the contents and the swelling of the grain burst 
the walls. The government made good the loss but it was not until 1815 that another house 
of worship was built. This was situated on the west bank of the Scioto near a wooded island 
known as British Island from the fact that British prisoners had once been detained there. 
Meanwhile across the river the population of the village of Columbus was increasing and for 
the convenience of the Presbyterians there Mr. Hoge preached in various private houses, 
until in the year 181-1 a log cabin for church purposes was built on a lot owned by the 
minister on Spring street near Third. Here, alternating with Franklinton, lie held services 
for several years, until the growth of the Columbus congregation warranted a newer and 
better church edifice. For this purpose liberal subscriptions were made by different mem- 
bers and lots having been donated by the city at the corner of Front and Town streets, a sub- 
stantial frame edifice, 80x60, was erected at a cost of $1,050. The seating capacity was -100. 
On June 20, 1821, the First Presbyterian Society of Columbus was incorporated, with the 
signatures of such well known people as Gustavus Swan, Lincoln Goodale, David Taylor, 
William McElvain, James O'Harra, and others whose descendants have still a part in the 
religious activities of the city and State The society assumed the legal title of "The First 
Presbyterian Congregation of Columbus." which it has borne ever since. On November 19, 
1821, the Franklinton congregation became merged in the Columbus church witli the same 
title and under the same trustees. It is probable that services ceased to be held in Franklin- 
ton when tile new church was built at State and Third streets. This was in 1830. In 
January of that year, the location and building on Town street having become unsuitable, the 
site for a new church was chosen at the southwest corner of State and Third streets, where 
before the year closed one of the finest church edifices in the city was built. It was open 
for services the first Sunday in December, 1830, and proved a most popular place of wor- 
ship. Columbus being on the great stage line from the east and west, there were many 
travelers to carry far and wide the fame of Mr. Hoge as a preacher. 

The growth of Presbvterianism in Columbus was not without its difficulties and trials, 



190 



HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 



chiefly <>i' a financial nature, and debt hovered for a long time over the new church and 
threatened the salary of the pastor. However, the storms were weathered and the congre- 
gation grew and flourished. Dr. Hoge had many calls to other places but he steadfastly 
clung to his work in Ohio, until in 1850 he was selected as professor of theology in the semi- 
narv which the Old School side was trying to establish in Cincinnati and which later became the 
McCormick Theological Seminary of Chicago. He was released for the work and an assist- 
ant secured for him in the person of Rev. David Hall of Truro. On June 30, 1857, Dr. 
Hoge laid down his pastoral duties after more than a half century of noble work in which 
he distinguished himself and his church. He was the father of the Presbytery of Colum- 
bus and of tin' Synod of Ohio. He was a moderator of the General Assembly in 1832 and 
he was a pioneer in the cause of temperance. No man in the city was more instrumental 
than he in shaping the charitable and educational policy of the State. 

In June. 1857, Rev. Edgar Woods of Wheeling, W. Va., was called to the pastorate of 
the First Church. He was succeeded by Rev. William Roberts of Wilmington, Del., Rev. 
William Marshall, Rev. Robert Laidlaw, Rev. E. P. Heberton. During the pastorate of 
Mr. Laidlaw in 1871 the chapel and Sunday school rooms were built, and the choir was 
made a leading feature of the services. Others to fill the pulpit were Dr. Willis Lord, 




sbyte 



./ .hkI Third SI, 



Dr. J. \V. Bailey, Rev. Francis Marsten, wli i was pastor for four years, resigning in 1887 
to take charge of the Broad Street Presbyterian church. 

Presbyterianism continued to grow with the growth of the city. The Second church was 
organized .March ."., 1839, and was located on the west side of Third street between Rich 
and Friend, now Main street. The building was completed in 1810 and Rev. George Hitch- 
cock was the first pastor. During his incumbency a new congregation was formed north of 

Broad street with a church building located on Third between Broad and Gay streets. Mr. 
Hitchcock was succeeded in the pulpit by Rev. E, D. Morris of Auburn, X. Y., and shortly 
after it was decided to build a new church. A lot being donated for this purpose by Daniel 
Woodbury in a more suitable location further north on Third street, a new church was 
built at a cost of $35,000. Dr. Morris resigned in 1867 to become a professor in Lane 
Theological Seminary, and was succeeded by Rev. J. F. Kendall, during whose pastorate 
the reunion of the Old and the New School Presbyterian Assemblies took place. The recon- 
structed Presbytery of Columbus met and was organized in the Second Church July 11, 

1870, and on the following day the Synod of Columbus was organized, healing a breach of 
thirty years. Dr. Kendall resigned in IS7I anil Rev. William E. Moore of Westchester, Pa., 
was called to the pulpit. This is now called the Central Church. The present pastor is Rev. 

J. T. Britan. 

In 1885 the Firs! Church started a mission on North High street near Fourth avenue, 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 191 

which two years later united with Hoge Chapel to form the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian 
Church. 

The Westminster Church, a colony of the First Church, was organized in April, 185-t, 
and at first held services in Starling Medical College. Its own house of worship was built 
on East State street in 1857, with Rev. Josiah D. Smith as first pastor. Succeeding incum- 
bents were: Rev. H. M. McCracken, Rev. Henry Robertson, Prof. E. B. Andrews, Rev. R. 
R. McXulty, Rev. X. D. Smith, D. D. 

Hoge Chapel, a mission of the First Church was established at the corner of Park 
and Spruce streets in 1868, becoming an independent organization in 1870. Pastors in 
charge were Reverends J. C. Tidball, David Kingery, J. M. Richmond, J. F. Hamilton, D. 
R. Colmery. In January, 18S7, the High street mission of the Second Church united with 
Hoge Chapel to form the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church. The Park street property was 
sold and a handsome house of worship erected on Fifth avenue at a cost of -$9,000. Rev. 
John Rusk, of Cincinnati, was called to the pulpit. 

The Broad Street Presbyterian Church was the natural outcome of the growth of the 
city eastward. Under Dr. Marsten's pastorate of the First Church a Sunday school had 
been organized on East Long street east of Garfield avenue and preaching services were held 
in Gospel Hall. Many families of the First, Second and Westminster churches had moved 
further east and with new people coming in seemed to warrant the formation of a new 
church. Accordingly in 1887 a lot was secured at the corner of Broad and Garfield avenue 
and a chapel was first built on the rear. Later a beautiful stone church was erected at a 
cost of $50,000. Rev. F. E. Marsten was released from the pastoral charge of the First 
Church to accept a call from the Broad street church, assuming his new duties in October, 
1887. Dr. Marsten was a popular and successful pastor, a man of literary tastes and a 
writer of graceful verse. The present incumbent is Rev. S. S. Palmer, during whose pas- 
torate the building has been enlarged and beautified, the membership has grown and the 
usefulness of the organization has increased. 

The old First church building at Third and State streets continued to be occupied for 
several years and then with the shifting of the city's population, a removal to Brvden Road 
near Ohio avenue was decided upon. There a handsome edifice was built, and the old 
structure was sold. On August 11, 1910, the spire which had long been a thing of beaut v 
was pulled down and the razing of the church for the erection of the present Hartman 
building was begun. In its new location the church has prospered. 

The Welsh Presbyterian church in Columbus had its first house of worship at the 
corner of Long and Fifth streets. It was organized in 18i9 by Rev. John Williams, with 
28 members. For several years it had no regular pastor, but in 1855 Rev. David Williams 
was installed and helped materially to increase the membership. Though enlarged from 
time to time, under succeeding pastors the church finally became too small for its attendance, 
and in 1887-8 a new church was built further east on Long, at the corner of Sixth street. 
In 1919, the building was sold and the erection of a new structure on Miami avenue was 
begun. The pastor is Rev. E. E. Jones. 

The United Presbyterian Church was formed May 25, 1858, by a union of the Associate 
and the Associate Reformed Presbyterian church, which owed its origin to Scotland. Early 
in the fifties there had been an Associate Church in Columbus worshipping in its own church 
on Sixth street, but it had been disbanded by 1858. A site for a church was chosen on 
Long street east of Washington avenue and a church erected at a cost of $10,000. Rev. 
R. B. Patton began his work as pastor on September 17, 1887, and the congregation in- 
creased and prospered. The present pastor is Rev. Alexander Mitchell. 

Presbyterianism in Columbus is now represented by nineteen churches. 

Methodist. 

Methodism in Columbus owes its beginning to a zealous layman, George McCormick, 
who as early as 1812 induced Methodist ministers to visit the infant community on the 
outpost of civilization and preach the gospel to the few scattered members of the Methodist 
flock settled thereabouts. The first services were he'd in the homes of the people by Rev. 
Samuel West of the Delaware circuit, who is mentioned as one of the earliest Methodist 
ministers to visit this locality. The nucleus of an organization was formed on December 20, 



192 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

1813, in the appointment of a board of trustees, and in 1811 on a lot in East Town street 
near High, donated by the city, the first Methodist church was erected. It was built of 
In wed logs and cost the modest sum of $157.53 1. In a still unfinished state is was occupied 
for services in 1815 and completed two years later. This church was also used for school 
purposes for several years, William T. Martin being the teacher. By 1818 it became neces- 
sarv to enlarge the building and a frame extension was added. The congregation, white and 
colored, grew so rapidly that in 1823 the colored members deemed themselves strong enough 
to organize independently, forming the society that is now the St. Paul's African Methodist 
Episcopal church of East Long street. 

A measure of prosperity attended the little church on Town street and a new edifice of 
brick took its place in 1825, called Zion Church. There were some financial difficulties as 
is usual with all pioneer ventures, and the building remained in an unfinished state. But 
meanwhile it had the honor of housing the annual session of the Ohio Conference, among its 
attendants being several converted Wyandot Indians from Upper Sandusky. It became 
necessary to build a new church in 1852 and during its erection the society was permitted 
to worship in the City Hall. This church also was occupied before completion, and as the 
Methodists of the early days were v>oor in this world's goods it took a long time to pay for 
the church. But as all were zealous and of good will the Methodist church in Columbus 
grew and prospered, and by 1891 had entirely outgrown its location and church building. 
A new site was secured at Bryden Road and Eighteenth street, the old property being sold 
to the city for librarv purposes. The structure is a handsome one of brick and stone. 

It is interesting to note that the first marriage solemnized in Columbus was that of 
two charter members of the Methodist church, George B. Harvey and Jane Armstrong. 
Another charter member, Moses Freeman, a colored man, afterwards went as a missionary 
to Liberia, Africa, where he died working among his oppressed race. 

In the beginning Rev. Samuel West, who effected the organization of the little Metho- 
dist society, remained as pastor until 1814, when he was obliged to resign owing to dearth 
of salary, and to take up farming as a means of making a living for his family. He was suc- 
ceeded by Isaac Pavey, whose means also forced his to "locate," as it is called in Methodism. 
Other preachers in those early days whose zeal and ability contributed to the growth of 
Methodism were Jacob Hooper, William Swayze, Simon Peter, Lemuel Lane, Jacob Tevis 
and Leroy Swormstedt. These were all circuit preachers and led a hard and difficult life. 
Dr. Swormstedt, as he afterward became, served twelve years on circuits and prominent 
stations, six years as presiding elder and twenty-four years as assistant or principal agent 
of the Western Book Concern. He was an excellent preacher. Among the early preachers 
the figure of Russel Bigelow stands out prominently as a prince of orators. He had been 
a missionary to the Wyandot Indians at Upper Sandusky and he was chaplain of the Ohio 
Penitentiary at the time of his death in 1835. Adam Poe was one of the noted men in early 
Ohio Methodism and was the prime mover in founding Ohio Weslevan University. 

In 1830 Columbus was made a station and Thomas A. Morris was appointed to take 
charge of Methodism in the growing city. A long line of worthy and able men succeeded him 
in the pulpit, working with zeal and energy in their calling. Mr. Morris was the first 
editor of the Western Christian Advocate and was made a Bishop in 18.36. He died at 
Springfield, Ohio, in September, 1874. Leonidas L. Hamline, another of the early pastors, 
also became a Bishop in 1811. One of the early pastors around whom much interest cen- 
tered was Joseph M. Trimble, son of Governor Allen Trimble, who was converted during his 
son's incumbency. The Methodists were humble folk and looked to their young pastor to 
bring them that social prestige so long enjoyed by other denominations. John Milev, author 
and theologian, was another strong figure of the early days, and among the most illustrious 
pastors was Granville Moody, a noted preacher and a Colonel in the Civil War. J. 
Asbury Brunei-, John W. White, J. M. Jameson, B. X. Spahr, 1). 1). Mather, Dr. W. H. 
Scott. Earl Cranston, Isaac A. King. Dr. A. C. Hirst, W. D. Cherington, are the names 
of a few of the succeeding pastors whose efforts in the cause of Methodism brought the 
church up l<> a high standard in the community and aided in its growth and prosperity. 
The present pastor of the First Methodist church is Rev. C. R. Havighurst, 

It was during the incumbency of Mr. Trimble that the Methodist society in Columbus 
became strong enough to divide, and on a lot donated by William Neil on High street between 
Gay and Long streets, the church so long known as Wesley Chapel was built in 1815-6. 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 193 

The lot, then considered a long- distance in t'.ie country was valued at $800, and less than 
forty years later, in 1883, was sold for $62,300. The new church was dedicated by Bishop 
Janes in September, 1847. Rev. George C. Cruni was the first pastor. The congregation 
flourished and the Sunday school became an important adjunct of its work. It was during 
the pastorate of Rev. James L. Grover, 1853-5 that the change in the manner of church 
seating took place. Families had hitherto been separated by sexes, the men on one side of 
the church, the women on the other. The change was made in October, 1854, and the 
objection to choirs and pipe organs was also overcome shortly after. In 186f, under Dr. 
Cyrus Felton the church was remodeled. This year also a mission, Christie Chapel, was 
founded on Eighth street, (Cleveland avenue), for the benefit of those members who had 
moved eastward. This mission had a strong existence for a few years but after the organi- 
zation of the Broad Street church the chapel was sold and its members distributed to other 
churches. 

On May 13, 1883, fire destroyed Wesley Chapel, which was not rebuilt on the old site. 
The lot was sold and a better location secured at the corner of Broad and Fourth streets, 
where a handsome and commodious edifice was later erected. While it was building services 
were held in Lyndon Hall, corner of Long and Fourth streets. The new church was dedi- 
cated by Bishop Foster on July 26, 1885, and grew rapidly in worth and influence. The 
pastors have been Rev. H. C. Sexton, Rev. James Bitler, Rev. A. N. Craft, Rev. H. Y\ . 
Bennet, and Rev. W. E. Fetch. 

Third Street Methodist church, originally known as Bigelow Chapel, was organized in 
the spring of 1853 as a mission Sabbath school and preaching place for local ministers. It 
was first located in upstairs rooms at the corner of Fourth and Main streets. The mission 
had a precarious existence for a time but did a great deal of good and finally emerged as 
a successful society, with the names of many earnest pastors on its roster: Rev Thomas 
Lee, Rev. J. C. Jackson, jr.. Rev. S. D. Hutsinpillar, Rev. Franklin McElfresh. During 
Mr. Lee's pastorate the society traded their property for that of the Second Presbyterian 
church on Third street near Friend, this becoming the new Bigelow Chapel. A lot was 
bought and a parsonage was built in 1869. This year a great calamity befell the society in 
a fire which partially destroyed the church, but with characteristic energy the edifice was 
at once rebuilt and was dedicated in December, 1870. Four years later under the pastorate 
of Dr. Kendall the name of the church was changed to "Third Street Methodist Church." 

Records of the first Methodist Society in Franklinton which afterward became the 
Franklinton Mission, then Heath Chapel and now Gift Street Church, have been lost, but 
it is known that there was a mission class there as far back as 1840. This class was served 
by the Franklinton Circuit until 1850. Heath Chapel was built in 1856 on a lot at the 
corner of Broad and Mill streets, donated by Michael and Fannie Sulivant. After many 
vicissitudes and a period of abandonment because of the removal of the Circuit, the growth 
of the district began to warrant the erection of a new church, which was finally started in 
1889 in a new location at the corner of Gift and Shepherd streets. The society was then 
incorporated as the Gift Street Methodist Episcopal Church. The Sunday school room was 
opened in July, 1890, and by November of the same year the church was ready for dedica- 
tion. Prominent Methodists of the city as well as the Church Extension Society contri- 
buted toward the erection of the church which cost $10,000. Rev. W. C. Holliday was the 
energetic pastor to whose wise management much of the success of the undertaking was 
due. Gift Street Church continues in its good work with an earnest membership and a 
thriving Sunday school. 

Neil Chapel, located on the southwest corner of Michigan and Collins streets, was the 
seventh Methodist church of Columbus. The new congregation was organized in 1S70 by 
Rev. Daniel Horlocker, then serving Heath Chapel, and it grew with great rapidity. The 
chapel was built in 1872, but not completed until 1886. In a few years the location became 
unsuitable and a new site was secured at the corner of Goodale street and Neil avenue, 
and in 1890 a beautiful chapel was built at a cost of $6,000. With the appointment of 
Rev. J. M. Rife as pastor the name of the church was changed to the Neil Avenue Methodist 
Church. Its present pastor is Rev. P. H. Fry. 

Broad Street Methodist Church, a child of Wesley Chapel, was organized in 1875, when 
a frame church was built at Broad and Washington avenue, eventuating ten years later in 
the splendid edifice now crowning the corner. This church has a fine auditorium, an 



194 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

excellent choir, a large Sunday school, which includes many social works in its activities, 
and an active and energetic membership. A recent addition supplies a gymnasium and 
other facilities for the entertainment of the young, also a playground maintained during 
tin summer months. This church has had a notable succession of pastors, including Rev. J. 
M. Trimble, Rev. Simon McChesney. Rev. Isaac Crook, Rev. (now Bishop) Oldham, Rev. 
H. W. Kellogg, Rev. E. F. Tittle and Rev. Walter E. Burnett, now serving. 

King Avenue Church on the north side began as a mission Sunday school in the fall of 
1888, and by December 22, 1889, a new church had been built and dedicated at the corner of 
Neil and King avenue. Rev. Byron Palmer was the first pastor and did much to build up 
the new church. A handsome main building was put up fronting on Neil avenue, and the 
membership is one of the largest in the city, zealous in church attendance and in all good 
works. There is a large Sunday school. This beautiful church was destroyed by fire on 
August 23, 1918, and plans were at once laid for the erection of a tabernacle in which to 
hold services until the edifice could be rebuilt. The pastor is Rev. T. H. Campbell. 

Miller Avenue Church was the outcome of a union Sunday school started there in 1880, 
and passing into Methodist hands about the year 1887, when Rev. Charles T. King was 
made pastor of the little Methodist gathering. The neat frame church seating about 200 
was bought by the Town Street Methodist church, and the congregation grew with the 
growth of that portion of the city. The church was enlarged in 1891 under the pastorate 
of Rev. W. C. Holliday. The location of the church was eventually changed and it is now 
known as Morgan Memorial, corner Main and Fairwood, Rev. A. E. McCullough, pastor. 

A Sundav school organized in 1866 was the origin of Third Avenue Church. This school 
did not long continue but it paved the way for its successor, a Methodist Episcopal Sunday 
school organized later in the same year by R. P. Woodruff, and in 1867 the Mount Pleasant 
Mission of the M. E. Church was started, with Rev. A. G. Byers, then chaplain of the Ohio 
Penitentiary, as first pastor. A year later with the advent of Rev. Lovett Taft as pastor 
the name was changed to the Third Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church. The location also 
changed with the purchase of a lot at the corner of High street and Third avenue, where 
a frame church was erected. The present handsome church was built in 1885 and dedicated 
by Bishop Andrews on Easter Sunday, 1886. The church has wide influence and patronage 
and is one of the most prosperous in town. Its pastor at this writing is Rev. H. F. Ross. 

West Park Avenue Church was organized in 1893 and the first building was erected in 
1895. A brick auditorium built later was destroyed by fire in 1917. However, a handsome 
new building was erected and dedicated in August, 1918. 

Shoemaker Chapel on the Harbor road grew out of the mission labors of Rev. Mr. 
Horlocker in 1887, when lie organized a Sunday school in the district school at that point. 
As a result of his efforts a church was soon built on a lot donated by Mrs. Sarah Shoemaker, 
and with brick donated by the people of the vicinity. The local Church Extension Society 
also aided by a constribution of money. Preaching was done by Mr. Horlocker for a time, then 
by Mr. E. 1). Bancroft, a divinity student. 

The North Columbus Methodist Episcopal Church was successor to the Clintonville 
church and had as its first pastor Rev. Louis F. l'ostlc. The church was built in 1881 and 
the congregation prospered to such an extent that many improvements were made. In 1891 
tile name was changed to the High Street Church. 

The organization of the Mount Vernon Avenue Church is due to the zeal of a woman. Mrs. 
John Sugdon, who in 1882 gathered together those of the Methodist persuasion in the region then 
known as Mt. Airy and started a Sunday school in the teaching of which she was helped 
by her husband. There was no Methodist church within reach of this sparsely settled dis- 
trict, and as the Sugdons were moving away they turned their class over to the presiding 
elder of tin Columbus district. Rev. Noble Rockcy was at once appointed to take up the 
work of forming a new congregation, which in time developed into a thriving society with 
a frame church erected in 188 f at the corner of Mt. Vernon avenue and Eighteenth street, 
This in turn was succeeded in 189!) by the present large and handsome church in which a 
zealous congregation worships. It has an excellent Sunday school and does much good work 
under bhe wise direction of Rev. R. T. Stimmel, the pastor. 

The first German Methodist Episcopal Church in Columbus was organized by Rev. John 
Barth in 18 12, and the members at first worshipped in an engine house on Mound street, 
until their church at the corner of Third and Livingston was erected. This gave way in 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 195 

1871 to a larger edifice which cost $10,000. This church can boast of a devoted membership 
and a long line of hardworking and earnest pastors down to the present day, when the church 
is in charge of the Rev. John W. Hubcr. 

The Donaldson Street Methodist Church for colored people was built in 1888. It was 
located in the midst of a large settlement, of colored people having no Gospel preachings and 
from the first wrought great good. With the aid of the Church Extension Society a frame 
chapel was built and placed in the pastoral charge of Rev. Gabriel White, who worked ener- 
getically for the salvation and betterment of his people. Other pastors have beer, equally 
successful down to the present incumbent, Rev. C. D. White, who has charge of the new 
church at the corner of Mt. Vernon avenue and Twenty-first street. 

The growth of Methodism in Columbus has been from the very first, steady and secure, 
and no denomination has worked more earnes lv for the uplift of the people and their growth 
in all things that make for holiness of living. There are at present fortv-seven churches 
of that denomination; one Free Methodist, Rev. L. C. Watters, pastor; three Methodist 
Protestant, First, Rev. C. S. Johnson, pastor; Grace, Rev. T. R. Woodford; and Lane Ave- 
nue, Rev. H. S. Willis. 

Protestant Episcopal. 

The first Protestant Episcopal Society of the northwest was organized in 1803 bv the 
Worthington colony, most of whom were Episcopalians. They established a church and an 
academy, located on the public square, and services were held regularlv every Sunday, Rev. 
James Kilbourne officiating. The society was regularly incorporated as St. John's Parish 
in 1807 and fully expected to be the first Episcopal parish in the capital of Ohio, but in 
1812 their hopes were shattered when the seat of the government of Ohio was definitely 
located "on the high bank of the Scioto opposite Franklinton." Though greatlv disap- 
pointed many of the villagers adjusted themselves by moving to Columbus, where in the new 
capital a little Episcopal colony was soon formed, and where on May 3, 1817. the first 
religious services in accordance with the ritual of the Protestant Episcopal church were held 
in the Buckeye House on Broad street by Rev. Philander Chase. A few days later thirty 
persons signed articles associating themselves as "The Parish of Trinity Church, Columbus, 
State of Ohio, in communion with the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of 
America." 

Services were subsequently held in various places, sometimes conducted by Bishop 
Chase, sometimes by other clergymen ; and for a time prior to 1 833 the congregation occu- 
pied a small frame building on Soutli Third street. In 1829 Rev. William Preston became 
the first regular pastor of Trinity, in connection with his duties as pastor of St. John's, 
Worthington. At the expiration of two years he took up his residence in Columbus and 
devoted his entire time to Trinity, then a growing and responsible parish. During his 
pastorate the first Trinity Church was built, a stone structure located on the site of the 
Hayden bank building, East Broad street. Its cost was $10,000 and it was said to be one 
of the largest and handsomest churches in Ohio at that period, 1833-34. 

' The first Episcopal confirmation services were held in Columbus on September 1.5, 
1830, and the first marriage recorded in the parisli was that of Justin Morrison and Melissa 
Boardman. 

As early as 1853 efforts were made to build a new church to take the place of the stone 
church on Broad street but it was not until 1862 that the present site of Trinity at Broad 
and Third streets was purchased for $10,000 by Dr. John Anderson. Here a handsome 
edifice was built of grey sandstone in the English Gothic style of architecture, at a cost 
of about $60,000. In December, 1868, the chapel was ready for services and by the fol- 
lowing April the whole church was completed. The property on East Broad, once known 
as Esther Institute and later as the Irving House, came into possession of Trinity and was 
for a long time used as Trinity Parish House. When the parisli sold this for an excellent 
figure a fine addition was built at the rear of Trinity church, on Broad, containing; a chapel, 
parish house and offices for the rector, making a stately and attractive pile of buildings. A 
prominent feature of Trinity is a melodious set of chimes installed in 1910, manipulated by 
the organist, Professor Karl Hoenig. Trinity has a large number of active church societies, 
including its ladies societies, Trinity Guild and the Brotherhood of St. Andrew. The 
present rector is Rev. E. F. Chauneey. 



196 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

The second Protestant Episcopal church in Columbus was that of St. Paul's, the 
foundation for which was laid in the fall of 1811 at the corner of Third and Mound 
streets, and in December, 1812, Rev. Henry L. Richards, the first rector, began holding services 
in the unfinished edifice. The church was not completed until 1846, when it was consecrated 
by Bishop Mcllvane. The growth of the city in time demanded a change of location, and 
the present St. Paul's is found on East Broad street between Garfield and Monroe avenues. 
It is chaste and attractive in architecture, has a fine choir and an influential membership. 

The Church of the Good Shepherd was first located on the corner of Buttles and Park 
streets, and was organized as a mission of Trinity Church. The church was built in 1871 
under the pastorate of Rev. F. O. Grannis. The membership increased rapidly and it was 
later decided to build a new church. 

The churches and chapels of Protestant Episcopal faith in Columbus are as follows: 
Trinity, Rev. E. F. Chauneey; St. Paul's, Rev. Sidney E. Sweet; Good Shepherd, Rev. H. 
S. Ablewhite; St. James, North Broadway; St. John's, Town and Avondale, Rev. E. C. 
Prosser; Chapel of the Holy Spirit, North High street, Rev. F. C. F. Randolph; St. 
Andrews, Whittier avenue; All Saints Mission for the Deaf, East Broad street: St. Philip's 
Chapel, 250 Lexington avenue (colored). 

Lutheran. 

The first Lutheran services in Columbus were held in the year 1813 by Rev. Michael 
J. Steck, of Lancaster, in a room at the O. H. Perry Inn, afterward known as the Frank- 
lin House on South High street. In the then little pioneer village and the surrounding 
country there were a few members of the Lutheran faith and ensuing services were at first 
sparsely attended, but in the course of time a church to be known as St. Paul's was or- 
ganized and in 1819 Rev. Charles Henkel, of Virginia, came to it as its first pastor. In 
the beginning services were held at the home of Conrad Heyl, corner Rich and Front 
streets, settlers coming from many miles in the coutnry in all kinds of humble conyevances 
and on horseback to unite with their brethren in worship. Their first church was a plain 
edifice erected in 1820 on Third street between Town and Rich, and was the third church 
building of any denomination in Columbus which then consisted of only five hundred people. 
Services were at first conducted by Rev. Henkel entirely in the German language, but as 
time went on the afternoon services were in English, and in 1827, in addition to the German 
Sunday school, an English one was also started. 

Growth was slow owing to the difficulties of pioneer life. Rev. Henkel served two 
other congregations, one at Heltzel and the other at Delaware, and on June 22, 1825, he 
was regularly ordained as pastor of the three congregations by the Lutheran Synod con- 
vened at Lancaster, it being the custom in those days to require a probation of several years 
of candidates before ordination. In 1827 Pastor Henkel accepted a call to Somerset and 
the Columbus congregation was without a pastor for four years, during which time it gave 
the use of its church to the Episcopalians who had just organized and had no building of 
their own. In 1831 Rev. William Schmidt, a native of Germany, who had established a 
theological seminary in Canton, Ohio, which institution by act of the Ohio Synod and the 
consent of I lie founder was transferred to Columbus, was called to take charge of the 
congregation, remaining until his death in 1839. During his ministry the German lan- 
guage alone was used in the services, the congregation being made up chiefly of German 
immigrants and their descendants. During these early years Christian Heyl was the leading 
spirit of ils lay membership. His house in which the congregation was first organized was 
always open lo any Lutheran or Reformed minister traveling through Columbus and by his 
generosity In- tided over many a financial shortage in the church treasury. 

English alln-i u services were again introduced in 1840 under the pastorate of Rev, 

Dr. ('. !•'. Schaefer, of Hagerstown, Md., who also acted as professor of the seminary. 
During the pastorate of Rev. Conrad Mees, who succeeded him, a lot was bought at the corner 
of High and Mound streets, the old lot being accepted as part payment. On this lot the 
church afterward erected the stately edifice which occupied that corner up to fl)17. At. 
various periods difficulties arose in regard to the use of the English language, resulting finally 
in 1845 in the organization of two separate congregations— a German one under the name 
of Trinity Lutheran and an English one bearing the name of the First English Lutheran, 
both under I In pastorate of Hex. William Lelmiann, who had been made sole professor of 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 197 

the seminary. The meetings during the first year were held upstairs in a building at the 
corner of High and Rich streets on the site of the cabin in which Christian Heyl lived 
when lie came to Columbus in 1813, and where some of the first Lutheran meetings were 
held. Subsequently the two congregations rented the German Evangelical church on 
-Mound street, near Third, and organized both German and English Sunday schools. In 
1850 the congregations in accordance with their original design amicably separated. The 
English congregation choosing Rev. E. Greenwald, of New Philadelphia, as their pastor, 
held services in the old "Covert School" building which the Seminary had bought for its 
use in connection with the Capital University. After 1853 they occupied the old Congre- 
gational Church on Third street until they built their own church on Rich street, and with 
the growth of the congregation later on East Main street, where they now occupy a hand- 
some stone edifice of architectural beauty. The present pastor is Rev. A. J. Holl. The 
German division soon after the separation built its own church on Third street under the 
pastorate of Professor Lehmann. 

Meanwhile St. Paul's at the corner of Mound and High streets continued in growth and 
usefulness with Rev. Conrad Mees as pastor. On October 10, 1856, a fire destroyed the 
church built twelve years before but with characteristic energy it was at once rebuilt, a 
205 foot steeple being added in 1872. In 1890 it was remodeled, and in 1917 the growth 
of the city and the removal eastward of most of the congregation made it expedient to 
dispose of the High street property which was done and the historic church torn down. 
A new building at Germania and Bruck streets was occupied. 

Trinity German Evangelical Lutheran congregation was founded in 1817 by 18 members 
of St. Paul's United Lutheran and Reformed Church of Columbus. They secured the 
leadership of Rev. C. Spielmann and in 1818 became a regularly organized church. The 
next year they rented a building on Mound street and their growtli a few years later war- 
ranted the erection of their own church building at the corner of Third and Fulton, then South 
street. It was dedicated on December 20, 1857. In 1866 a parochial school was started, 
lasting only two years, but later in the history of this church a very successful school was 
conducted. The congregation grew and prospered under a succession of zealous pastors 
and many improvements were made in the church from time to time. The present pastor 
is Rev. C. C. Hein. 

Grace Lutheran Church was organized in 1872 with Professor C. H. L. Schuette as 
first pastor. Services were held for a time in Trinity Lutheran Church and later in 
Emanuel Methodist Episcopal Church, then situated near Livingston avenue and Third street. 
A lot was bought on South Fourth street near Mound and in 1873 a frame chapel was built. The 
congregation grew and in 1889 the church was enlarged and improved. This church is now 
located on Oakwood avenue, and Rev. R. E. Golladay is the pastor. 

St. Mark's English Lutheran Church was organized in 1885 and services were at first 
held at the homes of members. By the next year the membership had increased to such an 
extent that it was decided to build, and a church was erected at the corner of Dennison 
and Fifth avenues, Rev. J. C. Schacht was the first pastor. The congregation has grown 
steadily and is now in charge of Rev. A. C. Schiff. 

On the removal of the Capita] University from the corner of High and Goodale to its 
present location on East Main street in 1876, a neat brick church was erected across the 
street from the first university building. This is now a thriving congregation, and the 
church, known as Christ Lutheran Church, is in charge of Rev. J. Sheatsley as pastor. 
Here the students of Capital University attend church during the school year. 

St. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran Church had its origin in a Sunday school first started 
by Professor Theodore Mees in the northeast section of the city. The success which at- 
tended him at once, decided the different Lutheran churches to start a mission there as 
well as on the south side. In 1892 the church organization was effected and Rev. .1. P. 
Hentz, of Lima, became pastor. A neat frame church was built on Denmead avenue. 

There are at this writing twelve Lutheran churches in Columbus. The members of 
this faith are earnest and active in their church duties and are devoted to Sunday school 
and mission work. The Lutheran Book Concern, the largest publishing house in Columbus, 
was the outcome of their evangelical work and issues many parish and Sunday school publi- 
cations. 



198 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Baptist. 

In the year 1823 Elder George W. Jeffries of the Baptist Church came to Columbus 
from Marlboro, Delaware county, Ohio, and began holding preaching services in his own 
home. He had been an evangelist in Marlboro and as a result of his preaching in Columbus 
Sarah Garrison and Alpheus Tolle were converted and baptized. It was at once resolved 
to organize a church and on May 15, 1824, a Council met in Columbus to consider the pro- 
priety of instituting a Baptist Church, with elders from Liberty, Bethel and Harlem churches 
in attendance. Elder Jacob Drake of Liberty was the moderator and William D. Hendren 
was clerk. Letters were presented by eleven persons, three of whom were colored, thus 
founding the First Baptist Church of Columbus, with Elder Jeffries as pastor. By July 
the membership had increased to twenty and thereafter its growth was steady if slow. 
Like all the rest of the pioneers in the little town the Baptists were poor in this world's 
woods, however earnest they might be in devotion to their religion, and thus were not able 
to support a pastor, so that Elder Jeffries, as did other ministers, was obliged to visit other 
churches and preach in many places. For the same reason the Baptists were slow in 
securing their own house of worship and it was not until 1828 that the pastor ventured to 
build a small church on a lot previously purchased by himself for this purpose. It was 
located on the south side of Mound street between High and Front streets. Worshipping in 
their own church resulted in an immediate increase in membership and in 1830 the congre- 
gation requested Mr. Jeffries to devote the whole of his services to the Columbus Baptists. 

In May, 1831, a lot was bought on Front street north of Mound and here the Baptist 
Church in Columbus built its first regular meeting house, which was occupied for the first 
time on May 6, 1832. A month later a Sabbath school was organized. The next year the 
First Regular Baptist Church of Columbus was legally incorporated, with George Jeffries, 
James Turner, and William A. Morse as the first board of trustees. 

Owing to the formation in 1823 of the Welsh Baptist Church under the leadership of 
Rev. John Harris the growth of both churches remained slow until the two were consoli- 
dated in August, 183.5, by Rev. T. R. Cressy of Massachusetts. Elder Jeffries disagree- 
ing with those who favored union, withdrew and was given his letter of dismissal. In 1835 
a lot was bought at the corner of Rich and Third streets where a more ambitious edifice was 
erected but not entirely completed until 1810, at a cost of .^1 1,000. Meanwhile services 
were held in the lower part of the structure. 

A succession of zealous pastors wrestled with the difficulties which attended the Baptist 
Church of Columbus for the next few years, which nevertheless continued to grow and 
expand, branching out to various parts of the city. The mother church is now located 
on Broad street opposite Jefferson avenue, and is one of the most beautiful church edifices 
in the city. The pastor is Rev. Dr. Daniel E. Rittenhouse. 

An attempt was made in 1852 to organize a Central Baptist church, but after a feeble 
existence of three years it disbanded and the members returned to the First Baptist 
Church, where they had previously worshipped. A similar result attended the Predesti- 
narian branch of the Baptist Church in Columbus, organized by Tunis Peters in the late 
thirties. It lasted until 1856 when the building erected for it by Mr. Peters was lost to 
the branch which was soon after disbanded also. 

The first work of the Baptist Church on the north side had its origin in 1866 in a 
Sunday school organized by several earnest young people, this being later surrendered to 
the Presbyterians. In 1870 the First Baptist Church started a mission at the home of 
William Wallace on Summit street. Later the school moved to the Courtright building on 
North High street, and in the spring of 1871 a lot was bought on East Russell street 
where a neat frame church was erected at a cost of .^1,200. This continued as a mission 
until 188 1 when th,- North, later called the Russell Street Baptist Church, now the Central, 
was organized, a large number of its members being those who had worshipped at the 
first Baptist Church. The first pastor was Rev. A. I.. .Ionian. In 1881 under the pas- 
torate of Rev. G. F. MeFarlan, a new structure Has built and that, in 1916, was much enlarged 
and beautified, 

A Sunday school also was the original foundation of Hildreth Baptist Church. This was 
organized in 1870 by several members from the first Church in a little brick school on 
North Twentieth street. Growth was slow at first but with the extension of this section 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 199 

of the city many strong members were acquired. In 1884 the Sunday school moved to a 
room on Mt. Vernon avenue where it grew more rapidly. The next year through the gener- 
osity of Mr. Abel Hildreth, a substantial brick church was built at the corner of Twentieth 
and Atcheson streets and was dedicated on August 25, 1885. Rev. J. S. Cleveland, or- 
dained the same day, became its first pastor. Among his successors in the pulpit have been 
Rev. J. A. Snodgrass, Rev. Adam Fawcett and Rev. L. M. Darnell. 

On the West Side the first mission work of the Baptist Church, which eventuated into 
Memorial Baptist Church, was started in October, 1885, when a Sunday school was started 
in the upper part of a business block on West Broad street. The school soon outgrew its 
quarters and a second room was secured, only to be outgrown also when removal was made 
to a store room on the ground floor. Preaching services were held in addition to the Sunday 
school and the attendance grew until in 1889 the room they occupied was destroyed by fire. 
The Methodists offered the little gathering the use of their tabernacle further west on 
Broad street, and here they worshipped until the organization of the Memorial Baptist Church 
and their occupation of a neat structure at the corner of Sandusky and Shepherd streets, 
bought and given by Mr. Abel Hildreth in memory of his wife. It had formerly been the 
United Brethren Church and had also at one period been used as a Catholic church. Rev. 
H. A. Nixon was the first pastor. The present pastor is Rev. G. R. Robbins. 

The first missionary effort of the North Baptist or Russell street church was made in 
1890, when a Sunday school was established in a storeroom at 1547 North High street near 
Tenth avenue. The same year a church was organized and formally recognized in 1891. 
Rev. E. F. Roberts was the first pastor. For a time the members worshipped in a room 
further north on High street and later during the pastorate of Rev. Alfred E. Isaac, were 
able to build a handsome temple on Tenth avenue, west of High. The church is prosperous 
and growing, located as it is, in a pretty and growing part of the city. The present 
pastor is Rev. V. S. Phillips. 

The Second Baptist Church (colored) was set off from the First Church in 1836, though 
it was not regularly organized until October 18, 1839. One of the noted pastors of this 
church was the Rev. James Poindexter, a man revered alike by the white as well as the 
colored residents of the city. The church is now located on Seventeenth street and the pastor 
is Rev. W. E. Moore. 

Shiloh Baptist Church, colored, was organized in 1871. The members worshipped in 
a building on East Long street until they bought the old Christie Chapel on Cleveland 
avenue. A fine new church was erected here in 1884. 

Union Grove Baptist Church (colored) came into existence in 1886 as a Sunday school 
organized under a tree near the corner of Hughes and Baker streets. Services were held 
later in a log cabin on Mt. Vernon avenue. Organization was effected in 1888 with twenty 
members from the Second Baptist Church, Rev. W. E. Nash was the first pastor. A church 
was finally built on Champion avenue near Main street. 

A Sunday school started on East Fifth, avenue in the fall of 1882 was the origin of the 
Bethany Baptist Colored Church. It was a union school and in 1889 the Baptists with- 
drew and held services of their own at the house of James Jackson. They proceeded to 
build a frame church the same year and two years later the church was organized and 
Rev. R. C. Minor called to the pastorate. In 1891 this frame building was moved from the 
leased ground on which it stood to a permanent location at the corner of Fourth avenue and 
Sixth. 

The Holy Pilgrim branch of the Baptist church, organized on the North Side, is now 
located at 199 East Naghten street. 

The Hillcrest Baptist Church, west of the State Hospital, was organized in 1918 by 
members of the First Church residing in that vicinity. A lot was bought and a building 
erected on Eldon avenue, and services begun with a membership of about 100. 

C ongregationatL. 

Congregationalism began in Ohio as early as 1796 when the first Congregational church 
was established in Marietta, but its progress was not rapid, owing to the fact that the New 
Englanders of that persuasion who came west joined with the Presbyterians in preference 
to establishing churches of their own. Several tentative congregations were organized 
throughout Ohio only to be merged into the Presbyterian church. The oldest in this vicinity 



200 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

was probably the little church at Hartford, Licking county which was organized in 1818. 
The next fifteen years were barren of Congregational endeavor. Then the great anti- 
slavery agitation which led to the foundation of Oberlin with its church and college, stirred 
the churches of Northern Ohio to their very foundations and led to the formation of many 
new churches on a more liberal basis, some as Congregationalists and some as Free Presby- 
terians. It was in the course of this upheaval that many of the Welsh Congregational 
churches in Central Ohio came into existence, among them the Welsh Church in Columbus, 
established in 1837. In many places these warmhearted earnest Christians, full of sympa- 
thy for the downtrodden and oppressed, met with bitter opposition and even persecution. 
This naturally led to a closer union among themselves ; and resulted in the formation of the 
Congregational Association of Central Ohio, now known as the Central Ohio conference of 
the Congregational Church. This was organized August 13, 1861, as Columbia Center, Lick- 
ing county, the First Congregational Church in Columbus taking an active part in the work 
of organization. 

Just after the middle of the decade preceding the Civil War the First Congregational 
Church of Columbus took on its present form. It originated in an offshoot of the Presby- 
terian church then located on Third street south of State, and it was designed to occupy 
the field lying north of Broad street. At a preliminary meeting held in March 1852 it was 
decided to purchase a lot on the northeast corner of Third street and Lynn alley. Here a 
frame chapel was built for the new congregation under the pastoral care of Rev. William 
H. Marble, who had been working in the interest of the new enterprise. The chapel was 
dedicated July 11, 1852, and on the 29th the church organization was effected with Mr. 
L. L. Rice as president and Mr. Warren Jenkins secretary. The original members were 
-12, bearing letters of dismissal from the Second Presbyterian church. Under Mr. Marble's 
charge the church prospered both spiritually and financially. Though Presbyterian in 
name and form of government and under the care of a Presbyterian minister, the church 
was never connected with a Presbytery and showed at the start a leaning toward the Con- 
gregational order. In 1851 the vigorous young church began taking steps for the building of 
a new meeting house but the resignation of the pastor and various financial difficulties con- 
spired to postpone this work until 1856 when Rev. J. M. Steele of Stratham, X. H, became 
the pastor. On November 3 of that year the church decided unanimously to assume the 
name and form of a Congregational Church. The first officers of the reconstructed church 
were: M. B. Bateham, J. W. Hamilton, L. L. Rice, S. B. Stanton, deacons; L. L. Rice, 
clerk; T. S. Baldwin, treasurer. The first board of trustees consisted of Dr. R. J. Patterson, 
T. S. Baldwin and F. C. Sessions. 

The next year it was decided to build a new church on Broad facing Capitol square. 
In 1857 Mr. Steele went east to secure material aid and in the course of his trip contracted 
smallpox and died in New York. Though grievously distressed by their great loss the mem- 
bers of the church went forward with their building enterprise and by December 27 of that 
year the church was ready for dedication. It stood on the rear of the lot and was a suitable 
and attractive edifice. Rev. Nathaniel A. Hyde began to occupy the pulpit on December 6, 
1857. The church grew in power and membership under the guiding care of many success- 
ful pastors until in 1872 its growth warranted the erection of an addition which gave a 
commodious main auditorium and additional Sunday school room. This same year was sig- 
nalized by I lie arrival, as pastor, of Rev. R. G. Hutchins, of Brooklyn, N. Y., who con- 
tinued in the pulpit for ten years and under wiiose wise direction the church throve im- 
mensely, paving tin- way for the wonderful reign of the Rev. Washington Gladden. Dr. 
Gladden came to the First Congregational Church on December 24, 1882, beginning a fruitful 
pastorate which ended only with his death in HUN, a period of thirty-six remarkably suc- 
cessful years. He took his place at once as a power in the city, both spiritually and as a 
civic factor, to which his growing fame as an author added strength and influence. 

In 1886 the church was remodeled, improved and refurnished throughout, making it 
one ol I he most attractive and commodious houses of worship in the city. In the course of 
its history this church has given from its membership a large number of young men to 
the ministry and to missionary and other religious endeavor and has done great things for 
the religious growth ol the city. The church i-; also represented in Foreign Missionary work. 
For some lime before his (hath Dr. Gladden w.as paslor emeritus and tile regular work was 
.n charge ol Or. Carl S. Patton, who was succeeded in 1918 by Rev. Irving Maurer. 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 201 

Plymouth Church had its origin in 1872 when eleven members of the First Congregational 
Church met to form another church in the northern part of the city. The organization was 
effected the following March and the new congregation worshipped temporarily in the Bap- 
tist chapel on Russell street, with Rev. S. M. Merrill as pastor. A temporary church w T as 
soon built on High street and by December of the same year the basement of a more ambi- 
tious edifice was roofed in and ready for services. The church for several years had slow 
growth owing to heavy financial troubles with which a succession of zealous pastors had to 
wrestle. Among these were Rev. F. W. Gunsaulus, afterward widely known as a Chicago 
divine, Rev. Casper W. Hiatt and Rev. Alexander Milne. In the spring of 1891 finding 
itself in a prosperous condition the church decided to change its location and also its name. 
With the sale of the Higli street property and the purchase of a lot on West Fourth avenue 
it became known as Plymouth Church. It now occupies a beautiful edifice and is a strong 
and thriving church. The pastor now in charge is Rev. Wm. A. Warren. 

The Third Congregational Church was organized in 1872, growing out of a union 
Sunday school formed in the Piqua railroad shops in 1866. A frame chapel had been built 
in 1867 on the rear of a lot on West Goodale street donated by Robert S. Neil, and as the 
population in that quarter increased there seemed to be a call for a regular preacher and the 
establishment of a church, which was effected in 1872, largely through the efforts of Rev. 
Lysander Kelsey. The enterprise did not prosper, however, and though the Sunday school 
was kept up for many years the church was formally disbanded in 1887, the members going 
to the High Street Congregational church. 

The Congregational Church of North Columbus had its beginning in 1870 or 1871, in a 
small Sunday school organized by Rev. Joseph Harris of the M. E. Church. Meetings 
were first held in a public school and steps were taken soon for the erection of a church 
building. It was to have been a Methodist church, but the presiding elder refused his consent 
for the erection of another church so near the one in Clintonville. The supporters of the 
new church sought other help, which was given them by the First Congregational Church. 
Thus encouraged they met in December, 1871, and adopted the name of the Congregational 
Church of North Columbus, building a church forthwith which was dedicated on June 13, 

1875. A month later it was formally recognized by a council of the Congregational 
Church. Growth here was slow owing to so many other denominations in the same field, but 
the different pastors in charge were full of zeal and with the incumbency of Rev. J. Porter 
Milligan, who began his labors in July, 1899, a fresh impetus was given to the work of the 
society. The attendance at services and Sunday school increased and the church grew in 
power and numbers. The present pastor is R?v. P. L. Blake. 

Eastwood chapel, a small brick edifice on Twenty-first street was dedicated on October 15, 

1876, and a Sunday school organized the week following. So well was the Chapel sustained 
that by 1877 an addition was built and the Sunday school under union auspices throve 
greatly. The first regular pastor was Rev. F. W. Gunsaulus, a young Methodist minister of 
Chillicothe, who took charge in 1879, though services had been held at intervals by pastors 
from other city churches. This year the chapel was again enlarged and in 1882 under Rev. 
Irving Metcalf the church was regularly organized and a constitution adopted. In 1890 
lots were purchased on Twenty-first near Broad and later a handsome and substantial house 
of worship was erected. It now has a large and earnest membership and continues in the 
good work which it has always done, giving liberally to benevolent causes and missionary 
endeavors. Rev. D. F. Bent is the pastor in charge. 

Mayflower Church had its inception in the spring of 1886 when a Sunday school was 
opened in a storeroom at 898 East Main street, which grew and developed to such an extent 
that in 1888 a lot was secured at the corner of Main and Ohio avenue, adjoining a lot 
donated by Mr. F. C. Sessions. On this lot a chapel was built and occupied by February, 
1889, in which for some time Dr. Gladden preached every Sunday. In April it was found 
expedient to proceed to the formation of a Congregational Church in connection with May- 
flower chapel and this was accordingly done, the Mayflower Congregational Church bring- 
duly incorporated June 10, 1889. The church has a flourishing Sunday school, an active 
Young People's Society and a Christian Endeavor. A reading room and gymnasium was 
built and now a beautiful edifice rears its stately head at the corner of Ohio avenue and 
Main street, with a devoted membership. The pastor in charge is Rev. F. I.. Graff. 

In December, 1837, the Welsh Congregational Church was organized in Columbus with 



202 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

12 members. For many years its membership continued small, and because of taking coun- 
sel with Dr. Hoge of the First Presbyterian Church it was erroneously known as the Welsh 
Presbyterian Church. During- the first seven years it worshipped in several different places 
and there were numerous changes of pastors. In 1845 the congregation built a frame 
meeting house on Town street between Fifth and Sixth. From here the church moved to Gay 
street and Washington avenue where in 1890 a new brick church was erected and dedicated 
in May. 1891. On its roster are found the names of many of the most prominent Welsh 
people in Columbus. The pulpit is now occupied by Rev. E. L. Roberts. 

The South Church has been in existence since 1890 when a Sunday school was organized 
by Mr. ,1. L. Bright, who was also instrumental in building a small frame chapel on South High 
street. Later ground was purchased at the corner of High and Stewart avenue for a more 
suitable church which was built in 1891. Mr. Bright, when regularly ordained, became the 
pastor and the church was recognized as the South Congregational Church. It grew and 
prospered from the first and great good was wrought by the earnest work of pastor and people. 
At this writing the pastor in charge is Rev. A. M. Meikle. 

In the summer of 1890 through the efforts of Mr. George W. Bright and other mem- 
bers of the First Congregational Church, a neat frame chapel was built on the corner of 
St. Clair and Hoover avenues for the accommodation of those of Congregational leanings in 
that neighborhood. The chapel was dedicated on Sunday, September 25, with a sermon by 
Dr. Gladden. Rev. W. B. Marsh became pastor of the little church the following Decem- 
ber, in addition to his work as assistant pastor of the First Church. Rev. George P. Bethel 
took charge in 1892, holding Sunday services and weekly prayer meetings. 

At present the Congregational churches in Columbus are as follows: First, Rev. Irving 
Maurer; North, Rev. P. L. Curtiss ; Eastwood, Rev. D. F. Bent; Grandview Heights, Rev. 
O. C. Weist; Mayflower, Rev. Franklin L. Graff; Plymouth, Rev. W. A. Warren; South, Rev. 
A. M. Meikle; Washington avenue (Welsh), Rev. E. Floyd Roberts. 

Disciples of Christ. 

The Central Christian Church had its origin in prayer meetings held by a few persons 
in private houses during the month of October, 1870. On December 1 of the same year a 
small apartment for use as a Sunday school and prayer meetings was rented over Samuel's 
drug store on North High street. Here different clergymen conducted services until on 
April 1, 1871, the congregation rented a room in the Sessions block, corner High and Long 
streets. Rev. T. D. Garvin, of Cincinnati, accepted a call to the pastorate. At this time 
T. Ewing Miller was treasurer of the church. On March 7, 1872, the congregation decided 
to incorporate under the name of the Central Christian Church, known as the Disciples of 
Christ. A lot was bought at the corner of Third and Gay streets and a frame church 
quickly erected. A brick edifice succeeded it in 1879 at a cost of sf< 11,000. In time a 
change of location became advisable owing to the encroachments of business and the growth 
ill the downtown section, and accordingly a lot was purchased on the corner of East Broad 
and Twenty-first street where a handsome church was built. 

Tin's denomination, with its variant, Church of Christ, has eight places of worship as 
follows: Broad Street Church of Christ, Rev. A. M. Haines, pastor; Chicago Avenue, Rev. 
C. A. Kleeberger; Linden Heights, Rev. W. (). Roush; South Church, Rev. R. F. Strickler: 
West Fourth Avenue, Rev. T. L. Lowe; Wilson Avenue, Rev. ,T. J. Tisdall ; Indianola, 
Willard A. Guv; Hilltop, J. N. Johnston; First Christian Church, West Fifth avenue, Rev. 
II. Russell .lay', pastor, 

Uibiversalist. 

A lew scattered members of the Universalist Church were located in Columbus in the 

early forties and gave eager welcome to tlie traveling evangelists of that denomination who 
visited the young city. By the winter of lSt.'i-H the number of these seemed to warrant 
the formation of a society and accordingly on January 1, 1844, forty-three people met and 
organized the 1'irsl Universalist Church of Columbus. Occasional services were held in the 
St. Paul's German Church on South Third street, which they afterward purchased. On March 
29, 1845, the Societv was legally incorporated and by October was supporting its own 
pastor, Rev. \. Doolittle. The membership gradually increased under a succession of hard- 
working pastors. In 1 NX t the property on South Third street was sold to the Masons and 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— PROTESTANT 203 

a lot bought on State street, on the rear of which a Sunday school and chapel were built. 
Later a commodious stone church was built and dedicated in May, 1891, under the 
pastorate of Rev. William Jones. At that period a handsome home for the pastor was pre- 
sented to the church by Mrs. Lucy Stedman. One of the well known pastors of this church 
was the Rev. E. L. Rexford, D. D. The present pastor is Rev. E. V. Stevens. 

All Souls Church, Rev. E. L. Rexford, pastor, now worships in tin- Spiritualist (old 
Westminster Presbyterian) edifice at State and Sixth streets. 

Independent Protestant Church 

A desire on the part of a number of German Protestant citizens of Columbus for re- 
ligious services dissociated from the rites of the Lutheran and the Reformed German Protest- 
ant Churches, resulted in the formation in 1843 of the Independent Protestant German 
Church. The new congregation was at first organized at the home of Henry Waas, then 
known as the Canal Hotel. Rev. Mr. Zeller volunteered as the first pastor. The members 
went energetically to work and a church was built the same year on Mound street near Third. 
For a few years prosperity attended the undertaking, but in 1849 the congregation was re- 
duced to such financial straits that it was obliged to lease the church edifice to the Trinity 
Lutheran Society, in whose possession it remained until 1857. Meanwhile by prudent man- 
agement the congregation had paid off the indebtedness that had hampered it and in 1818 
resumed occupation of its own church. A Sunday school was organized and a new pastor 
secured in the person of Rev. Edward Graf. One of the most prominent pastors of this 
church was the Rev. Christion Heddaeus, who filled the pulpit with great success for many 
years. Until 1871 the church property was vested in a few members of the congregation 
who had paid for it, but at that time these men generously deeded the property to the con- 
gregation with the proviso that the encumbering debt be paid off. This was done and the 
church property reverted to the congregation. The present pastor is Rev. J. F. Meyer. 

Friends. 
The Society of Friends was organized in Columbus some time about the year 1870. 
The members held services in various places until the dedication of their own church on 
Ohio avenue on October 12, 187.3, on which occasion many prominent visitors from other 
places were present. The Friends today in Columbus worship in these churches: Camp 
Chase, West Broad street; 1150 North Fourth street, Seth W. Osborn, pastor; Highland 
avenue, Rev. John Pennington, pastor; Ogden avenue, Rev. D. H. Woods, pastor; Sullivant 
avenue. 

United Brethren. 

This denomination did not exist in Columbus in organized form until 1866, when its 
first church was erected on the south side of Town street between Fourth and Fifth. Rev. 
W. B. Davis was the first pastor. In 1876 Mr. Davis, after retiring from the First Church, 
organized the Olive Branch Church, an edifice for which was erected near the railway 
shops. 

A branch of this society was organized on the South Side in 1870 and took the name of 
Mount Zion Church. A German church was organized in 1868, and erected an edifice on the 
south side of Friend, now Main, east of Grant avenue. 

They now have five churches: Avondale, State and Avondale, Rev. E. B. Ewing; First, 
West Third Avenue, Rev. E. Fetter; Grace, Fifth avenue, Rev. J. H. Harris; St. Clair ave- 
nue, Rev. J. G. Spears; Washington avenue, Rev. J. G. Spears. 

Evangelical. 

Evangelical Protestant church is St. Paul's on Gates street, witli Rev. W. L. Bretz as 
pastor. 

Two churches of the Evangelical Association were located in Columbus: Emanuel, East 
Main street and Ohio avenue. These are now united in the Ohio avenue edifice, Rev. J. R. 
Dallas, pastor. 

Of the Evangelical United there are three: Miller avenue. Rex'. Elmer Bailey, pastor; 
St. Paul's, Warren avenue. Rev. P. E. Smoke, pastor; Wesley avenue, Rev. H. V. Summers, 
pastor. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

RELIGIOUS LIFE— CATHOLIC. 

After Eighty Years of Effort, Nineteen Church Bodies — Holy Cross the Eirst, in 18S8 — St. 
Put rich's, St. Mary's, St. Joseph's Cathedral, Sacred Heart, Holy Family, St. Domi- 
nic's, St. Francis of Assist, St. Peter's, St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, 
St. Thomas, St. Leo's, Holy Name, Holy Rosary, St. Aloysius, St. Eadislaus, St. 
Cyprian, Immaculate Conception. 

By Helen Moriarty. 

The history of the Catholic Church in the Capital City of Ohio, dates back definitely a hun- 
dred years, though far earlier than that there is reason to believe that the locality was visited 
by Jesuit missionaries who in their intrepid work penetrated the forests of the unknown coun- 
try, evangelizing and teaching the Red Man. Records of their labors and travels in the his- 
tory of the French Missionary Fathers show that they had many stations within the confines 
of what is now the State of Ohio, and it is not too much to suppose that at some period in 
their travels they might have stopped at the confluence of the Scioto and the Olentangy 
rivers and there offered up the Sacrifice of the Mass, with the monarchs of the forest making 
long Cathedral aisles about them and the dark sons of the region kneeling at their feet. The 
aisles thus made holy have given way long since to the noise and activities of a large and 
thriving city, in whose man-made aisles and altars the memory is forever perpetuated of 
those early days and fearless laborers. 

In the year 1818 the Dominican Fathers, branching out from their motherhouse in Ken- 
tucky, had founded a mission in the central part of this State, destined to go down in history 
as "the cradle of Catholicity in Ohio." This foundation was at Somerset in Perry county, 
where in 1818 Very Rev. Edward Fenwick, O. P., dedicated the first Catholic church in the 
State, under the patronage of St. Joseph, and opened a house for his brethren in religion, 
the better to enable them to prosecute their missionary labors throughout the virgin country. 
It is certain that Father Fenwiek and his co-laborers visited the site of the future capital of 
Ohio, and it is not unlikely that Bishop Flaget, who had been consecrated Bishop of Bards- 
town, Ky., in 1810, also visited this locality when on a missionary journey in 1812 in search 
of scattered portions of the Catholic flock. He was accompanied on this occasion by the 
Rev. Stephen T. Badin, the first Catholic priest ordained in the United States. It was during 
this trip of the two zealous missionaries that they discovered the little Catholic colony in Perrv 
county, made up of pioneer settlers from Pennsylvania and other Eastern states, whose devo- 
tion to their religion was to give them, six years later, the blessing of their own house of 
worship, the first Catholic church, as stated, in Ohio. 

\\ ith their branch house established in Somerset, Bishop Flaget entrusted to the Domin- 
ican Fathers the mission work in Ohio, and for several years they ministered to the spiritual 
uanls of the Catholics throughout the State. They had early founded a mission in Franklin- 
ton, where a few Catholics were to be found. Father Fenwick, who became in 1821 Bishop 
nl the new see of Cincinnati, the first Ohio see, was assisted in those early days by Rev. 
Dominick Young, O. P. Later helpers of Father Young were Rev. Thomas Martin and Rev. 

Vincent de Raymond. 

In Franklinton religious services were he'd at times in the Court House and occasionally 
in the homes of Vincent (Irate and Henry Nadenbusch, the latter of whom lived near the 
State stone quarries, of which he was the lessee. Laborers engaged in building the National 
road at first composed the greater portion of the Catholic flock. Some of these became per- 
manent settlers, and their number was gradually increased by new arrivals. Among the pioneer 
Catholics ,,t' this section there is record of the following: Tile families of Mrs. Russell. 
Cornelius Jacobs, John Jacobs, Michael Reinhard, Anthony Clarke and Owen Turney. 
Later on the following names are found in the new congregation: John Endcr, Clemens 
Baehr, J. Scherringer, 1'. Kehle, Jacob Zettler, Peter Sclrwarz, Henry Lutz, Lawrence Beck, 
Joseph Wolfel. Joseph Miller, Is;„lorc I'rev, Bernard McNallv. John' F. Zimmer, C. Kuhn. 
John I ry. The descendants of many of these sturdv pioneers are prominent in the Catholic 
lite of Columbus today. 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— CATHOLIC 205 

May 15, 1833, marks a new epoch in the history of Catholic activity in Columbus. 
On that date a lot was donated to the Catholic missionaries by Otis and Samuel Crosby and 
Nathaniel Medbery, on condition that a Catholic church be erected thereon within five years. 
The lot was located far away from the central life of the village, but was nevertheless a 
welcome acquisition, and is the present site of Holy Cross Church at Fifth and Rich streets. 
Here after considerable delay and many vicissitudes owing chiefly to lack of money, for the 
few Catholics were poor and struggling — the first Catholic church in Columbus was built. 

Bishop Fenwick, the great pioneer worker, had died of cholera at Wooster, Ohio, in 1832, 
while on a missionary journey, and he was succeeded as Bishop of Cincinnati by Right Rev. 
John Baptist Purcell, D. D. In June, 183(5, Bishop Purcell visited Columbus, now grow- 
ing into a good sized town on the east bank of the Scioto. At the Mass which he celebrated 
in the old Paul Pry House on Canal street between Main and Cherry alley, he called a meet- 
ing of the men of the congregation. At this meeting plans were laid which resulted in the 
completion two years later of the first Catholic church in Columbus, a humble enough edifice, 
built of stone from the State quarry and dedicated to St. Remigius. 

Various difficulties attended the erection of the church, but the people were more than 
generous, giving out of their scanty store, of time, of money and of building material, re- 
joicing in the prospect of soon possessing a church of their own. Meanwhile in August, 
1837, Bishop Purcell put new joy in their hearts by sending to them the Rev. Henry 
Damien Juncker to be their pastor as well as pastor of the little Catholic flock at Cliilli- 
cotlie, with instructions to build a church in both places. 

Work on the Columbus church had stopped the previous year owing to lack of funds, 
and the zealous young priest set himself the task of completing the building. He was so 
successful that by the next Christmas the church was under roof, and by April, 1838, was 
ready for services, though still unfinished. On April 29 Father Juncker celebrated within 
its bare walls the first High Mass ever sung in Columbus. By a happy coincidence Rev. 
Stephen Badin, the venerable missionary, happened to be passing through Columbus at that 
time, and he had the pleasure of assisting at the Vesper service in the afternoon and of 
preaching to the people in English. 

The church was small, and though built of stone, was simple in construction. It was 
fifty feet long by thirty wide and fourteen feet from floor to ceiling. There was a small 
gallery for the choir. 

Father Juncker continued in charge of the congregation until 1839. Later he was made 
first Bishop of Alton, 111. He was succeeded at Columbus by Rev. Joshua M. Young, a 
convert to the Church, who, as there was no pastoral residence at Columbus, made his home 
in Lancaster, visiting various other missions. On December 8, 1839, Bishop Purcell admin- 
istered confirmation for the first time in Columbus, and in the evening of the same day 
preached a sermon in the Senate Chamber of the old State House. 

A pastoral residence adjoining St. Remigius Church was completed in April, 1843, and 
a month later Rev. William Schonat took up his residence there as pastor of Columbus 
Catholics, Father Young retaining charge of the missions around Lancaster with his home 
there. These two priests frequently exchanged places to the great spiritual benefit of their 
people, some of whom were German and some English speaking. 

Holy Cross Church. 

The congregation at Columbus increased so rapidly that it soon became evident a larger 
church was necessary. Accordingly in 18 1.') additional property was purchased on Rich 
street, and a new church planned, the cornerstone of which was laid on April 28, 1846. It 
was nearly two years before its completion, but finally on January 16", 1818, Bishop Purcell 
dedicated the new edifice under the title of the Church of the Holy Cross. 

The old stone church was turned into a school, the first Catholic school in Columbus, 
and was for a time taught by lay teachers. Rev. Caspar Borgess, who succeeded Father 
Schonat as pastor, enlarged the school, and i'i 1856 secured the services of the Sisters of 
Notre Dame from Cincinnati, who taught the girls' school. In May, 1859, Father Borgess — 
who afterward became Bishop of Detroit — was succeeded as pastor at Holy Cross by Rev. 
John B. Hemsteger, who continued in charge until his death in October. 1878. He had 
labored hard, adding to and improving the church property, erecting a new school and other- 



206 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

wise building up the parish. A year before his death a fire partially destroyed the church, 
which was at once repaired and rededieated, Bishop Toebbe, of Covington, Kv., officiating. 

Rev. George H. Ahrens succeeded Father Hemsteger and remained until his death in 
1881. Under his pastorate a new school was again built, the present school of today. At his 
deatli the Rev. Clement R. Rhode was appointed pastor and continues in that office at the 
present time. He has valiantly kept up the traditions of the pioneer parish and made many 
improvements in church and school. A half ci-ntury of good work was commemorated on 
September 7, 1888, when the golden jubilee of the first Catholic church in Columbus was 
auspiciously celebrated. 

•S7. Patrick's Church. 

Meanwhile many other congregations had branched out from the mother church in 
Columbus. Very early in its history Holy Cross Church became too small to accommodate 
the vastly increased number of Catholics and the plan of a new parish received its incep- 
tion. Among the first Catholic settlers the German element predominated, and when the 
new parish was projected it was decided with the Bishop's permission to build a church for 
English-speaking Catholics. 

This congregation was formed in 1851 by Rev. John Furlong, the members for a time 
attending separate services in Holy Cross Church. In 1852 the congregation was placed 
in charge of Rev. James Meagher, who bought a lot 187 feet square at the corner of 
Seventh street, now Grant avenue, and Xaghten street, for one thousand dolaars. With in- 
defatigable zeal the young pastor hastened the erection of the church which was completed 
in a year and dedicated on September 25, 1853, by Bishop Purcell, of Cincinnati. The fol- 
lowing year a brick school building was erected adjoining the church, on Mount Vernon 
avenue. It was first taught by lay teachers, but in 1856 the Sisters of Notre Dame from 
Cincinnati were engaged for the girls' school, lay teachers continuing to teach the boys. 
The first church bell in Columbus rang out from the turret of old St. Patrick's over sixty years 
ago. The parish residence was built in 1857. 

In the same year Father Meagher was succeeded by Rev. Fdward Fitzgerald, just or- 
dained, who remained at St. Patrick's during the dark days of the Civil War when he demon- 
strated his patriotism by floating the Stars and Stripes from the church tower and organiz- 
ing the Montgomery Guards, whom he pressed to offer their services to their country. He 
visited at Camp Chase where he gave the consolations of religion to both Union soldier 
and Confederate prisoner. He was a man of great heart and wide activities. He co-oper- 
ated with Father Hemsteger in helping the Sisters of St. Francis to found the first hospital 
in the city, and he was chiefly instrumental in effecting the permanent settlement in Colum- 
bus of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd. 

In December, 1866, Father Fitzgerald was made Bishop of Little Rock, Arkansas, and 
was consecrated to his high office in St. Patrick's Church on February .'S, 18(57, by Arch- 
bishop Purcell. The sermon was preached by Rev. Patrick J. Ryan, who afterward became 
Archbishop of Philadelphia, and known far and wide for his golden-tongued oratory. Dur- 
ing those early days one of the assistant priests at St. Patrick's was Rev. J. B. Murray, who 
is still living and in active work in the Cincinnati archdiocese. 

Tlic pioneer days of the Church in Columbus passed away entirely witli the arrival in 
July, 1868, of Apostolic Fetters creating the diocese of Columbus, and the appointment of 
Right Reverend Sylvester Horton Rosccrans as first Bishop of the new see. Bishop Rosc- 
crans had arrived in Columbus in February, 1867, to succeed Father Fitzgerald as pastor of 
St. Patrick's, and he remained there with St. Patrick's as his pro-cathedral while St. 
Joseph's Church, now determined upon as th° Cathedral, was in process of construction. 
When in 1N72 Bishop Rosccrans took charge of the Cathedral he was succeeded as pastor of 
St. Patrick's by Hex. J. A. Murray, who the next year was in turn succeeded by Rev. J. 
A. Casella. In IS7(>, Father Casella returned to his native France and Rev. Nicholas Gal- 
lagher was made pastor. Since 1871 he had been president of St. Aloysius Seminary on 
tin- West Side, founded in that year by Bishop Rosccrans for the education of young men 
to the priesthood, but which had now closed for lack of support. 

When on I lie death of Bishop Rosecrans, Father Gallagher was made administrator of 
the diocese. Rev. John Madden was in charge at St. Patrick's with Rev. John McGuirk, 

a son of the parish, as assistant. In 1880 Father Gallagher was made Bishop of Galveston, 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— CATHOLIC 207 

Texas, being the second' pastor of St. Patrick's called to episcopal honors. Rev. A. O. 
Walker was the next pastor, and he remained until 1885 when the parish was placed in 
charge of the Dominican Fathers by Bishop Watterson. The first Dominican pastor was 
Rev. P. C. Coll, and there has been a long line of zealous and able incumbents. Rev. Tim- 
othy L. Crowley, O. P., is the present pastor. 

Shortly after taking charge at St. Patrick's the Dominican Fathers were assigned to 
work at the Ohio Penitentiary. For many years Rev. F. L. Kelly, O. P., has prosecuted this 
work among Catholic prisoners, among whom he lias wrought untold good. The State 
recognized the excellence of his labors by erecting for his use a fine chapel. 

St. Ma iii's Parish. 

St. Mary's parish was organized in 1863 to meet the needs of the rapidly growing south- 
ern portion of the city. The present site of St. Mary's on South Third street was purchased 
by Father Hemsteger, pastor of Holy Cross congregation, of which the new parish was an 
offshoot. Rev. F. X. Specht, an assistant at Holy Cross, took charge of the movement and 
under his supervision the school building was first erected. Early in 1866 sod was turned 
for the church, of which the cornerstone was laid in August by Archbishop Purcell, of Cin- 
cinnati. On November 30, 1868, the completed edifice was dedicated by Bishop Rosecrans 
under the invocation of St. Mary. The church, Gothic in design, was handsome in appear- 
ance and sufficiently large for the future needs of what proved to be a thriving congrega- 
tion. It was richly frescoed and furnished and seated a thousand people. While the church 
was building Father Specht had been appointed pastor of the new congregation, and con- 
tinued in that capacity for nearly fifty years, dying in 1913, deeply mourned by his people 
and Catholics generally. He had been Viear General of the diocese since 1885, and was 
twice Administrator of the diocese, and for his efficient discharge of onerous duties was made 
a Domestic Prelate by Pope Leo XIII in 1902 with the title of Monsignor. 

Monsignor Specht made many improvements at St. Mary's, always looking with a 
fatherly eye to the best interests of the parish. He built the rectory, and a convent for the 
Sisters of St. Francis, successors of the Sisters of Notre Dame, who were the first teachers 
in the school. He installed a fine pipe organ in the church and in 1890 repaired and beau- 
tified the church, adding new stained glass windows. The spiritual part of his labors speaks 
in the piety and devotion of a large congregation 

On the death of Monsignor Specht Rev. Joseph M. Wehrle, formerly pastor of St. John's 
Church, Bellaire, succeeded to the pastorate of St. Mary's. Under the Bishop's direction he 
has since opened a high school in a newly acquired property just north of the church. 

At the present writing St. Mary's parish numbers 850 families, with a school enroll- 
ment of 637, including 45 pupils in the high school. 

The Cathedral Parish. 

The growth of St. Patrick's parish was rapid, and it early became evident that a division 
of the parish would be necessary. Prosperity was beginning to bless Columbus Catholics, 
and in planning for the new offshoot of St. Patrick's Father Fitzgerald, then pastor, secured 
a subscription amounting to .$37,000 from about two hundred and fifty donors. The com- 
mittee which he appointed to look after the work consisted of: John Conahan, Theodore 
Leonard, treasurer, John Joyce, John D. Clarke, Thomas Bergin, William Naghten, secre- 
tarv, John Caren, Michael Harding, William Wall, James Naughton, William Riches, John 
McCabe, Michael Hartman, John Duffy, Martin Whalen, Bernard McNally. and Michael 
Galvin. 

In April, 1866, ground for the new church was purchased at the corner of Broad and 
Fifth streets, a plot 120 feet on Broad and 200 feet on Fifth street. The plan for the 
church was drawn by Michael Harding and the new parish was placed under the patronage 
of St. Joseph. The cornerstone was laid on November 11. 1866, by Rt. Rev. S. H. Rose- 
crans, assistant Bishop of Cincinnati. The next month Father Fitzgerald was made Bishop 
of Little Rock, Ark., and was succeeded as pastor of St. Patrick's by Bishop Rosecrans, 
who in March, 1868, became the first Bishop of the new diocese of Columbus. With great 
enthusiasm the Bishop assumed charge of building his cathedral church, and after making 
some change in the plans, decided to construct it of stone. It is said that General Rose- 



208 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

trans, the Bishop's soldier brother, who visited the Bishop during the erection of the Cathe- 
dral, assisted him materially by his advice and suggestions. It was not until 1872 that this 
beautiful Gothic Cathedral of St. Joseph was completed and ready for divine services. 
During the course of its construction Naughton Hall, situated on the east side of High street 
between State and Town streets, was used as a temporary chapel and there services were 
held for over two years. A few months after its organization, the Cathedral Chapel con- 
gregation as it was called, was placed in charge of Rev. J. F. Rotchford, O. P., whom Bishop 
Rosecrans secured for a few years service from the Dominican community at New York. In 
1872 Father Rotchford was recalled by his superiors and Bishop Rosecrans assisted by 
Father Gallagher conducted services in the chapel until the completion of the Cathedral. 

On Christmas day, 1872, Bishop Rosecrans celebrated pontifical high Mass for the first 
time in his new cathedral. In 1873 a residence on East Broad between Sixth and Seventh 
streets was bought for the Bishop and his assistant priests, but the distance made it incon- 
venient, and in 1875 the Bishop built a rectory adjoining the Cathedral. There his priests 
took up residence, but he made his home at the Sacred Heart Convent, a private school 
opened a few years before by Dominican Sisters from St. Mary's of the Springs, at the 
southeast corner of Broad and Seventh streets. These Sisters afterward moved their convent 
to Galveston, Texas, on the invitation of Bishop Gallagher. 

The Cathedral was consecrated on October 20, 1878, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Dwenger. of 
P'ort Wayne, in the presence of six other prelates, more than fifty priests, and a large con- 
course of people. It was an auspicious event in the history of the new diocese. The ser- 
mon was preached by Rt. Rev. John Lancaster Spalding, the scholarly young Bishop of 
Peoria, 111., afterwards one of the shining literary lights of the Church in America. 

The venerable Archbishop Purcell, patriarch of the West, bowed with years and labors, 
made a few remarks at the close of the solemn services, contrasting the present beautiful 
edifice with the humble rooms where in pioneer days the Holy Sacrifice was offered, days and 
services which he himself so well remembered. 

On the evening of the same day Bishop Rosecrans was stricken witli fatal illness and died 
the following night. The new Cathedral, so late the scene of festivity and rejoicing, was 
hung with black and turned into a temple of mourning, when on October 25 the funeral of 
the beloved prelate took place. The Bishops and many of the priests who had assisted in 
the consecration of the Cathedral remained over for the obsequies. The body of Bishop 
Rosecrans was placed in a burial vault prepared for it in the basement of the Cathedral 
directly beneath' the sanctuary. 

Bishop Rosecrans was a convert to the Church. As his name indicates he was of 
Dutch ancestry, and his family was a distinguished one. Through his mother he was re- 
lated to Stephen Hopkins, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Sylvester 
Horton Rosecrans, son of Crandall and Jemima Hopkins Rosecrans, was born in Homer, 
Licking county, Ohio, on February 5, 1827. While he was a student at Kenyon College, 
Gambier, Ohio, an older brother, William S. Rosecrans, a recent graduate of West Point and 
afterward the famous Civil War general, became a Catholic, and his example was followed 
by the young Sylvester. Later both parents also became Catholics. Sylvester was educated 
by the Jesuits at Fordliam, and made his later studies in Rome, where he was ordained in 
1852. His death at the age of 51 closed a career of great activity. He had labored earn- 
estly lo liuild up the new diocese, a work of no small magnitude, and he died before he could 
sec the fruition of his work. It was said that he was a horn pedagogue and in the midst 
of his episcopal duties found time to teach in St. Aloysius Seminary, in Sacred Heart 
Convent, and even at St. Mary's of the Springs. He was a man of literary tastes, and was 
instrumental in founding Hie Catholic Columbian, under the management of Rev. D. A. 
Clarke, then an ecclesiastical student, and lie was a frequent contributor to its editorial and 
other pages. He died universally esteemed and respected. 

The successor of Bishop Rosecrans was the Right Reverend John Ambrose Wattersorij 

D. I>.. who was appointed Bishop of Columbus on March 15, 1810, and was consecrated on 

August s of the same year in St. Joseph's Cathedral. In the eighteen months which had 
elapsed between the death of Bishop Rosecrans and the appointment of his successor, Very 
Rev. \. A. Gallagher administered the affairs of the diocese with residence at the Cathedral 
rectory. Rev. M. M. Meara was rector of the Cathedral. In 1882 Father Meara was made 
pastor at Circleville and Rev. U. J. Fitzgerald became rector of tin- Cathedral, where lie re- 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— CATHOLIC 209 

mained until 1888, when he was appointed pastor of St. John's Church, Bellaire. From that 
period Bishop Watterson retained the title of rector of the Cathedral himself until his lamented 
death in April, 1898. His labors in building up the diocese were stupendous and his health 
succumbed under the stress of his episcopal duties. The work of the diocese was extended 
through new parishes and the erection of churches and schools. He purchased the present 
episcopal residence, thus completing a half block of valuable property on Broad street. His 
work in the diocese was of lasting value. He was a man of dignified personality and wide at- 
tainments, a scholar and a student, with oratorical ability of a high order. He died deeply 
mourned not alone by his own people but by the residents of Columbus generally, who recog- 
nized in him a man of superior character and eminent virtues. He was 55 years old at the time 
of his death. His remains were interred in Calvary cemetery where a handsome granite 
monument marks his resting place. 

John Ambrose Watterson, second Bishop of Columbus, was born in Blairsville, Pa., May 
27, 1844, the sixth child of John A. and Mary MacAfee Watterson. They were well to do 
and gave their children good educations. The future Bishop received a good home training, 
and was educated at Mt. St. Mary's, Emmittsburg, Md. He was ordained in 1868 and at 
once became professor of moral theology and sacred Scripture at his alma mater, becom- 
ing in a very short time president of the famous college. This position he continued to fill 
with conspicuous success until called to the Bishopric of Columbus in 1880. 

Bishop Watterson was succeeded by Right Reverend Henry Moeller, D. D., who was 
consecrated third Bishop of Columbus on August 25, 1900, in St. Peter's Cathedral, Cin- 
cinnati. For twenty years Bishop Moeller had been chancellor of the archdiocese of Cincin- 
nati, and his experience thus gained enabled him successfully to cope with the task which 
met him in Columbus, that of discharging the debt which lay heavy on the diocese and which 
had accumulated through long years of church and school building and in otherwise devel- 
oping a new see. He took hold of this work in a systematic way and with the loyal and 
earnest support of the priests of the diocese as well as the responsive generosity of the people, 
paid off practically the whole sum in three years. He held a Diocesan Synod in 1902, 
founded new parishes and missions among the rapidly increasing foreign population, and 
developed and systematized the work of the diocese. His departure was sincerely regretted 
when he was called by Rome to be Coadjutor Archbishop to Archbishop Elder of Cincin- 
nati. He was esteemed alike by priests and people. 

There was rejoicing throughout the diocese when on December 10, 1903, a cablegram 
announced that Pope Pius X had named Rev. James Joseph Hartley, pastor of Holy Name 
Church, Steubenville, as the fourth Bishop of Columbus. The new Bishop was not only 
native to the diocese but a native of Columbus. His parents were old residents of the 
capital city, well known and highly respected. He received his early education in St. 
Patrick's school and made his theological studies at Niagara University and Seminary. He 
was ordained to the priesthood in 1882, and had been pastor of Holy Name parish, where he 
built a beautiful church, school and rectory, for nearly 25 years, when raised to episcopal 
honors. It was therefore a happy day for priests and people when on February 25, 
1904, a son of the diocese was consecrated as their chief shepherd. In the fourteen years 
which have elapsed Bishop Hartley has worked with indefatigable zeal for the spiritual and 
material development of the diocese. Innumerable good works have been inaugurated and 
extended, and monuments to his apostolic zeal are raising everywhere throughout the city 
and diocese. By his financial acumen he has placed the affairs of the diocese on a firm 
basis. He is interested in the civic as well as the religious welfare of the city and is always 
to the fore in rendering material and moral assistance to all civic. State and national move- 
ments. Since the outbreak of the war he has contributed largely to relief and other war 
funds, and it was under his auspices that the Catholic Ladies War Relief Association was 
started in July, 1917. Rev. John H. O'Neil is secretary to the Right Reverend Bishop 
Hartley. 

When Bishop Moeller came to Columbus in 1900 he recalled the Rev. M. M. Meara to his 
former office as rector of St. Joseph's Cathedral, an office in which he is still presiding with 
dignity and success. Shortly after his return it was decided to start a school for the Cathe- 
dral parish, and for this purpose the old Alfred Kelley home on East Broad street was pur- 
chased, an historic and artistic edifice built in 1806, and which at one time housed the Gov- 
ernor of the State during his term of office. The school was opened with the Sisters of Notre 



210 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Dame in charge. The value of this property is now more than four times what it was when 
it was purchased. In 1911-15 the Cathedral was remodeled and refurnished at a cost of 
# 105,000, making it one of the most beautiful and stately church edifices in the middle West. 
At this writing under Father Meara's judicious management the Cathedral is almost entirely 
free from debt. 

Sacred Heart Church. 

Up until 1875 there was no parish beyond the Union Station or the railroad tracks, 
and at this time it became apparent that something should be done to meet the spiritual 
needs of the Catholics in that locality. To Rev. John B. Eis was delegated the task of or- 
ganizing the new parish, and a building designed for church and school both was erected 
on a plot of ground on First avenue, donated to the Church in Columbus as far back as 1852, 
by William Phelan, of Lancaster, Ohio. The ground comprised an entire block. Services 
were first held in the new structure on Easter Sunday, April 16, 1876, and the school was 
opened the next week under the care of the Sisters of St. Francis, who were housed in the same 
building. In the course of the ensuing years as the congregation increased many necessary 
additions were made to the original building, and the school has grown until now it accommo- 
dates nearly 400 pupils. Father Eis is still in charge of the parish and has as his assistant 
Rev. J. M. Ryan. 

Holy Family Church. 

This church is erected on historic ground, as what is now called the West Side was 
once the village of Franklinton, the first settlement of what was to become the capital city 
of Ohio. In the early days Catholic services were held in the bomes of the settlers by trav- 
eling missionaries, and later on, as the tide of settlement flowed over the river, the few 
Catholics remaining west of the Scioto were privileged to attend Mass in the small chapel 
of the Good Shepherd Convent which had been founded in the old Sullivant homestead at 
the corner of West Broad and Sandusky streets in 1865. In 1877 the Sisters of St. Joseph 
of Ebensburg, Pa., at tbe request of Bishop Rosecrans, had opened a day and boarding 
school in the old ecclesiastical seminary building on Sandusky street opposite the Good 
Shepherd Convent, which had been closed in 1876 for lack of funds to carry on the work. 
Rev. R. C. Christy, a former Army Chaplain, was chaplain for these Sisters as well as 
the Sisters of Good Shepherd and he soon recognized the need of a church for the Catholics 
of the vicinity. A building, once a barn on the seminary premises was fitted up and for two 
months divine services were held in this humble structure. Father Christy then secured 
the old United Brethren Church on Sandusky street and had it remodeled, and on June 8, 1877, 
it was blessed and dedicated to Catholic uses in the name of the Holy Family. Father 
Christy died in 1878 and was succeeded by Rev. T. S. Reynolds, and lie in turn in 1879 by 
Rev. W. S. Hayes, who, because of a flaw in the title, disposed of the Sandusky street 
property and bought a lot on West Broad at the corner of Skidmore street. Plans were 
laid for a church and school and Father Hayes worked earnestly in promoting the work. 
The cornerstone was laid in 1882, but before the church was completed Father Hayes was 
transferred to the pastorate of St. Francis de Sales Church, Newark, and in 1881 Rev. 
Dennis A. Clarke took up the task of finishina; the edifice and extending the parish. How 
well he succeeded may be seen in the large, devout and loyal congregation as well as in the 
valuable church property he has built up. Besides the church, which was dedicated June 
2, 1889, by Bishop Watterson, there is a commodious rectory and a convent for the teaching 
Sisters. A handsome modern school building was erected in 1913 on Sandusky street and 
was about ready for occupancy when the disastrous flood of that year occurred. Though 
its basement was flooded the school served as a refuge for scores driven from the lower 
grounds: The church property on Broad street suffered great damage from the high waters 
.and a great part of the congregation was impoverished, and driven from homes in many 
cases swept away by the waters. The parish is but now recovering from the effects of the 
flood. The new school was opened in March, 1911. The Sisters of St. Joseph from Ebens- 
burg and later from Baden, Pa., were in charge of Holy Family School from its opening in 
1877 to June, 1912, when they were succeeded by the Sisters of Mercy from Louisville, Ky. 
There are nine Sisters in charge of about 250 pupils. There is a commercial high school 
in connection with the school, and the Sisters also conduct a music academy. At the 
Diocesan Synod of 1902 Holy Family Church was made a Deanery, with Rev. D. A. Clarke 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— CATHOLIC 211 

as Dean. Dean Clarke died suddenly of heart disease, May 17, 1920, after 36 years at the 
head of the parish. 

St. Dominic's Church. 

In 1889 Bishop Watterson appointed Rev. T. J. O'Reilly, who had been acting as his sec- 
retary, to organize a new parish in the Panhandle district. Six lots were bought at the corner 
of Twentieth and Devoise streets, and plans made for the erection of a combination church 
and school building. Meanwhile services were held in Benninghof Hall, at the corner of 
Twentieth and Hildreth avenue, where the first Mass of the new parish was celebrated on 
September 1, 1889. The following week school was opened in the same hall in charge of the 
Sisters of St. Joseph. As there were a large number of pupils this double use of the hall 
proved to be a great inconvenience for all concerned, and Father O'Reilly petitioned the 
Board of Education for the temporary use of three rooms in the new public school build- 
ing at the corner of Mount Vernon avenue and Twenty-third street. The petition was cor- 
dially granted and Father O'Reilly enjoyed the use of these rooms until February 2, 1881, 
when his own church and school building was dedicated. In 1896 a rectory was built, and 
a convent for the Sisters in 1902. Additional property was secured from time to time, the 
whole now comprising twenty city lots, fronting on Twentieth, Devoise and Medill streets. 
On November 26, 1916, a beautiful new church was dedicated, one of the handsomest in the 
middle West. It is built of Bedford stone in the Basilica style of architecture with columns 
of polished granite. There are artistic stainel glass windows and marble altars of pleasing 
design. The new church was dedicated by Right Reverend Bishop Hartley and the sermon 
was given by Right Reverend Bishop Muldoon, of Rockford, 111. In 1914 the Sisters of 
St. Joseph were succeeded in the school by the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Ky., who 
have charge of 325 pupils. They also teach music. St. Dominic's is one of the most active 
and thriving parishes in the city. 

St. Francis of Assisi. 

One of the first offshoots from Sacred Heart parish was the congregation of St. Francis 
of Assisi. It was organized in 1892 when Rev. A. M. Levden, formerly of Toronto, Ohio, 
was chosen as pastor of the projected parish, designed to take care of the rapidly growing 
number of Catholics west of High street and north of the railroad tracks. Services were first 
held in Neil Chapel at the corner of Neil and Goodale streets, formerly a Methodist church, 
which was remodeled and blessed as a Catholic place of worship on Sunday, June 19, 1892. 
The parish grew and prospered, and in 1896 the present handsome church on Buttles avenue 
was built. It is of Romanesque architecture and has been enlarged since its erection to meet 
the needs of a large and constantly increasing congregation. Father Leyden built a substan- 
tial rectory in 1893, and in 1906 a fine modern school building was erected. It contains a 
large hall for parish meetings and entertainments. There are 100 pupils in the school 
taught by the Sisters of St. Dominic from St. Mary's of the Springs. The population of 
the parish is given as 1873 people, the majority of Irish extraction. Father Leyden is still 
the pastor, and is assisted on Sundays by the Dominican Fathers from Aquinas College. 

St. Peter's Church. 

The extension of the city east and northward into what was then known as Milo and 
Grogan and the settlement of Catholics there made necessary some provision for their spir- 
itual interests. In 1895 Bishop Watterson authorized Father Eis to look out for a suitable 
church property in that locality. Lots were secured on New York avenue and a small school 
opened September of that year in Benson's Hall, Milo, with a Franciscan Sister from Sacred 
Heart school in charge of the few children. The Bishop placed Rev. Hugh Ewing, assistant 
at Sacred Heart, in charge of the new parish, and the next year a combination church and 
school building was put up. Here school was started in September, 1896, and in October 
services were first held in the new church. It was dedicated on October 11. The little con- 
gregation flourished from the first and the school grew rapidly. In 1900 a rectory was built 
for the pastor, who had until then lived in a rented house adjoining; and a convent for the 
teaching Sisters was erected in 1913. Additional property has been purchased at intervals 
and at this writing the property includes twelve lots on New York avenue, ten on Fifth avenue 



212 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

and a third of an acre adjoining. The parish extends about twelve miles north into the 
country and has about 250 families and 280 children in the school. 

In addition to his work as pastor of St. Peter's Father Ewing lias charge of the Mission 
at Westerville^ which with the Bishop's permission lie started in 1913. At first Mass was 
celebrated in Westerville once a month, Sunday school being held on intermediate Sundays, 
but since October, 1916, Father Ewing goes up twice a month for Mass. The Mission has 
about 60 people. Their neat little chapel is on the second floor of a business block in the 
center of the town, on North State street. It is fitted up with the old altar from St. 
Patrick's Church and some of the old pews from St. Joseph's Cathedral. Father Ewing is 
often assisted at the Westerville Mission by Rev. Conrad Conrardy of the Josephinum. His 
assistant at St. Peter's is Rev. Biebl from the same institution. 

Church of St. John the Evangelist. 

During the preliminary organization of this parish, for a period of eighteen months, 
services were held in the chapel of the Josephinum through the kindness of Monsignor 
Joseph Jessing, then rector of the institution. The parish was planned for the Catholics of 
the newer section of the city in the vicinity of Ohio and Livingston avenues rapidly building 
up with comfortable and substantial homes. The work of organization was given to Rev. 
S. P. Weisinger on June 13, 1898, who prosecuted it with so much success that a little over 
a year later the handsome new Church of St. John the Evangelist on Ohio avenue was com- 
pleted and was dedicated on September 24 by Monsignor Specht, V. G. A suitable resi- 
dence for the pastor was completed at the same time. In 1905 a modern school building 
was erected, adding greatly to the value and appearance of this handsome church property. 
The church is of excellent design and construction and is well fitted up, and has the embellish- 
ment of beautiful stained glass windows The parish started with 75 families and now has 
540, with 100 pupils in the school. The teachers are Sisters of St. Francis, for whom a 
convent was built in 1908. Father Weisinger is still in charge of the parish, and has as 
assistant Rev. J. F. Plunket. 

St. John the Baptist Church. 

The first priest appointt d to look after the spiritual welfare of the Italian Catholics of 
Columbus was the Rev. Alexander Cestelli. He was a professor at the Josephinum and in 
1895 was chosen for this work by Bishop Watterson, building the present church and rec- 
tory at the corner of Lincoln and Hamlet streets. In 1901 Father Cestelli was succeeded 
by Rev. Victor Sovilla, who worked faithfully in building up the parish for twelve years 
when he returned to Italy. In August, 1913, Rev. Rocco Petrarca was placed in charge of 
the parish by Bishop Hartley, and in five years has succeeded in paying off the debt and in 
repairing and embellishing the church. There is no parish school, but there are Catechism 
classes held every Wednesday afternoon in the church, conducted by ladies from different 
parts of the city, who also prepare the children for First Communion and confirmation. 

St. Leo's Church. 

The city was growing in all directions, and in 1902 it became evident that a division of 
St. Mary's parish was necessary to take care of Catholics living in the extreme south end. 
Rev. Charles F. Kessler, assistant pastor at the Cathedral, was appointed by Bishop Moeller 
to organize the nciv congregation, under the patronage of St. Leo. In 1903 a tract of land 
was bought on Hanford street and work begun on a building designed both for church and 
school purposes. The cornerstone was laid on July 19, 1913, and on December 13 of the 
same year services were held in the new church. The school was opened in 1901 with an 
enrollment of 150 children, in charge of Franciscan Sisters. Father Kessler built his rectory 
in 1901, and the next year a home for the Sisters was erected. Despite all this building 
the parish was free from debt by 1911, and a fund was started for a new church, made 
necessary by the growth of the congregation. Ground for the new church was broken in 
1915, and on May 16, 1917, the handsome and well appointed edifice was dedicated by Ht. 
Rev. Bishop Hartley. It cost over $61,000, and three months after its completion was 
entirely paid for. The former chapel in the old building was converted into needed school 
rooms and the whole building made fireproof. St. Leo's is a handsome church property, all 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— CATHOLIC 213 

the buildings being of butt' vitrified briek and built in substantial style. Father Kessler had 
the distinction of starting the first free parish school in the city. There are now 250 
children in the school. 

On February 8, 1920, occurred the deatli from influenza of the pastor and founder of 
St. Leo's, the beloved Father Kessler. The splendid group of church buildings were left, by 
his idefatigable labors, entirely free of debt, but far exceeding this material gift to his peo- 
ple, was the great spiritual heritage he left them. Rev. Bernard P. Vogel succeeded to the 
pastorate. 

St. Thomas Church, East Columbus. 

This parish is located at the extreme eastern edge of Columbus, two miles this side of 
Taylor's Station, where in the early days Mass was said for the few Catholics there at 
irregular intervals by priests from the Cathedral and St. Patrick's Church. The erection 
of the steel plant in that vicinity brought a few more Catholic settlers, and the necessity of a 
church became apparent. Rev. Andrew J. Johnson, who had been pastor at St. Joseph's, Licking 
county, was entrusted with the work of organizing this widely scattered flock, and on May 
26, 1900, started the foundation of the parish under the patronage of St. Thomas the 
Apostle. Services were for a time held in the public school building. In 1902 a beautiful 
little church was built on a plot of ground generously given by Mr. Thomas Cassady, and 
located at the corner of Cassady and Fifth avenues. It was dedicated by Bishop Moeller 
on August 10 of that year. A parish house was ready for occupancy by 1901. Father 
Johnson was earnestly engaged in building up the parish when his health began to fail, and 
in 1913 he became incapacitated for active parish duties. He died at Mount Carmel Hos- 
pital on December 15, 1916, and two days later his funeral was held from the little church 
which he had built and loved so much. His body was taken to his former home, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., for interment. He was a priest of many fine qualities, with a cultivated and discrimi- 
nating mind and a keen appreciation of good music. He had many friends and was deeply 
and widely mourned. 

On June 23, 1916, Rev. John O'Neil, secretary to the Bishop, was made pastor of St. 
Thomas church, and is now working zealously to the end that the parish may soon have 
its own school. There are 168 children of school age in the parish, which has about 700 
members. About one-half the congregation is made up of foreigners, — Poles, Slavs, Bohe- 
mians and Hungarians, who recently took up residence in that locality. At present the 
Sunday school is in charge of Dominican Sisters from St. Mary's of the Springs, who go over 
every Sunday to teach the children. 

Holy Name Church. 

With the continued growth of the city northward a new parish in that section became a 
necessity, and in 1905 Bishop Hartley appointed Rev. William McDermott to the work of 
organization. The parish lay north of Eleventh avenue and lots were purchased on Patterson 
avenue for a new church to be dedicated to the Holv Name. During the erection of the 
church building services for the small congregation of only about 50 people were held in a 
hall on North High street. The building, which combined a church and school, was dedi- 
cated by Bishop Hartley on January 28, 1906. School was opened the next September with 
52 children, and the Dominican Sisters from St. Mary's of the Springs in charge. Father 
McDermott also built a rectory the same year the church was built. In 1916 a convent for 
the Sisters was erected, and a home for tiie church sexton was bought in 1917. The church 
property is a very complete one, located in one of the prettiest sections of the North Side, 
and is valued at $100,000. The parish has about 365 families, and 201 children in the school. 
It is free from debt and has a growing fund for a new church which it is hoped to build in the 
not distant future. 

The Newman Club, a society for the Catholic young people attending Ohio State Uni- 
versity, was organized by Father McDermott in 1906, and has proved to be a valuable or- 
ganization. It serves to bring these young psople together, to promote their acquaintance 
with others of their faith, and to give them every necessary opportunity for the practice of 
their religion. 

Holy Rosary Church. 

Meanwhile the city was still extending southeastward and a new parish was planned for 
the growing section in the territory lying east of Linwood and Wilson avenues, between 



214 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Broad street and Livingston avenue. On May 5, 1905, Rev. Francis W. Howard was 
appointed to take charge of this parish, which was to be known as Holv Rosary parish. 
Many of the Catholics living in this district had been attending services in the Chapel of St. 
Vincent's Orphanage, and in anticipation of the organization of a new parish a fund of 
$1,900 had been collected. There were sixty-four Catholic families in the district with sixty 
children of school age. Plans were made for a building that would eventually be exclu- 
sively devoted to school uses, but which would also serve for a church for the present. 
The cornerstone of the building was laid on October 1, 1905, and on March 25, 1906, the 
building was dedicated by Bishop Hartley. The parish school was opened the following 
September with the Sisters of St. Francis in charge. The parish grew rapidly and in a few 
years a new church was planned. Work was begun in November, 1913, and the cornerstone 
was laid March 24, 1914. In less than two years the beautiful edifice was completed and was 
dedicated by Bishop Hartley on February 2, 1916. Regular services in the church began 
on February 27 of that year. 

The new church is a structure one hundred and ninety-three feet long and sixty-five 
feet wide in the nave, with a chapel at the east side sixty by thirty feet. The exterior is 
plain, early North Italian style, while the interior is thirteenth century Renaissance. The 
architecture is unusual and rarely seen in this part of the country, and has been pronounced 
to be a very perfect and devotional type. The church is built on the corner of Main street 
and Seymour avenue, and the school is on Seymour. The parish now numbers 260 families 
with an enrollment in the school of 240 children. 

As Father Howard is Secretary General of the National Catholic Educational Associa- 
tion, the general offices of the Association are located in Holy Rosary rectory, adjoining the 
church. 

St. Aloysius Church. 

For many years there was only one Catholic parish on the West Side. In 1905 a new 
parish was projected for the western section and the Hilltop, so-called, and Bishop Hartley 
appointed Rev. J. J. Cahalen as pastor. Ground was bought on West Broad street between 
Midland and Clarendon avenues, and ground broken for St. Aloysius Church. While the 
church was building services were held in a room on West Broad street with only a few 
people in attendance. The parish was small and had a struggle for existence until the exten- 
sion of its boundaries and the building up of newer subdivisions when it gradually became 
more thriving. Father Cahalen resigned in 1910 and was succeeded in the pastorate by Rev. 
Rudolph Schwarz, of Buchtel, who proceeded with energy to build up the parish and reduce 
the encumbering debt. This section has grown steadily and there are now 175 families in 
the parish and 180 children in the school. The school is taught by the Sisters of Notre 
Dame who go out every day from the convent on Rich street. Church and school are both 
housed in the same building, as are also the pastor's apartments; but a new church is becom- 
ing a necessity and it is planned later to erect a suitable and substantial edifice. 

St. Ladislaus Church. 

This is the only Hungarian parish in tli • city and was organized in 1908, although lots 
for the church were bought on Reeb avenue in 1907. Rev. Robert Paulovics, who had been 
in charge of a Hungarian parish in Dillonvale, Ohio, was chosen by Bishop Hartley for the 
task of organizing the Hungarians of the South Side into a congregation and to build a 
church. Services for the Hungarians were first held in the basement of St. Leo's church on 
Hanford street, and the new St. Ladislaus church on Reeb avenue was dedicated by the 
Bishop on Xovember 22, 1908. In a few months Father Paulovics was succeeded by Rev. 
J. H. O'Neil as temporary pastor, and on September 19, 1909, the day of his ordination. 
Rev. Maximilian J. Pivetz was placed in charge of St. Ladislaus, remaining there ever since. 
A new parish house was built in 1911, and in 1916 a one-story school was erected where four 
Ursuline Sisters now teach about 70 primary grade pupils. The Sisters live in a convent 
home purchased for them to the east of the school. There are a large number of foreigners 
in this section of the city and the parish promises to be a growing one. 

St. Cyprian's Church, 
St. Cyprian's, the only Catholic church for colored people in Columbus is located on 
Hawthorne street near St. Anthony's Hospital. This work among the colored people was 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— CATHOLIC 215 

inspired solely by Bishop Hartley's desire to carry out the apostolic character of his high 
office, and with this end in view he acquired the site of St. Cyprian's in 1912. A building 
was put up designed for both church and school, also a most attractive little chapel. On the 
request of the Bishop, Mother Katherine Drexel, founder of the Order of the Sisters of the 
Blessed Sacrament who work exclusively among colored people, supplied Sisters to teach the 
school. She also built a convent for them adjoining the church. In September, 1912, the 
school was opened with 28 pupils, all non-Catholics. In 1911 a second building was erected, 
adding three classrooms and a hall for entertainments. The buildings were paid for by 
benevolent Catholics interested in the work. There are at present 115 pupils in the school 
and 9(5 Catholics in the parihs. 

Immaculate Conception Church. 

When Holy Name parish was organized it was thought that the needs of the northern 
part of the city would be supplied for many years, but in 1915 it became apparent that in the 
vicinity of Clintonville there were enough Catholics to form the nucleus of a new congrega- 
tion. In the fall of that year Bishop Hartley purchased ground on North Broadway and 
on December 8, Rev. C. J. Norris, assistant pastor of the Cathedral, was appointed pastor 
of the new parish which was placed under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception. A 
frame chapel of artistic construction was built, and was dedicated by the Bishop on Decem- 
ber 8, 1916. A handsome residence adjoining, being offered for sale, was bought for the 
pastor's home. In October, 1917, Father Norris resigned to accept a commission as Chap- 
lain in the Army, and Rev. John J. Murphy was appointed his successor. 

(The schools, hospitals and charitable work conducted by the Catholics are considered 
by the same writer in appropriate chapters. — Editor.) 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

RELIGIOUS LIFE — JEWISH AND OTHERS. 

First Jewish Congregation in 18^9 — B'nai Jeshuren, B'nai Israel — Temple at Main and Third 
Streets Erected — Removal to Bri/den Road — Three Orthodox Congregations — Christian 
Scientists — Spiritualists — Latter Day Saints — Seventh Day Adventists — Non-Sec- 
tarian. 

The first Jewish congregation was organized in 1819 under the name, B'nai Jeshuren, 
an orthodox society, the principal members of which were Judah Nusbaum, Nathan and Joseph 
Gundersheimer, Simon Mack, S. Lazarus, Samuel Hess, Abraham Amburg, M. Breidenstuld, 
S. Schwalbe, S. Morrison and M. Aaronson. The first of these had come in 1838. S. Laz- 
arus, merchant clothier, officiated as Rabbi, without remuneration, and Nathan Gu.ider- 
sheimer, who was in a similar business, was the first president of the society. The first 
meeting place was an upstairs room of what was known as the Twin Brothers' clothing 
store. The next Rabbi was Joseph Goodman, who officiated till 1855, when Rev. Samuel 
Weil was called from Cincinnati to take charge of the congregation here. The meeting 
place was changed to a room over the old Siebert gun store on the west side of High street 
between Rich and Main streets, and then to Walcutt's Hall, and there was a succession of 
Rabbis including Rev. S. Goodman, Rev. Mr. Wetterhahn and Rev. Mr. Rosenthal. 

In the spring of 1870 nineteen of the members withdrew and organized the congrega- 
tion of B'nai Israel, with Nathan Gundersheimer as president, Jacob Goodman secretary, 
Joseph Gundersheimer treasurer and S. Amburg, Louis Kahn and Judah Goodman as trustees. 
The original congregation was subsequently dissolved. 

For the purpose of erecting an edifice adapted to the Hebrew form of worship, a lot was 
bought at the northwest corner of Main and Third streets for. $5,000, pledged by twenty-one 
members of the congregation which at that time numbered thirty-five. Subscriptions for 
the temple were solicited, not only in Columbus but elsewhere, the contract was let to Hall 
& Fornoff and the two Gundersheimers and Jacob Goodman were appointed to supervise the 
erection of the building. The cornerstone was laid May 15, 1870, with Masonic ceremonies. 
There was a parade, in which Masonic and Odd Fellow bodies participated; the Maenner- 
ehor sang to the tune of Pleyel's Hymn, the stanzas beginning: 

Round the spot, Moriah's Hill, 
Masons meet witli cheerful will; 
Him who stood as King that day 
We as cheerfully obey. 

The address of the occasion was delivered by Rev. Isaac M. Wise, of Cincinnati, his 
theme being "Human Dignity." 

The dedication of the temple occurred September I(i following. After an address at 
Walcutt s Hall by Hev. J. Weehsler, a procession was formed and marched to the door of 
the temple where the key was formally presented to Nathan Gundersheimer, who opened 
the door and admitted the people. Singing, prayer, a procession of the bearers of the scrolls 
of the law, which were finally placed in the Ark at the rear of the pulpit, and addresses by 
Rev. Mr. Weehsler and Rev. Mr. Wise were the principal features of the program. Up to 
this time services had been conducted in Hebrew, but at this time a change was made to 
English and the latter language has since been used. 

This building was used for thirty years and then, following the example of other 
churches in (he central part of the city, the congregation decided to move into one of the 
residential districts. A lot was bought on Bryden Road between Eighteenth and Nineteenth 
streets, and there a far more beautiful temple was erected and dedicated and occupied in 
1901-05. Rabbi David Klein, who for a long period served the congregation, officiated at 
the cornerstone-laying and dedication. Dr. Joseph S. Kornfeld has now for ten years been 
the Rabbi in charge. 

Other Jewish congregations that have sprung up in comparatively recent years to meet 
the demands of tin increasing population are: Agudath Achim (United Brotherhood); Beth 



RELIGIOUS LIFE— JEWISH AND OTHERS 217 

Jacob (House of Jacob) : Ahavath Shalom (Lovers of Peace) — all presided over by Rabbi 
S. M. Neches, and Tifereth Israel (Glory of Israel), Rabbi Jacob Klein. 

Agudath Achim congregation was organized in 1885 and for years services were held in 
a building on Fourth street. In 1895 a synagogue was built on Fifth street, and in 1906 
a lot was bought at the corner of Washington avenue and Donaldson street, and the corner- 
stone of the present edifice was laid in June, 1907. The congregation has 365 members 
and over 100 seat-holders, while the capacity of the synagogue is more than 1,500. In well 
equipped rooms, a Hebrew school is conducted every day after public school hours, under the 
supervision of the rabbi and four teachers. Here the children learn Hebrew; while on Sunday 
morning the children are taught in English Jewish history and literature. The first rabbi 
of the congregation was Rev. Dr. Isaac Winakofsky. Rabbi Morris Taxon succeeded him in 
1912 and was in turn succeeded in February, 1918, by Rabbi S. M. Neches. 

Beth Jacob Congregation, composed of Russian Jews, was organized in the house of 
Rev. Mr. Dump, on Livingston avenue, in 1903. It now occupies a beautiful synagogue on 
Donaldson street. 

Ahavath Shalom Congregation is composed mostly of Jews who came from the southern 
part of Russia and has its synagogue on Washington avenue. 

Rabbi Neches is a virile, well educated young man, born of an ancient Hebrew family 
in Jerusalem, October 5, 1892. He was educated in the College of the Tree of Life, Jeru- 
salem. His first congregation was in Alexandria, Egypt. He came to America in 1913, 
served as rabbi in Pittsburg four year and then came to Columbus to serve the three congre- 
gations named, with a membership of about 600. 

Christian Science. 

The First Church of Christ, Scientist, was organized on November 19, 1896. The first 
public meeting of the seven people who later became the founders of this church was held at 
the home of Mr. and Mrs. Spaulding, 101 Oak street, the previous December, and regular 
meetings were held there until April, 1896, when a room was leased in the Board of Trade. 
The increase in membership demanding more room the use of Wells Post Hall was secured 
and here services continued to be held until the congregation began worship in its own hand- 
some church near the corner of Broad and Grant avenue. This was in 1903. In a very short 
while it was seen that more space was demanded for church services as well as Sundav 
school and reading rooms, and the old Wetmore place further east on Broad street was. 
purchased, on which is now erected one of the most beautiful church edifices in the city. 

The Second Church of Christ, Scientist, was organized by the members of the First 
Church, residents of the North Side, who desired a more convenient place of worship. The 
organization was effected September 5, 1912, a site was secured at West First avenue 
and Park street, and a beautiful edifice was erected in 1915, the total cost being $70,000. 
The present officers are : President, Charles M. Peters ; treasurer, B. F. Froelich ; clerk, 
Mrs. lone Wood. The membership is 235; Sunday school enrollment, 160; superintendent, 
Lenore K. Sosey. 

In 1918, the two churches united for the distribution of literature and the maintenance 
of a reading room, and for these purposes maintain offices down town. Mrs. Ann Savre is 
librarian. 

Spiritualists. 

The Spiritualists have four churches in Columbus, the First Church, a historic stone 
edifice, being located at the corner of State and Sixth streets. Previous to the erection of 
this church the small band of Spiritualists worshipped in various places. Their other 
churches are: Christian, 689 East Long street; St. Andrew's, 118 North High street, upstairs ; 
and the West Side Church at 75 McDowell street. 

Latter Dai/ Saints. 

The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Columbus is a branch 
of the organization of the same name with headquarters in Independence, Missouri. It was 
organized in Columbus, November 12, 1900, at the home of Mr. J. W. Throp, 56 West Jason 
avenue, by Apostle W. H. Kelly, and consisted of nine members, of which J. E. Matthews, 
now a patriarch of the general church, was one. 



218 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

The first meeting place was a church which had formerly been used by the Methodist 
denomination, then standing at the corner of High and Duncan streets. From this place the} 7 
moved to a hall in the Robinson block at High and Hudson streets, and in 1907 a hall was 
secured on the west side of High street known as the G. A. R. Hall, directly across the 
street. 

The membership had increased to about 150 and, as some of the members resided in other 
parts of the city, it was decided to try to open up a mission work in South Columbus. This 
mission prospered and in 1909 a hall was secured on Kossuth street near High street, and 
finally in 1912 a church was purchased on Sixth near Innis avenue. This was still con- 
ducted as a mission until February, 1915, when a separate branch was organized with a 
membership of 10. The new organization was known as the Second Columbus Branch while 
the parent organization was known as the First Columbus Branch. 

The First Branch purchased a lot on the southwest corner of Tompkins street and 
Medary avenue in 1912 and on September 12, 1915, a church edifice was opened to the public 
at this place. This building was largely built by the members donating their time and 
today is valued at $9,000. Elder Arthur Allen, one of the general church missionaries, who 
previous to entering the ministerial field had been an architect, supervised the building. 

The membership of the First Branch today is about 175 members. The ministers of 
this denomination do not receive any salary for their labors and some of them are well known 
men in Columbus. 

The organization in Columbus has among its members one apostle, one patriarch, one high 
priest, five elders, as well as priests, teachers and deacons. 

This church has sometimes been confused with an organization in Utah, but several 
courts including an Ohio court hare decided that there is no connection between them, the 
Utah church having been declared an apostate from the original and this church the original. 

Seventh Dai/ Adventists. 

There are quite a good many Seventh Day Adventists at this writing in Columbus, who 
worship and have Bible classes in their church at 86 South Ohio avenue. Rev. Leslie Muntz 
is the pastor. 

Non-Sectarian. 

Churches which call themselves non-sectarian are as follows: Christian Faith church, 
111 South Seventh, Rev. Fletcher Mills, pastor; Church of God, 24 North Central avenue; 
Church of God Mission, West Third avenue; Church of God and Saints of Christ, North Ohio 
avenue, Rev. Charles Dewett, pastor; King Avenue Nazarene, Rev. John Gould, pastor; 
Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, Brehl avenue, Rev. John Gould, pastor; United Taber- 
nacle, North Garfield avenue, Rev. F. H. Rositer, pastor. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

The Worthington Manufacturing Co. of 1812-20 — The Ridgicay Foundry — First J'ehicle 
Making — Silk Manufacture — Franklin Found)-}/ of John L. Gill — Making of Paper, 
Soap, Candles and Starch — Columbus Machine Co. — First Boot and Shoe-Making — 
Hay den Foundry — Ohio Tool Co. — Woolen Factory — Furniture, Saws and Fencing — 
Columbus Buggy Co. — Regalia Manufacture — Agricultural Implements — Wage-Earners 
and Payroll in 1888 — Natural and Artificial Stone — Brick, Sewer Pipe and Tile — 
Lumber and Mill Work — Shoe Industry — Glass Output — Horse-Drawn Vehicles and 
Automobiles — Oleomargarine — Breweries — Some Fathers of Industry — last War Work 
in 1917-18, with a Pay Roll of Nearly $51,000,000. 

Manufacturing in a small way and of the most primitive kind dates back almost to the 
first settlement. As narrated in the earlier chapters, there were mills for grinding the grain 
and for cutting logs. Whisky-making was one of the earliest industries ; much of the product 
was drunk, and there were times when a gallon of whisky was a standard of value. The first 
legitimate factor}- was the Worthington Manufacturing Co., which made supplies for the 
army in 1812, but collapsed in 1820. For short periods, mills were maintained for spinning 
cotton, dressing hemp and carding, spinning and weaving wool, none of them marked by any 
great success. 

In 1822 J. Ridgwav & Co. erected on Scioto street north of Broad street a foundry for 
the manufacture of plows and for the casting of all kinds of machinery. For nearly a third 
of a century this foundry existed in the Ridgway name and contributed largely to the devel- 
opment and prosperity of the city. In the early days all the pig metal used was hauled from 
the Granville furnace in a two-horse wagon which made three round trips a week. The 
motive power was one horse working in an inclined wheel about 30 feet in diameter. Char- 
coal was used for fuel. In 1 8 -'3 Joseph Ridgway associated with himself in the business his 
nephew, Joseph Ridgway, jr. Steam was introduced as a motive power, and the firm made 
steam engines, stoves and machinery. The younger man died in 1850, after a busy and useful 
life in the community and the elder carried on the business till 1851, when lie sold the plant 
to Peter Hayden. 

In 1826 J. Ransberg, at a mill on the West Side, one mile south, produced coarse cloth 
and linen. Peter Putnam, John and Samuel Cunning maintained tanneries. Conger's flour- 
ing mill and distillery stood on the east bank of the Scioto below the town. About the 
same time Gill & Greer engaged in the manufacture and sale of copper, tin and sheet iron 
ware, while N. W. Smith established an oil mill and advertised for flaxseed. In 1828, James 
S. White advertised that lie was prepared to make all kinds of coaches, wagons, hacks, and 
gigs. He made coaches for the Ohio Stage Co. and may be considered the pioneer in the 
great carriage-making industry. John D. Ball made saddles and harness about the same time 
and George Jeffries made chairs and wheels at his factory on High street. In 1831 Robert 
Talbot made lasts. Elijah Converse, who seems to have been the pioneer beermaker, was 
succeeded in 1832 by John Abbott & Co. In 1833 Daniel Roe made a silk handkerchief from 
his own cocoons and, apparently on the strength of his experiment Joseph Sullivant, Lyne 
Starling and Anthony S. Chew organized the Ohio Silk Co. in 1836, erected a frame build- 
ing and planted a large field with mulberry plants. In 1840 Jewett & Hall advertised for 
cocoons, urging that the State paid a bounty of 10 cents a pound for them. But the cocoons 
did not come, and the silk industry collapsed. Another effort of the time was to grow 
the sugar beet in paying quantities. That, too, failed in 1838. 

In 1837 R. and S. Cutler made coaches and fancy carriages, and L. Hoster & Co. began 
making beer. In 1838, E. N. Sloeum made saddles, harness and trunks, and in 1839 John 
C. Deming made portable threshing machines, clover machines, etc. 

The Franklin Foundry (John L. Gill, W. A. Gill and Henry Glover) had origin in 1838, 
the location being at Scioto and Town streets. In 1839 John McCune took Glover's place 
in the concern and the association continued till 1818 when McCune retired, and John L. 
and W. A. Gill conducted it till 1852; then John L. alone till 1857, when the firm became 



220 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

John L. Gill & Son. The early product of the foundry was stoves, plows and mill irons. 
Later a specialty was made of a combination steel plow, which was made in large quantities, 
as many as 4,000 a year. Railroad cars were also built. 

Paper-making was carried on here from 1810 to 1819, first by Henry Roedter and John 
Siebert in a mill two miles north on the Scioto and later by Ernest Frankenberg and Asahel 
Chittenden, first at the mill just mentioned and later at a mill on the river just north of 
Broad street. The industry was at no time a great success. 

In 1810 John Funston began the manufacture of soap and candles. In 1813 C. Colgate 
and J. J. Wood began the manufacture of starch; in 1816 Colgate sold his interest to Sumner 
Clark and the firm became Clark & Wood and so continued till 1819 when Mr. Wood bought 
his partner's interest and continued the business alone. 

The use of prison labor had by this time become a burning issue. As early as 1835 
protests against unfair competition with free labor were heard, and in 1841-44-45 they were 
repeated with vigor at meetings of workingmen. In 1811 Hayden & Morrison made carpets 
and O. P. and A. H. Pinney made agricultural implements, both with prison labor. 

In 1819 Charles Ambos and James Lennox, with $8,000 established on West Broad street 
the Eagle Foundry, which they successfully conducted and sold in 1851 for $68,000 to a 
group of men who organized the Columbus Machine Manufacturing Co., with a capital of 
$80,000. Charles Ambos continued as superintendent, and Peter Ambos, John S. Hall, W. E. 
Ide, B. S. Brown and J. P. Bruck later became connected with it. It was and continued to 
be one of the sterling industries of the city. 

The Ridgways and Pearl Kimball built in 1819 on the West Side near the Columbus 
& Xenia railroad track a shop for the manufacture of cars. Joseph Ridgway, jr., having 
died in the following year, the other two carried on the business successfully till 1856 when 
they were burned out. In 1857 Mr. Ridgway sold to Mr. Kimball, who continued the business 
alone. 

The manufacture of boots and shoes had become an important industry by 18-19. In 
that year 200 hands were employed altogether, 60 of them in the factory of A. C. Brown. In 
the same year G. W. Peters — son of Tunis Peters and father of G. M. and O. G. Peters — 
established a trunk factory on West Long street. John R. Hughes learned trunk-making 
from him there and subsequently bought the business from Mr. Peters' widow, building up his 
own large and long-continued industry. 

On the site of the old Ridgway foundry Peter Hayden erected, about 1850, a limestone 
building 200 feet long and in the center four stories high, the wings being lower. It was 
a chain factory, rolling mill and tannery combined. The products were bar and rod-iron, 
wire and saddlery hardware. Mr. Hayden successfully carried on the business for many 
years, employing several hundred hands. 

The Ohio Tool Co., incorporated in 1851, witli a capital stock of $190,000, engaged the 
energies in the early days of George Gere, A. Thomas and C. H. Clark, while among its 
directors were Wm. A. Piatt, J. R. Swan, P. Hayden and J. M. McCune. Its chief 
product for some time was carpenter's planes and it then employed about 200 workmen. 

The Columbus Woolen Factory, incorporated in 1851, began operations the following 
year, with A. P. Stone, F. C. Kelton, Theodore Comstock, John Butler and James Lennox 
as directors. It was well equipped, consumed 52,000 pounds of wool annually and turned 
out a considerable variety of fabrics. It was never financially successful and when the mill, 
which was located by the canal at the foot of Mound street, was destroyed by fire, in 1870, 
the enterprise came to an end. 

In 1853 Brotherlin & Halm began the manufacture of cabinet ware near the canal in 
the southwest part of the city, maintaining warerooms on High street. The factory was 
burned twice, first in 1856 and again in 1861, but was eaeli time rebuilt. After Mr. Brother- 
lin's death in 1861, the firm became Halm, Ford & Stage and later Halm, Bellows & Butler. 

A saw factory was operated early in the 1850's at Spring and Water streets by Olden 
& Drake, and a coffee and spice mill was established by C. P. L. Butler about the same 
time. E. & H. F. Booth established a successful carriage factory at Third and Gay streets 
and in 1853 employed 15 persons and made 200 buggies a year. In 1865 they built a new 
factory and continued the business for a number of years. It was there that George M. 
Peters learned the buggy business, became an accomplished carriage painter and laid the 
foundations for a large manufacturing career. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 221 

J. G. and M. Krumm in 1851 began making iron fencing in a shop on South High street 
near the present street car barns. J. A. Shannon in 1853 manufactured carriages at a factory 
on the east bank of the Scioto south of State street, at one time employing 350 hands. 
Brick-making became a considerable industry in 1853, 12 yards being unable to supply the 
demand that year and the next. The Columbus Cabinet Co. was organized in 18(52; the Ohio 
Furniture Co. in 1866, both for the manufacture of furniture. In the same year David and 
J. C. Auld, Theodore Leonard, Henry Miller and Edward Hall incorporated a company for 
the manufacture of brick by steam. 

Just after the Civil War George M. Peters entered into partnership with Wm. and 
John Benns for the repairing and painting of carriages and horseshoeing in a shop on Third 
street near Town street. Later they bought out the Moore carriage shop on Town street and 
began to make carriages. They systematized the work so that they were able to sell carriages 
for half the usual price. In 1870 C. D. Firestone joined them with $5,000, which was soon 
sunk. Then Messrs. Peters and Firestone established in a small way the Iron Buggy Co. 
at the northeast corner of High street and Hickory alley and devoted their energies to mak- 
ing one kind of buggy. They succeeded so well with this that in 1875 they organized the 
Columbus Buggy Co. and Peters Dash Co., O. G. Peters becoming an active worker with 
them. The factory was established on the west side of High street, and the business grew 
at a prodigious rate until in 1890 the company was selling $2,000,000 worth of its product 
annuallv, exporting to many, countries. Decreasing demand for buggies resulted in a gradual 
decline of its business and the closing up of the concern about the turn of the century. 

The Brown, Hinman & Huntington Co. dates back to the early 1850's when it was known 
as Hall, Brown & Co., later as Brown, Hinman & Co. In 1885 the company was incor- 
porated, capital $200,000, for the manufacture of agricultural hand implements. 

On December 29, 1866, the Columbus Rolling Mill Co. was incorporated by J. F. Bartlit, 
R. E. Neil, Theodore Comstock, P. W. Huntington and Wm. Dennison, with a capital 
stock of $400,000. The mill began operation in 1872. B. S. Brown, H. A. Lanman and 
Samuel Thomas were interested in it and made a success of it while the railroads were using 
iron rails. When the change was made to steel and the raw material could not be readily ob- 
tained, the business languished and was finally discontinued, about 1884. 

The M. C. Lilley & Co., manufacturers of regalia, dates back to 1865. The business 
sprang in a smalL way from the publication of the Odd Fellows Companion and the request 
from subscribers for manufactured regalia. When some of these patrons had been supplied 
by the publishers it appeared that there was an opportunity for a successful manufacturing 
business. So a company was formed by Captain M. C. Lilley, John Siebert, Charles H. 
Lindenberg and Henry Lindenberg, and the business has been so successfully conducted that 
the manufactory has long been one of the largest of its kind in the country. The factory, 
which began in the homes of the partners later occupied a building at Gay and Front and 
then was moved to an imposing structure on East Long street erected for the purpose. Henry 
Lindenberg died in the early stage of the business, but John Siebert, Charles H. Linden- 
berg, Philip Lindenberg, with Carl R. Lindenberg, Robert Lindenberg and others, carried on 
the great business. 

According to the report of the Board of Trade for 18S8, when tile population was approx- 
imately 88,000, the manufacturing establishments large and small numbered 915, employing 
14.,801 persons with a payroll of $6,368,392. The amount of capital invested was $1-1,310,277, 
and the value of the annual product was $26,075,215. Columbus had already begun to loom 
up as a manufacturing center. It was a natural result of the city's central location in the 
State, its position near the center of the nation's manufacturing area, its nearness to neees- 
sarv raw materials such as iron, limestone and coal, its excellent transportation facilities, 
and its nearness to the great markets for manufactured products. The discovery of natural 
gas and its use, through the enterprise of Columbus men, as fuel and the development of 
electricity as a motive power, as elsewhere narrated, gave a new impetus to industrial en- 
terprises which have grown in individual magnitude and in variety until, according to a 
recent Chamber of Commerce report, of the forty-three leading industries in the United 
States, Columbus lacks representation in but eight, and the output of the factories just out- 
side of the city limits, to say nothing of the output of those within, exceeds in value the total 
outnut of the factories thirty years ago. The total product for 1918 is estimated in excess of 
$100,000,000. 



222 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

For nearly a century now the manufacture of implements and useful articles of iron has 
been prosecuted in Columbus. The pioneers were the Ridgways, Peter Hayden and John L. 
Gill. Following these has come a long line of manufacturers of iron and steel products, 
whose efforts have given the city a large group of labor-employing factories such as the 
Jeffrey Manufacturing Co., the Kilbourne- Jacobs Manufacturing Co., the Ralston Steel Car 
Co., the Buckeye Steel Castings Co., the Carnegie Steel Co., the Hayden-Corbett Chain Co., 
the Bonnev-Floyd Co., the Columbus Malleable Iron Co., the American Chain Co., the 
American Rolling Mill Co., the Columbus-McKinnon Chain Co., the Union Fork & Hoe Co., 
the Kinnear & Gager Manufacturing Co., the Ohio Malleable Iron Co., the U. S. Cast Iron Pipe 
and Foundry Co., the Borger Brothers' Boiler Works, the Case Crane and Engineering Co., the 
Ohio Elevator and Machine Co., the Columbus Bolt Works, James Ohlen & Sons, saw manu- 
facturers. 

With the passage of years and the shifting of manufacturing possibilities and human 
desires, the iron and steel product changed to include with agricultural implements, wood- 
working machinery, stoves, and boilers, such articles as machines for mining coal, chains, steel 
ceilings, anvils, bolts, metal burial caskets and vaults, steel cars, structural steel, drop forg- 
ings, railway car couplers, etc. 

With the outbreak of the war with Germany in 1917, most of these iron and steel factories 
were promptly mobilized for the national defense. Anchor chains for battleships and a 
o-reat variety of chains for the Fleet Corporation were manufactured ; anvils were produced for 
the use of the artillery of America and France ; there was a great output of structural steel for 
the Fleet Corporation, and bolts, which had been made for the manufacturing of peace, were 
now turned out in large quantities for factories and shipyards. Steel cars were also manu- 
factured under contract with the United States Railroad Administration. 

In the quarrying and preparation of stone for building purposes, Win. H. Fish was the 
pioneer, the concern which he established being now enlarged and known as the Fish Stone 
Co. A similar business has long been carried on by Fred Wittenmeier. In recent years arti- 
ficial stone for sidewalks and cement blocks for building purposes has come into popularity 
and a number of concerns have been engaged in producing them. 

Ohio is the leading state in clay and clay products. This industry was promoted by 
the studies of Dr. Edward Orton, State Geologist, in clay deposits and his work and that 
of his son, Dr. Edward Orton, jr., of the department of ceramics, Ohio State University. 
Due largely to this influence, the old-fashioned brick yards producing the early crude bricks 
have given place to the brick-making plants in which highly specialized machinery turn out 
wire-cut and face bricks of great variety of shades and texture. Columbus concerns also 
early turned their energy to the production of fireproof partition walls and flue linings. 
The sewer pipe and drain tile industry has also flourished. Among the Columbus companies 
in this business are the Hocking Valley Products Co., the Ironclay Brick Co., the Hallwood 
Brick and Tile Co., the Claycraft Brick Co., and the Nelsonville Brick Co. 

The lumber industry has been prominent in the industrial life of Columbus since the 
middle of the last century. Among the pioneers were A. Carlisle, Hershiser & Adams, the 
Hildreth & Martin Lumber Co., Slade & Kelton, the Door, Sash & Lumber Co., all of whom 
dealt in lumber and mill work. Later came Tom Dundon, M. J. Bergin, E. Doddington, 
J. J. Snider and J. H. Zinn, the Powell Lumber and Construction Co., the Central Avenue 
Lumber Co., and others. The last-named company is to be credited with the introduction of 
ready-made garages, cottages and factory buildings. The Win. M. Ritter Lumber Co. main- 
tains manufacturing plants in various states and does a large wholesale business, much of its 
product being exported to other countries. 

The shoe industry in Columbus, begun in 18 19, was revitalized when H. C. Godman began 
in 1880 the manufacture of high class shoes. The enterprise was entered upon with some 
misgivings because of the general impression that good shoes could not be manufactured west 
of Lynn, Mass., but there was such a success that the business rapidly developed and a sub- 
stantial company was soon organized. The years have brought to this concern increasing 
success and it is now one of the greatest shoe manufacturing concerns in the West. Other 
shoe manufacturing companies were soon organized and arc now operating as follows: The 
Wolfe Brothers Shoe Co., the Riley Shoe Co., the Kropp Shoe Co., the G. Edwin Smith Shoe 
Co., the Fenton Shoe Co., the Bradford Shoe Co., and the C. & E. Shoe Co. These concerns 
have made a name for Columbus as a shoe manufacturing center by reason of their readiness 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 223 

to adopt in their work the latest improved machinery and in every way to meet the demands 
of the trade. 

Columbus is also a recognized glass center both in the number of plants and variety 
of output. Glass food containers of all kinds and fruit jars are manufactured in large 
quantities, and there is a considerable production of window glass, portrait glass, optical 
lenses, microscopic glass and many varieties of laboratory glass, glass for automobile lamps 
and goggles, cathedral glass. Among the manufacturers are the Buckeye Window Glass Co., 
the Federal Glass Co., the YVinslow Glass Co., W. R. Jones & Co., the Von Gerichten Art 
Glass Co., and the Superior Glass Products Co. 

Following the quarrying by the State of Ohio on the bank of the river for stone for the 
present Capitol, there grew up a stone industry which within the last few years has assumed 
large proportions. S. Casparis was the first to have the vision of a great industry and to 
make contracts with the railroads for stone for the roadbed. The growth of the steel 
business made further demand for limestone to be used as flux in the operation of blast fur- 
naces and for concrete work. Good roads also made a large demand for crushed stone. 
Later came the Marble Cliff Quarries Co., which has engaged in practically the same line 
of production. 

The manufacture of horse-drawn vehicles, which was begun in 1828, continued for manv 
years to be a growing industry, being represented, besides those already mentioned, by E. 
and H. F. Booth, M. and E. K. Hayes. The industry was maintained until 1919, its 
chief representatives being the U. S. Carriage Co., the Keystone Vehicle Co., the Poste 
Brothers' Buggy Co., and the Ohio Carriage Manufacturing Co. John Immel was a pioneer 
wagon builder, and the business which he established is continued by the John Immel & 
Sons Co. Other concerns followed along this line and later turned their attention to the 
construction of bodies for motor trucks. Fire apparatus has for years been manufactured 
by the Seagrave Co., which has sold its motorized hose wagons and engines in many cities, 
including New York City. 

In 1919 the Allen Motor Co. moved from Fostoria to Columbus and began the manu- 
facture of automobiles in the plant formerly occupied by the Columbus Buggy Co. on Dublin 
avenue. The company which has been in existence for five years, in the war years 1917-18 
turned out 7,150 cars and expected in its first year of operation in Columbus to produce 
5,000 cars. Its authorized capital was .$3, 000,000, some of which was subscribed in Columbus. 

Other concerns manufacturing automobiles, tires or parts are the Monitor Motor Car Co., 
which, after a rive-years existence, is quadrupling its product in the factory at Fifth avenue 
and the Big Four tracks; the C. A. S. Products Co., Second avenue, manufacturing steering 
gears; the Henderson Tire & Rubber Co., and the Columbus Tire & Rubber Co., on West 
Goodale street, and the Timken Roller Bearing Co., which at this writing is constructing 
large buildings at Fifth and Cleveland avenues. These manufacturing concerns promise to make 
Columbus to the automobile business what it was so long with respect to the carriage industry. 

The Capital City Dairy Co. has for many years carried on an extensive business in the 
manufacture of oleomargarine. An effort to evade the government tax on its product resulted 
in prosecutions which interrupted the business for a time, but there lias now been a reorgani- 
zation and in 1918 the manufacture was again successfully under way, the number of em- 
ployes then numbering 175. 

The flour and grist mill industry is represented by several companies, the largest of 
which is the Gwinn Milling Co., East Main street, employing 53 persons and producing a 
flour well known on the markets. The Krumm Milling Co. lias a plant east of the city at 
the T. & O. C. tracks. The Capitol Milling Co., employing 16 persons, is located on West 
Mound street. 

The brewing of beer was from about 1830 to 1919, when prohibiton became effective, 
an important industry. Louis Hoster established his brewery on South Front street in 1836. 
Conrad Born, sr., entered the business on his own account in 1859. These breweries were 
operated bv the founders or their descendants with great financial success until the last, and 
large fortunes resulted which were invested in Columbus buildings and banking institutions. 
Columbus had eight breweries when the law went into effect, and some of them turned at once 
to the manufacture of soft drinks and carbonated beverages, a business in which Peter 
Scliillc was, long before, the pioneer. 



224 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Columbus was for a time the headquarters of t lie John Wild! Evaporated Milk Co., 
now moved to New York as a part of the Nestle's Co., an international concern. 

The Hallwood cash register was manufactured here for a time and much Columbus money 
had been invested in it when, in competition with the National Cash Register Co. of Dayton, 
the company collapsed. 

L. B. Davies, a machinist with a shop on West Broad street, late in the 1850's invented 
the cowcatcher for locomotives, but realized little or nothing from that useful attachment. 

Some of the many industries that have come up from small beginnings and the men who 
were early identified with them are as follows: Paper boxes, the Frankenberg Brothers; 
brooms, E. B. Gager and E. D. Howard; tinware, E. B. Armstrong; jewelry manufacturers, 
D. L. Auld; iron fences, M. Krumm; mantels and grates. Win. M. Taylor; soap, Thomas 
Ross & Brother; theatrical scenery, INI. Armbruster ; theatrical costumes, Karl Kampmann ; 
wholesale paper, O. A. Miller; window shades, Schroth & Potter; dies and stencils, L. B. 
Cherington; crackers and cakes, S. P. Elliott and Jacob Felber; trunks, John R. Hughes; 
butchers' edge tools, Philip Kinnel; piano stools, Henry Holtzman; pianos, the Lindenberg 
Co.; automobile lamps, John W. Brown; harness, Wm. Burdell; starch, Julius J. Wood; coffee 
and spices, Andrus & Scofield ; screens, A. L. Yardley. Some of these fathers of business are 
still living; their associates and successors are far too numerous to be mentioned here. 

The Ohio Industrial Commission which by law receives information from all industrial 
establishments employing five or more persons reported in 1918, in Franklin county, 1,557 
such establishments paying to wage-earners .$37,802,843; to bookkeepers, stenographers and 
clerks $6,61 1,126 ; to salespeople not traveling, $2,788,318 ; to superintendents and managers, 
$3,675,059 — a total of wages and salaries of $50,877,616. The industrial establishments re- 
porting in 1917 numbered 1331, with a total wage and salary payment of $10,815,156. The 
increase in payments, largely due to the war, was $10,062,190, of which $911,944 went to 
superintendents and managers, and $9,120,246 went to wage-earners, bookkeepers, stenog- 
raphers, clerks and salespeople. 

A report for 1917 shows in the 1,331 industrial establishments there were 38,250 male 
wage-earners, approximately one-half of whom received a weekly wage of $18 or more, and 
8,331 female wage-earners, of whom only 165 received as much as $18 a week; three-fourths 
of them were classified in wage groups beginning with $6 and ending with $12. There was 
in 1918 a great increase in the number of wage-earners and workers of small salary, as well 
as a notable increase in wages. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

THE RAILROADS. 

Colonel Kilbourne's T'ision of 1825 — Many Paper Companies Early Incorporated — Construc- 
tion of the Columbus fy Xenia Railroad in 18^7-50 — First Station — Road to Cleveland 
Completed in 1851 — The Central Ohio and the Columbus, Piqua \ Indiana in 1S54 — 
The Hocking Valley and Its Troubles — The C, A. fy C, the Cincinnati Midland, the 
Columbus & Toledo, the Columbus, Shawnee cS'- Hocking and Other Roads — Favorable 
Situation of the City for Transportation and Travel — The Union Depot Company. 

By Clarence Metiers. 

Even while canals were being built, railroads were in prospect, and there were far- 
sighted men here, among them Colonel James Kilbourne, sr., who had a vision of lines of rail- 
road, usable as well in winter as in summer. Colonel Kilbourne went so far as to suggest 
the location of desirable lines of railroad across the State and as early as 1825, in a pub- 
lished pamphlet, advocated a system of railroads instead of a system of canals. With a 
view to future possibilities many companies were incorporated for the construction of lines 
out of Columbus. The first of these was in 1832 for a Columbus, Marion and Sandusky rail- 
road — first by Lincoln Goodale, Gustavus Swan, Joseph Ridgway, Daniel Upson and Aurora 
Buttles, and later by William A. Neil, A. Chittenden, Orange Johnson, Daniel Kellogg, 
Charles Stanbery and William A. Piatt. Another company for a road north to Milan was 
incorporated by James Robinson, John Bishop and A. V. Payne; and still another to be 
called the Columbus, Delaware, Marion and Upper Sandusky, was projected that year by 
William Neil, Joseph Ridgway, J. N. Champion, Lyne Starling, Wray Thomas, Robert 
Brotherton and Moses H. Kirby. 

In 1836 Gustavus Swan and W. S. Sullivant associated themselves with men of other 
counties and secured a charter for a Columbus, London & Springfield railroad; and in the 
same year John McElvain and men of other counties projected a Columbus & Marysville rail- 
road. A Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati railroad was incorporated in 1836; also an 
Urbana & Columbus railroad, and a Muskingum & Columbus railroad. In 18-15 a Franklin 
& Ohio River railroad was proposed by W. S. Sullivant, Lincoln Goodale, Samuel Medary, 
Samuel Parsons, Leander Ransom and Orange Johnson. In 1816 there was another Colum- 
bus & Springfield Railroad Co., in which Michael Sullivant and Wray Thomas were the 
Columbus men interested. In 18-17 came the Central Ohio Railroad Co., organized to build a 
road east to the Ohio river. Robert Neil, Samuel Medary, Joel Buttles, Joseph Ridgway 
and Bela Latham, of Franklin county, were interested in this, as were men of Licking and 
Muskingum counties. Then in 1819 came the incorporation by Joseph Ridgway, Joseph 
Sullivant and others of the Columbus, Piqua & Indiana Railroad Co. 

These proceedings are interesting because -they show the purpose of Columbus men to 
get into the business of railroad construction as soon as possible, or at least a determination 
that no outsider should come in and seize the opportunity without paying for it. The plans 
and the charters looked like good investments; and such, indeed, some of them were. 

The first railroad actually built into Columbus was the Columbus & Xenia. The com- 
pany was incorporated in 184>1 by Joseph Ridgway, Samuel Medary and William Dennison 
of Franklin county and others from the counties through which the road was to run. When 
the Little Miami road had been completed from Cincinnati to Xenia, there was a great effort in 
Columbus to secure enough subscriptions to bring to road on to Columbus. When the sub- 
scriptions amounted to $200,000 the stockholders met and elected as directors: William Neil, 
Joseph Ridgway, sr., Joseph Ridgway, jr., W. S. Sullivant, D. W. Deshler, Samuel Medary, 
Charles H. Wing, A. F. Perry, Joshua Martin, R. E. Neil, Orange Johnson and William 
Dennison. William Neil was elected president; Joseph Ridgway, jr., secretary; D. W. 
Deshler, treasurer. Sylvester Medberv was appointed engineer and completed the survey in 
1815. In 1817, under an act of the General Assembly passed in 1816, the people of Columbus 
voted — 828 to 21-1 — to authorize a subscription for $50,000 of the stock. Franklin county 
under the same act, subscribed for $50,000, and the city and county were each given repre- 



226 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

sentation on the board. When there seemed to be doubt of success even with this help, the 
Little Miami Railroad Co. offered to build a Greene county branch and gave assurance of 
a return of 6% on the investment. The struggle to get the money was followed by a con- 
troversy as to the location of the station, each section of the city wanting the benefit, and 
this was finally settled by the choice of a site — that of the present Union Station — then at 
the extreme north end of High street. The rails for the road were bought in England and 
cost three cents a pound delivered here, the transportation charge being more than the origi- 
nal cost of the rails. A locomotive was shipped from Cincinnati by river and canal to assist 
in the track-laying. Alfred Kelley succeeded William Neil as president of the road in 1847, 
and had direct charge of the construction during the next two years, completing the work 
early in 1850 at a cost for road and equipment of $1,103,1-15.99. On Februarv 22, an ex- 
perimental trip was taken over the road to Xenia, 54 miles, on open platform cars, in three 
hours and five minutes. On March 2 following, the State officers and members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly took a trip over the line to Cincinnati and back. A station at Franklinton 
was first used, but in December, 1850, the High street station was ready and the first train 
entered it on the 14th. In 1853, a brick building for the offices of the company was erected 
on the west side of High street south of the tracks, where it still stands. In the same 
year, by a partnership contract, the Little Miami and the Columbus & Xenia roads were 
operated as a unit and so continued until 1869, when the C. & X. was perpetually leased 
to the Little Miami Co., which in turn, the following year, perpetually leased the entire line 
to the P., C. & St. L. Railroad Co., now one of the Pennsylvania Lines. 

In 1815, men representing the several charters for a road to the north met and decided 
to build a road under the charter to the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad Co., 
which was revived for the purpose. The Franklin county representatives in this company 
were Lyne Starling, William Xeil and John A. Bryan. Alfred Kelley was elected president and 
began the work of construction in 1818. Rails were bought in England, as for the Columbus 
& Xenia, and the last one was laid February 18, 1851. A train was waiting to come in from 
the north, at once came into the station and returned to Cleveland. On the 21st, the State 
officers and members of the General Assembly celebrated the achievement by taking a trip 
over the road to Cleveland and return. After completing the road Alfred Kelley resigned 
as president and was succeeded by Henry B. Payne. This road was a success from the very 
beginning; the next year a dividend of 7% was declared, and the Franklin County Com- 
missioners, who had bought $50,000 worth of the stock, sold it at a profit of .$15,000. Two 
dividends were paid every year till 1868, when the road was consolidated witli the Indian- 
apolis road as the C, C, C. & I., now Big Four. 

A railroad east to Zanesville and the river — the Central Ohio — and a railroad west to 
Piqua and the Indiana line — the Columbus, Piqua & Indiana — were built almost contem- 
poraneously, from 1852 to 1854. There was an effort to secure city and county subscriptions 
to the former in 1850, but by that time the sentiment had turned against such participation 
and tile people by a vote of 5 to 1 negatived the proposition. However, the private sub- 
scriptions were numerous, and by April, 1852, the road was under contract. R. W. McCov, 
Robert Xeil and William Dennison were the Columbus representatives on the board of 
directors. By January, 1853, the road was complete to Zanesville and the first train de- 
livered passengers here on the 20th. The building of the bridge over Big Walnut was a 
great job, interfered with by an attack of cholera which caused the deatli of more than 50 
workmen. State officers and members of the General Assembly took a trip to Zanesville and 
return February 4, 1853. Bv June, 1854, the road was completed to Cambridge, and D. S. 
Gray was appointed Columbus agent. In October of that year, regular through trains began 
running in connection witli through trains over the Baltimore & Ohio to the river. The 
Central Ohio had cost $6,200,000 and in 1855 fell into financial difficulties from which it 
never entirely escaped. II. J. Jewett was president and later receiver until the road was 
leased to the Baltimore & Ohio. Subsequent changes, which cannot here be enumerated, have 
resulted in the present arrangement of a double track over the original right of way from 
Columbus to Newark, operated jointly by the Baltimore & Ohio and the Pennsylvania 
H a i 1 road Companies. 

Track-laying on the Columbus, Piqua & Indiana line began at Columbus, November 20, 
1852, and was completed as far as Pleasant Valley by the following June. The first passen- 
ger train was run from Columbus to Piqua October 16, 185 K and the first over the entire line, 



THE RAILROADS 



227 



April 19, 1859. The road and its franchises were sold in 1863 for $500,000, over a million 
dollars of its original stock being sunk. That year B. E. Smith became president and later 
the road became a part of the Pennsylvania system. 

A railroad into the Hocking Valley was projected as early as 1853 at a meeting in Lan- 
caster addressed by Joseph Sullivant, Wm. Neil and Wm. Dennison ; but nothing was done till 
1864, when M. M. Greene and others organized the Mineral Railroad Co., capital $1,500,000, 
to build a road from Athens to Columbus. When the stock subscriptions had reached 
$830,000, the subscribers met, December 19, 1866, and elected the following directors: P. 
Hayden, G. M. Parsons, Wm. Dennison, B. E. Smith, W. G. Deshler, Theodore Comstock, 
Isaac Eberly, D. Tallmadge, W. B. Brooks, J. C. Garrett, Wm. P. Cutler, E. H. Moore and 
M. M. Greene. P. Hayden was elected president; M. M. Greene, vice president; .1. J. 
Janney, secretary and treasurer. The name was changed in 1867 to the Columbus & Hocking- 
Valley Railroad Co., and its purpose was said to be to bring coal, iron and salt out of the 
valley. The road was completed to Winchester July 16, 1868, and to Athens in January, 
1871. The General Assembly dedicated the road as usual by a trip to Lancaster January 13, 

1869, twelve coaches carrying 720 passengers, and the road was opened for business in July, 

1870. In 1871, B. E. Smith was elected president vice Peter Hayden, and in the following 
year 28 acres of ground was bought for round house, tracks, etc. In 187-i, Henry C. 




Hif/h Street Front 



Noble, B. S. Brown, P. W. Huntington and H. W. Jaeger became members of the board, and 
in 1876, the road was operated in connection with the Toledo road, mentioned later, Orland 
Smith general superintendent. It was brought into co-operation with the Ohio & West Vir- 
ginia in 1881; and then, when M. M. Greene was president, there came a bit of high financing 
by which the stock of the three roads was sold, ostensibly to M. M. Greene, but in reality to 
a syndicate of which Stevenson Burke was the head. Good prices were paid for the stock — 
more, it was said, than the stock had ever been sold for; and yet by a combination of the 
railroads and coal lands and an inflation and sale of stock, the syndicate made, it was esti- 
mated, about $9,000,000. The deal created a great sensation in Columbus, where Hocking 
Valley stock had become a great favorite, and there was a feeling of deep resentment, 
periodically renewed with the litigation that followed. In 1881 the stock of the road 
amounted to $2,387,950, and of this 78',^ was still held by the original subscribers. The 
company had paid 17 semi-annual cash dividends or 1 or 5', and had made four stock 
dividends. As a result of the deal, all this investment was destroyed. M. M. Greene was 
president of the road till 1887, when'C. C. Waite succeeded him. The troubles continued 
and about five years ago the road passed into the control of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad 
Co., which in 1917 completed a $2,000,000 bridge over the Ohio river at Sciotoville, a short 
distance above Portsmouth and, by means of a cut-off to Waverly and a right of way over 
the Norfolk & Western tracks, operates its trains direct to Columbus and the lakes. 



228 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

The railroad to Springfield was built in 1871 and what was afterward the Cleveland, 
Akron & Columbus was built to Mt. Vernon in 1873. The Columbus & Cincinnati Midland 
Railroad Co. was incorporated in 1882, and the road was built by Colonel Orland Smith, 
Gilbert C. Hoover and others as far as Wilmington where rail connection with Cincinnati 
was secured. The Columbus Board of Trade dedicated the road by a trip to Cincinnati, 
November 13, 1884. This line is now a part of the Baltimore & Ohio system, and the Cleve- 
land, Akron & Columbus road is now a part of the Pennsylvania system. 

The Columbus & Toledo Railroad Co. was incorporated in 1872 by M. M. Greene, P. 
W. Huntington, B. E. Smith, W. G. Deshler, J. A. Wilcox, and John L. Gill. On the board 
of directors there were men representing the subscribers in various counties through which 
the route passed, those from Franklin county being William Dennison, B. E. Smith, W. G. 
Deshler, H. J. Jewett and D. S. Gray. M. M. Greene was president and J. A. Wilcox 
secretary and treasurer. At an election in 1873, Columbus voted to subscribe $300,000, 
but was prevented, the law under which the vote was taken having been declared unconstitu- 
tional. In May, 1876, the subscriptions totaled .$1,023,000 and the construction was begun 
and was completed the next year at a cost of $3,338,507.11. 

A railroad down the Scioto valley became a certainty, after long discussion, in 1875, 
when a company was incorporated by Wm. Monypeny, E. T. Mithoff, John G. Mitchell, T. 
Ewing Miller, W. B. Hayden, John C. English and John Joyce. The work of construction 
began in August and was completed to Chillicothe in July, 1876, and to Portsmouth in 
December, 1877. The company having defaulted on its interest, the road was sold in 1890, 
under pressure from New York, and many of the original subscribers lost all. The same year 
the road was leased to the Norfolk & Western Railroad Co. 

The Columbus, Shawnee & Hocking Railroad Co. was incorporated Otcober 6, 1889, 
by D. S. Gray, P. W. Huntington, H. D. Turney, W. E. Guerin and F. J. Picard. In the 
same month it bought the Columbus & Eastern road which extended from Columbus to 
Cannelville with authorized branches further on. The latter had been built in 1882-8-1 by 
a company of which G. G. Collins was president and F. Siegel secretary, but had fallen 
into the hands of a receiver. 

What is now known as the Toledo & Ohio Central railroad is the result of the consoli- 
dation of the Columbus, Ferrara & Mineral Railroad Co., incorporated in 1871, and the 
Atlantic & Lake Erie Railroad Co., incorporated in 1869. The latter was to construct a 
road from Toledo to the Hocking valley coal fields, and the former was to build a road from 
Columbus into the same region. A joint meeting of the stockholders of both roads was 
held in 1872 and progress reported. The name of the Atlantic & Lake Erie was changed to 
Ohio Central, and that of the C. F. & M. was changed to the Columbus & Sunday Creek. 
In 1879 the two were consolidated, the road was completed, the company fell into the hands 
of a receiver and in 1885 was sold for $1,000,000. The road reached Columbus by a 
branch from Thurston, though its first access to the city was over the Pennsylvania and the 
B. & (). tracks. Later the company secured a direct entrance into Columbus from its main 
line at Truro on Big Walnut creek and, building a road through South Columbus entered 
the West Side, using the bank of the Columbus feeder of the Ohio canal as part of its right 
of way. A passenger station was erected at West Broad and Starling streets, and the 
western division of the road was built northwesterly through Marysville, Kenton, Findlav 
and Bowling Green to Toledo. 

In 1891 the Columbus, Shawnee & Hocking Railroad Co., requiring a lake outlet for its 
coal, joined with Sandusky capitalists and built the, Sandusky and Columbus Short Line, 
which was opened for business in 1893. Later the Short Line was consolidated with the 
Columbus, Shawnee & Hocking under the name of the Columbus, Sandusky & Hocking. 
This road went into the hands of a receiver and the Short Line property was sold to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company and is now known as the Sandusky division of that system.. 
The other portion was bought from the receiver by the Toledo & Ohio Central Railway 
Company and is now a part of the New York Central lines. In order to secure terminal 
facilities for these roads in Columbus, the Columbus Terminal and Transfer Railroad Co. 
was incorporated in 1893, and the road after it was built was based to the Columbus. San- 
dusky & Hocking Co. This terminal property later passed into the control of the Norfolk 
& Western and forms the connecting link between tin- main line of that road and the San- 



THE RAILROADS 229 

dusky division of the Pennsylvania for the passage of the immense tonnage of West Virginia 
eoal to the lakes. 

Columbus is most favorably located with reference to the great highways of commerce. 
It is on the main line of the Pennsylvania system between the seaboard to the Mississippi 
river, as well as to Cincinnati. The line of the New York Central system connecting New 
York and Cincinnati passes through Columbus. The Baltimore & Ohio system also con- 
nects Columbus with the seaboard cities. On the map Columbus appears as a hub with 
railway lines radiating like the spokes of a wheel and reaching to every part of the State. 
The Ohio Central and Hocking Valley lines give direct service to Toledo and intervening 
points; the Pennsylvania and Baltimore & Ohio to Sandusky and intervening territory; the 
Big Four and Cleveland, Akron & Columbus to Cleveland and intervening territory ; the 
Hocking Valley, Ohio Central and Baltimore & Ohio to the southeast ; the Norfolk & 
Western to the south; the Big Four, Pennsylvania and B. & O. Southwestern to Cincinnati 
and the southwest. Columbus is next door, so to speak, to a large part of the coal produc- 
ing territory of Ohio, and has the advantage of an abundant and never-failing supply of 
cheap fuel, an essential to a manufacturing community. The situation as to ore is assured 
by the number of railway lines connecting with Lake Erie ports. In fact every variety of 
raw material can be had in Columbus with an average minimum of transportation cost, in- 
sofar as it is influenced by geographical location and length of haul. 

When the railroads were taken over by the Federal Government in 1918 as a war 
measure vast improvement in tracks, yards and shops were projected because of the recog- 
nition of the importance of Columbus as a railroad center, but little was actually done 
and some of the work was left in confusion by the sudden termination of hostilities and the 
financial difficulties of the railroad administration. 

The Union Depot Company. 

The first frame passenger station admitting three tracks was built by the Columbus & 
Xenia and the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati companies in 1850. A dining hall was 
opened on the north side of the station, September 9, 1859, and put in charge of S. E. 
Ogden. The Union Depot Co. was incorporated in 1868, but no action was taken until 1870, 
when the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis com- 
panies formed the Union Depot Co., with a capital stock of $500,000 and six directors, three 
from each company. In 1873, by an agreement between the constituent railroad companies 
and flic Union Depot Co. the latter was to issue bonds and build a passenger station, with 
the understanding that all existing railroad companies or thereafter constructed should have 
the privilege of leasing track on the same terms as the original parties. The station was 
built at a cost of $177,9-10, the cost of the grounds, tracks, etc.. running the cost up to 
•$320,000. The first regular passenger train was run into the station February 14, 1875. It 
was a Pan Handle train, Edwin Morrell conductor, Morris Littell engineer. Barney 
McCabe became depot master January 29, 1875, and continued as such for many years. 

The new station was a great improvement, but the grade crossings, which were even 
more objectionable than the frame station, remained to annoy and menace. The High street 
tunnel under the tracks, constructed in 1875, was a poor makeshift, and there was no satis- 
factory solution till the city built the viaduct and the Union Depot Co. built the present 
Union Station in 1891, as narrated elsewhere. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

STREET AND INTERURBAN TRANSPORTATION. 

The Omnibus and Hack — First Horse-Car in 1863 — Construction of the Various Lines of 
Street Railway* — First Consolidation — Independent Companies and Further Consolidation 
— Electric Light and Power Companies and Heating Companies Acquired — Electricity 
as the Motive Poicer — Doyle's "Dummy" Road — Franchises and Fares — War-Time Con- 
troversy — Columbus Transfer Co. — Reorganization of the Company in 1919 — Building of 
the Interurban Roads. 

In Columbus, as elsewhere, the predecessor of the street car was the omnibus. That 
vehicle was employed in 1852 to carry passengers to and from the first railway station and, 
beginning; in 1853, to carry passengers between Columbus and Franklinton, to Worthing- 
ton and Canal Winchester. B. O. Ream was the agent. In 1855 Thomas Brockway in- 
troduced the "pigmy omnibus" for four passengers, which had a short popularity for 
shopping and for evening parties. Then came the hack, introduced by W. B. Hawkes & 
Co., which did a great business during the Civil War. The same company in 1860 ran omni- 
busses with a five-cent fare on High and Broad streets. 

A street railway was talked of and a company was incorporated in 1851, but the project fell 
through. On November 11, 1862, the Council passed an ordinance giving a franchise to the 
Columbus Street Railroad Co., authorizing it to lay its tracks on High street from North 
Public Lane (Naghten) to South Public Lane (Livingston); also on State avenue from the 
Penitentiary to Broad, thence to High street, thence to Town and thence to Fourth. High 
street was to be double-tracked. The fare was to be seven cents, or five tickets for a 
quarter. The capital stock was $30,000, and there were 21 stockholders as follows: Peter 
Ambos, J. F. Bartlit, Henry Miller, C. P. L. Butler, T. H. Butler, B. E. Smith, Theodore 
Comstock, Lewis Mills, Mrs. Celia Mills, Joseph H. Riley, Headley, Eberly & Co., J. M. 
Trimble, E. Hall, E. F. Bingham, J. L. Green, J. Morrison, O. H. Lattimer, P. Corzilius, 
Marcus Childs, L. Donaldson and John Miller. 

On June 10, 1863, the first car appeared on High street, running every six minutes 
between the railway station and Mound street. The next year cars were running across the 
railway track as far north as University (now Poplar) street and as far south as Stewart's 
Grove. In 1861 there was a reorganization, the capital stock was increased to $130,000, and 
the directors were Theodore Comstock, J. F. Bartlit, Henry Miller, Peter Ambos, C. P. L. 
Butler, T. H. Butler, A. C. Headley, B. E. Smith, L. Donaldson, Isaac Eberly and Samuel 
McClelland. W. H. H. Shinn, superintendent, resigned, and Theodore Comstock, president, 
seems to have served till 1866 when Thomas Brockway was chosen, Mr. Comstock continuing 
as president, witli William Person as secretary. The business was unremunerative and the 
Council permitted the company in 1865 to charge a 7-cent fare or to sell 10 tickets for 50 
cents. In 1866 the company voluntarily reduced the fare to five cents, but in 1867 was again 
permitted to charge seven cents or to sell five for 25 cents. Business continued bad and 
there was talk of abandoning the enterprise; but, as a last resort, there was a reorganiza- 
tion, giving; to Isaac Eberly as superintendent a free hand to rescue the business if he could. 
There had been two-horse cars with a driver and conductor for each. Mr. Eberly substi- 
tuted one-horse cars, with a pay-box for each, saving the wages of a conductor, sold the 
extra horses anil renewed the track, making it single. He also introduced new tickets to head 
off a manifest fraud from a dishonest handling of the old. When after about three years 
he resigned, he had paid the company's share of paving High street with Nicholson block 
and had put the business on a paying basis. Henry Miller then came into the management 
and, after a few months service, he and Samuel Huston leased the road, paying 5 per cent, 
per annum on the stock, a rental of $4,200. Together they bought enough of the stock to 
secure a controlling; interest, at 10 cents on the dollar. Three years later, in 1873, they 
sold to Henry T. Chittenden at 75 cents on the dollar. 

On May (i, 1868, the Friend Street Railroad Company was incorporated by Thomas 
Miller, M. C. Lilley, H. H. Kimball, Isaac Eberly, Nathaniel Merion, and Horace Wilson; 
capital stock $25,000. This road was completed to Fast Public Lane (Parsons avenue) in 



STREET AND INTERURBAN TRANSPORTATION" 



231 



July, 1869, and one car began service. This road was intended to reacli the Fair Grounds 
(now Franklin Park) and was ultimately so extended. That was the second line of street 
railway in the city. The third was the Long street line which was built by the East Park 
Place Street Railroad Co., of which W. S. Sullivant, W. B. Hawkes, A. D. Rodgers, S. S. 
Rickh^, F. C. Sessions and John G. Mitchell were the incorporators. In January, 1872, cars 
were running as far as Albert street (Garfield avenue) and the track was later extended to 
Winner avenue and finally to the Fair Grounds. There were car barns on the south side 
of Long street between Garfield and Monroe avenues. The fare was at first five cents to the 
barns and 10 cents to the Fair Grounds, then five cents for the entire trip. 

The fourth line was that on State street, built by the State and Oak Street Railroad 
Co., which was incorporated January 23, 1872, by Wm. S. Ide, A. D. Rodgers, E. D. 
Kingsley, R. C. Hoffman and Luther Donaldson. It had authority under the ordinance to 
build a road from the east end of the State street bridge along State, Seventh and Oak 
streets to East Public Lane (Parsons avenue), thence to Broad street, east on Broad to 
Monroe avenue and on that avenue to Long street. The road was completed east from High 
street as far as Seventh street (Grant avenue), July, 1872, and there it halted till 1882. 




Columbus' First Street 



On May 1, 1871, a company, capital $100,000, was incorporated by Wm. Dennison, R. 
E. Neil, G. G. Collins, and M. H. Neil to build a narrow gauge road and use on it a 
"dummy" engine. The termini were the Tod Barracks on High street near Warren and 
the Mock road, and the route chiefly on Summit and Kerr streets. Samuel Doyle built the 
road and a "dummy" engine with three cars operated over the road for a time in 1873-74. 
It was a losing venture and was abandoned. 

On November 16, 1874, the Columbus Street Railroad Company was authorized to 
extend its track from High street on Goodale street to Neil avenue and thence on Neil 
avenue to the University grounds, the charter being for 20 years. 

The Glenwood and Green Lawn Railroad Company was incorporated April 23, 1872, 
by W. B. Hawkes, A. D. Rodgers, F. C. Sessions, John L. Gill, W. S. Sullivant, W. A. 
Piatt, G. A. Doren, Wm. L. Peck, Robert D. Hague and E. A. Fitcli ; capital stock $50,000. 
It was to build a road from High street on Broad street to the west corporation line with a 
branch to Green Lawn cemetery. The road was built out Broad street in 1875 at a cost of 
about $40,000, and car barns were erected on West Broad. In 1891 it was rebuilt at 
standard gauge with electric equipment at a cost of $150,000. 

In 1876 a company incorporated for the purpose built a road on High street to the north 



232 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

corporation line. This road was sold the following year to John Marzetti. R. P. Woodruff, 
W. A. Hershiser, Win. Powell and Peter Merkle for .$15,000 and they, together with Frank 
E. Powell were incorporated as the North High Street Railroad and Chariot Company, with 
a capital stock of .$30,000. Cars were run south to the Union Station, where connection was 
made with chariots which traversed High street south. 

In November, 1879, the Columbus Railroad Company, operating the High street line 
south from the Union Station and the Neil avenue line, the Friend Street Railroad Company 
and the East Park Place Railroad Company were united under the name of the Columbus 
Consolidated Street Railroad Company, capital stock $250,000. A. D. Rodgers was elected 
president, E. T. Mithoff vice president, and E. K. Stewart secretary. The State and Oak 
street road was bought by the new company and, under a new ordinance, the line was ex- 
tended out Oak street to Franklin Park, near which car barns were built. In 1883 the 
Mt. Vernon avenue line was built as far as Twentieth street and in 1885, the property of 
the North High Street Railroad and Chariot Company was acquired, and cars for the first time 
were run without change the entire length of the street. To do these things and make other 
extension, the capital stock of the company was increased, November 28, 1883, to $1,000,000. 
In 1889, the Schiller street (now Whittier street) line was built. 

Experimentation with electricity as a motive power began in 1887 when Sidney Short, 
using his own patent devices, built for the company a line from High street to the State 
Fair Grounds on Chittenden avenue. The system was not entirely successful, but it pointed 
the way. A decision was soon reached to introduce electric motive power and, an ordinance 
having been passed permitting the change, the company erected a power station on West 
Spring street near the river. On November 7, 1891, in order to meet the cost of electrifica- 
tion, the company again increased its capital stock to $1,250,000. About the same time 
the Glenwood and Green Lawn Street Railroad Company adopted electricity as a motive 
power, and the first electric cars appeared on its line in August, 1890. Electric cars first 
appeared on High street January 14, 1891; on Long street September 7, 1891, and on Main 
street and Mt. Vernon avenue, November 11, 1891. 

On June 25, 1892, the system with its entire equipment was sold by the Columbus Con- 
solidated Street Railroad Company to the Columbus Street Railway Company, capital stock 
$3,000,000, with the following directors and officers: Emerson McMillin, B. J. Burke, G. 
W. Sinks, C. D. Firestone, P. H. Bruck, and Theodore Rhoads; E. E. Denniston president, 
E. K. Stewart vice president, general manager and treasurer, R. E. Sheldon second vice 
president, James Williams secretary. The Glenwood and Green Lawn Street Railroad Com- 
pany property had then been acquired and improvements and new lines costing .$6M>,000 
were in immediate prospect. The line from High street on Chestnut to Fourth and thence north 
to Chittenden avenue was built that year, and the extension of the High street line south from 
Stewart avenue had recently been completed. 

In 1893 the Columbus & Westerville Railway Company, which held a franchise in Cleve- 
land avenue to the north corporation line, was granted by Council the right to operate a 
road from Cleveland avenue by various streets to Spring, thence to Front, thence north on 
Pennsylvania avenue to Fifth avenue, and south on Front, east on Livingston and south on 
Parsons to south corporation line. This road was built and operated by what was known as 
the Columbus Central Railway Company. 

An independent company in 1893 secured a franchise for the building of a street railway 
on Leonard avenue and the Crosstown Street Railway Company was organized that year of 
the Leonard Avenue Street Railway Company and the Glenwood and Green Lawn Street 
Railway Company, but in 1899 the Crosstown Street Railway Company fell into the hands 
of the Columbus Railway Company, which at the same time acquired the city lines and the 
interurban lines of the Columbus & Westerville or Columbus Central Railway Company. 
The Indianola and Fourth Street Railway Company which had been organized in 1893 and 
built a line on Fourth street was acquired by the Columbus Railway Company in 1895. 

In 1901 S. B. Hartman, O. A. Schenck, Louis Seidensticker, Wm. H. Luchtenberg, and 
Benjamin Monett incorporated the Central Market Street Railway Company and obtained 
from the Council the right to build a line in Rich, Fifth, Donaldson, Livingston, and other 
streets to the south and north corporation lines. Tiie road was built and was acquired by the 
general company in 1907. 

Up to 1898, as narrated in another place, there were two companies furnishing electric 



STREET AND INTERURBAN TRANSPORTATION 233 

current for light and power — the Columbus Electric Light and Power Company and the 
Columbus Edison Electric Light Company. These were consolidated as The Columbus Edi- 
son Company, in 1903 and in 1904 sold to the general railway company which had 
become the Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company. In the meantime four companies 
that had been selling electricity and hot water heating were consolidated in 190-1 as the 
Columbus Public Service Company. They were the Columbus Heating Company, incor- 
porated April 20, 1900; the Indianola Land & Power Company, incorporated March 26, 
1901; the Indianola Heating & Lighting Company, incorporated September 7, 1901, and the 
East Columbus Heating & Lighting Company, incorporated April 26, 1902. All the prop- 
erty of the Columbus Public Service Company in 1908 was leased, and in 1915 was sold, to the 
Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company. 

At the death of Mr. Denniston in 1893, Emerson McMillin was elected president. He 
resigned in 1898 and was succeeded by Robert E. Sheldon who, in turn, was succeeded in 
1912 by Samuel G. McMeen who served till 1919; Norman McD. Crawford vice president. 
E. K. Stewart vice president, general manager and treasurer, C. M. Clark vice president, 
P. V. Burington secretary and auditor, H. M. Burington assistant secretary and assistant 
auditor, Harold W. Clapp general superintendent; board of directors, the president and vice 
presidents and the following: Carl J. Hoster, D. Meade Massie, Wm. A. Gill, Randolph 
S. Warner, Casper W. Hacker, Adolf Theobald, Wm. C. Willard and Charles L. Kurtz. 

The first barn of the original street railroad company in 1863 was on High street just 
north of Goodale, a location then far out in the country. The second barn on North High 
street was at the corner of Chittenden. In 1891 that building, together with 25 cars, was 
burned. The present carhouse for that end of the line is near Olentangy park. Carhouses 
are also maintained on Merrit street, Rose avenue, West Broad street, and Cleveland 
avenue. Besides the power station at Spring street and the river, a larger one was built 
and equipped and put into operation in 1918, furnishing power, not only for its own cars 
operated on its 135 miles of track, but also for the cars of the Ohio Electric Company, 
within the city, the Ohio & Southern and the Columbus, New Albany & Johnstown (inter- 
urbans). Its "own extensions beyond the city limits are the lines to Arlington, Westerville 
and Bexley. 

Olentangy park was laid out and completed by the Columbus Street Railway Company 
in 1896, and was operated by that company till 1899 when it was leased to West & Dusen- 
bury. A subsequent lease was to J. W. and W. J. Dusenbury. 

The Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company in 1918 operated 309 motor passenger 
cars and 58 work and miscellaneous cars. Its capital stock was: Common, $6,041,230; 4% 
prior preferred, $13,000; series A preferred, $1,634,916; series B preferred, $1,188,125. 
Total, $11,877,271. 

Except for the brief periods in which Council, in order to help out a losing business, 
permitted the company to charge seven cents for a single fare, the prevailing charge at first 
was five cents. The early consolidation of three separate companies in 1879 relieved that 
situation by giving for five cents what had previously cost 10 or even 15 cents, the transfer 
system having been then introduced, though there were new connections and extensions of 
routes that made transfer in many cases unnecessary. In 1889 began the period in which 
six tickets were sold for 25 cents. On February 4, 1901, after long discussion, Council 
passed an ordinance renewing for 25 years the franchise of the Columbus Railway Company 
on all the lines owned by it as well as on those bought from the Columbus Central Railway 
Company. As this franchise was meant to cover all the lines and bring all franchises to an 
end at the same time, it was called the "blanket franchise." Among its provisions was one 
that tickets should be sold seven for a quarter from the date of the acceptance of the 
franchise and that, when the aggregate of receipts from fares should reach $1,750,000 
annually, eight tickets should be sold for a quarter. That aggregate was reached April, 
1912, and the universal fare became 3* cents, with transfer for a continuous ride in the same 
general direction. 

Early in 1918, the company sent to Council a statement to the effect that increased 
operating' costs, due to the war conditions, had made its income inadequate; it therefore asked 
permission to charge a higher rate of fare. Council took no action. In the meantime the 
employes of the company were asking for higher pay and in July struck. For two days no 



234 HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, OHIO 

cars were operated, the company asserting its inability to pay more unless its revenue 
was increased. The dispute was referred to the National War Labor Board, and operation 
was resumed. The board soon made its award, allowing large wage increases, adding to the 
annual payroll more than $560,000, according to the company's computation. Consequently, on 
August 20, President McMeen sent a communication to the Mayor and the Council announc- 
ing that the company had discontinued the sale of tickets and would charge a 5-cent fare for 
every ride and that for a transfer a charge of one cent would be made, transfer to be used only 
at designated points. In justification of this action he cited the fact that Council had failed to 
offer any relief and declared that to a deficit already existing the War Board had added a wage 
charge of $560,000 more. He said it had been arranged to give the passenger a receipt for pay- 
ment in excess of the charge provided for in the "blanket franchise," the money to be re- 
turned if it were found that the company's action was unjustified. He claimed for the com- 
pany prepetual franchise rights in six streets — Main street from High street to Rose avenue ; 
State street from High street to Grant avenue, thence to Oak street, thence to Sherman ave- 
nue; Long street from High street to Parkwood avenue and thence in Parkwood to Broad 
street ; Cleveland avenue from Long street to Mt. Vernon avenue and thence to Washington ave- 
nue; West Broad street from High street to the Columbus State Hospital, and Glenwood to 
the Harrisburg pike and thence to Green Lawn cemetry. All other franchises he surrendered, 
adding that the company considered itself a tenant at sufferance and would vacate on proper 
official demand. 

At the time of making this change, the company brought suit in the Federal District 
Court to enjoin the city from seeking to enforce the terms of the franchise ordinance of 
1901. The court refused the injunction. Mayor Karb asked the Federal War Board to 
undertake a settlement of the dispute, but the board declined to act. The situation con- 
tinued, nearly half the passengers offering to buy tickets at the old rate, and, getting none, 
refusing to pay and the conductors not seeking to enforce payment. The Council refused, 
four to three, to give even temporary relief until the results of an expert investigation of 
the company's business was laid before it, and in November employed E. W. Bemis, of 
Chicago, to investigate and report. 

W. R. Pomerene, one of the company's attorneys, was elected vice president and, owing 
to President McMeen's illness, became the spokesman for the company. At the December 
meeting of the directors, E. K. Stewart was re-elected vice president, with supervision of dam- 
ages and claims ; Harold W. Clapp was promoted to general manager and W. B. Campbell to 
general superintendent, while Norman MeD. Crawford was elected treasurer. 

At a stockholders' meeting January 28, 1919, new directors were elected and the policy 
and conduct of the business were put into the hands of an executive committee consisting of 
Charles L. Kurtz, who had been elected president of the company, F. R. Huntington and 
W. B. Beebe. The former rate of eight tickets for a quarter was restored. C. C. Slater 
was made general manager vice Clapp. E. K. Stewart retired as vice president and W. B. 
Campbell as superintendent, the latter position being abolished. A serious effort was then 
made to regain the public good will, and the Council, on further representations that the com- 
pany was in financial distress, passed an ordinance permitting a return to the rate of six 
tickets for a quarte